K1 verben und_pronomen
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  • 1. Verben und PronomenEinheit 1 (Kapitel 1: Hallo! und Kapitel 2: Wie geht’s?)
  • 2. What are Pronouns?• Read the dialogue below:Anna: Do you know my brother, Axel?Hans: Yes, I know Axel! I lent Axel my book.Anna: Axel told me. I read that book last week.Hans: That’s great! I like that book.• Which nouns (people, places, or things) appear more than once in this dialogue?
  • 3. What are Pronouns?Anna: Do you know my brother, Axel?Hans: Yes, I know Axel! I lent Axel my book.Anna: Axel told me. I read that book last week.Hans: That’s great! I like that book.• Pronouns are words that stand in for nouns that have already been mentioned in a conversation. Think about how this conversation could be made less repetitive...
  • 4. What are Pronouns?Anna: Do you know my brother, Axel?Hans: Yes, I know him! I lent him my book.Anna: He told me. I read it last week.Hans: That’s great! I like it.
  • 5. What are Pronouns?• In English, there are six categories of pronouns (see English Grammar for Students of German page 23): – There are singular pronouns (that refer to only one person or thing) and plural pronouns (that refer to multiple people or things). – Pronouns are also divided by person: • First person refers to the person who is talking (either just the one person, I, or the person who is talking and a group that he or she is included in, we). • Second person refers to the person or people who are being talked to, you or you all/ you guys. • Third person refers to the person or people or thing or things that are being talked about (he, she, it, or they).
  • 6. What are Pronouns? Singular Plural 1st Person I we 2nd Person you you (you guys, you all) 3rd Person he / she / it they Singular Plural 1st Person ich wir 2nd Person du (Sie)* ihr (Sie)* 3rd Person er / sie / es sie*The words du and ihr are the informal forms of address, and the word Sie isused in formal situations for both singular and plural.
  • 7. German Pronouns: some things to know• There are three ways to express the word you in German: – Du refers to one person. It is informal (i.e., you can use it to address classmates, friends, or family members). – Ihr refers to more than one person. It is also informal. – Sie can be plural or singular, but it is formal (i.e., you use it to address people in formal situations, like a boss or a professor).• The third-person plural pronoun in English is they. Its German equivalent is sie. The formal word for you, however is also Sie, written with a capital S. – For more information about du, ihr, and Sie, see pages 10- 11 in Berliner Platz Neu, and pages 24-25 in English Grammar for Students of German.
  • 8. German Pronouns: some things to know• In English, we use the gendered pronouns he and she to refer only to people. When we talk about inanimate objects, we use the neuter pronoun it.• In German, since all nouns have gender (i.e., der Computer is masculine, das Haus is neuter, and die Sprache is feminine), we use gendered pronouns to refer to them: – Der Computer ist neu. Er ist fantastisch. – Das ist mein Haus. Es ist schön. – Ich lerne eine neue Sprache. Sie ist interessant.
  • 9. Pronomen: jetzt sind Sie dran!• Fill in the blanks with the correct third-person pronoun.1. -Wie ist deine Adresse? -_____ ist Schmidtstraße 22. Sie2. Hans hat ein neues Handy. _____ ist sehr Es klein.3. -Wie heißt der Ort? -_____ heißt Hamburg. Er
  • 10. Why is Person important? • The subject is the person or thing who is doing the action (the verb) in the sentence. • The verb is conjugated (its ending is changed) to agree with the person of the subject. That’s the difference betweenI go (first person singular) and he goes (third person singular) • To read more about conjugating verbs, see pages 29 and 46 in English Grammar for Students of German.
  • 11. Conjugating Verbs• When you look up verbs, you’ll find the infinitive form. They end with –en. In English, infinitive forms look like this: English German to come kommen to ask fragen to hear hören to drink trinken to write schreiben
  • 12. Conjugating Verbs• To conjugate a German verb, remove the infinitive suffix (-en). What’s left is called the stem.• Look at the subject (who or what is VERB-ing?) and figure out its number (singular or plural?) and its person (1st, 2nd, or 3rd?). one person = singular the person who’s talking = 1st person• Then choose the correct suffix that agrees with the subject, and add it to the stem.
  • 13. Conjugating Verbs Singular Plural 1st Person ich komm - e wir komm - en 2nd Person du komm - st ihr komm - t 3rd Person er / sie / es komm - t sie komm - en• Once again, to conjugate the verb: – Figure out the verb stem. – Figure out number and person of the subject. – Choose the correct suffix and add it to the stem. one person = singular the person who’s talking = 1st person
  • 14. Conjugating Verbs• Even though the pronoun Sie (you formal) is a second-person pronoun, verbs are conjugated like the third-person plural (sie, which means they). Singular Plural 1st Person ich komm - e wir komm - en 2nd Person du komm - st ihr komm - t 3rd Person er / sie / es komm - t sie komm - en• Formal form of address: – Woher kommen Sie? Wie heißen Sie?
  • 15. Conjugating Verbs• Conjugate the verbs in parentheses to fill in the blank in each sentence: heiße1. Ich ___________ (heißen) Susanna, und heißen meine zwei Brüder ___________ (heißen) Mark und Hans. kommt2. Hans ___________ (kommen) aus Wien, Österreich. trinken3. Ich und mein Freund ___________ (trinken) zusammen Kaffee. Careful! Ich + mein Freund = wir (just like in English, I + another person = we)
  • 16. Conjugating Verbs: Exceptions• Some verbs are conjugated differently because they contain sounds that ‘clash’ with the conjugation suffixes.• For example, the verb heißen (to be called) has a stem that ends with an ‘s’ sound, so it ‘clashes’ with the du suffix (-st). Because of that, heißen and other verbs whose stems end in ‘s’ are conjugated like this: Singular Plural 1st Person ich heiß - e wir heiß - en 2nd Person du heiß - t ihr heiß - t 3rd Person er / sie / es heiß - t sie heiß - en
  • 17. Conjugating Verbs: Exceptions• Some verbs are conjugated differently because they contain sounds that ‘clash’ with the conjugation suffixes.• For example, the verb antworten (to answer) has a stem that ends with a ‘t’ sound, so it ‘clashes’ with the du suffix (-st), the er/sie/es suffix (-t), and the ihr suffix (-t). Because of that, antworten and other verbs whose stems end in ‘t’ or ‘d’ are conjugated like this: Singular Plural 1st Person ich antwort - e wir antwort - en 2nd Person du antwort – e - st ihr antwort – e - t 3rd Person er / sie / es antwort – e- t sie antwort - en
  • 18. Conjugating Verbs: Exceptions• Some verbs, such as nehmen (to take) and sprechen (to speak) have stems that change vowels. Their suffixes for conjugation are normal, but their stems change in the du and er/sie/es forms: Singular Plural 1st Person ich nehm - e wir nehm - en 2nd Person du nimm - st ihr nehm - t 3rd Person er / sie / es nimm - t sie nehm - en Singular Plural 1st Person ich sprech - e wir sprech - en 2nd Person du sprich - st ihr sprech - t 3rd Person er / sie / es sprich - t sie sprech - en
  • 19. Conjugating Verbs: Exceptions• The verb form möchten (would like) is part of a special set of verbs that you will learn more about later. Möchten and verbs like it have the same conjugation suffixes for ich and for er/sie/es. Singular Plural 1st Person ich möcht - e wir möcht - en 2nd Person du möcht - st ihr möcht - t 3rd Person er / sie / es möcht - e sie möcht - en
  • 20. Conjugating Verbs: Exceptions• Two of the most common verbs in German (haben, ‘to have’, and sein, ‘to be’) just plain don’t conjugate like you expect them to. We use them frequently enough that it is a good idea to memorize their forms. Singular Plural 1st Person ich habe wir haben 2nd Person du hast ihr habt 3rd Person er / sie / es hat sie haben Singular Plural 1st Person ich bin wir sind 2nd Person du bist ihr seid 3rd Person er / sie / es ist sie sind
  • 21. Conjugating Verbs• Read the dialogue between Hans and Anna, and conjugate the verbs in parentheses. Remember, most verbs follow the same pattern as you learned for ‘kommen’. heißtHans: Guten Tag! Mein Name ist Hans. Wie _____________ (heißen) du? heiße kommstAnna: Ich _____________ (heißen) Anna. Woher _____________ (kommen)du, Hans? kommeHans: Ich _____________ (kommen) aus Wien, in Österreich, aber ich_____________ (wohnen, to live) in Berlin. wohne machstAnna: Wie schön! Und was _____________ (machen, to do) du in Berlin? studierenHans: Mein Bruder und* ich _____________ (studieren) beide hier an derFreien Universität. studiertAnna: Wie interessant! Und was _____________ (studieren) ihr? studiereHans: Ich _____________ (studieren) Psychologie, und mein Bruder Mark studiert_____________ (studieren) Medizin. studiereAnna: Ich _____________ (studieren) auch Psychologie! Welche Kurse nimmst_____________ (nehmen) du?