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(Oxford phrasal verbs dictionary for learners of english)
 

(Oxford phrasal verbs dictionary for learners of english)

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un útil libro de phrasal verbs

un útil libro de phrasal verbs

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    (Oxford phrasal verbs dictionary for learners of english) (Oxford phrasal verbs dictionary for learners of english) Presentation Transcript

    • P a l English 51 ~ebody RrF C etc. British English countable noun et cetera (= and so on) sing sth l! singular something uncountable noun Oxford n nounSee also p x for an explanat~on the abbreviations used in the grammar of Phrasal Verbspatterns. Dictionary shows common su bjeds of the phrasal verb for learners of English shows common objects of the phrasal verb shows a verb with a similar meaning shows a verb with the opposite meaning introduces a note on grammar or usage shows the grammar patterns of the phrasal verb idiom(s) section of the entry derivative section of the entry means look at replaces the key verb in a menu box A taboo (see Labels below) OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
    • OXFORDU N m a S 1 n PBBSSGreat Clarendon Street, Oxford 0x2 6DPOxford Universiw Press is a department of the University of Oxford.It furthers the University objective of utcellenct in research, wholarrhip,and education by publishing worldwide in Short forms and symbols used in inside front cover the dictionaryOxford New York Labels used in the dictionary ivAuckand Bangkok Buenm A i m Cape Town ChennaiOar es Salaam Delhi Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi Kolkata Key to the dictionary entries vKuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Mumbai NaimbiS o Paulo shanghai Singapre Taipel Tokyo Toronto Guide to using the dictionary viwith an associated company in BerlinOxford and Oxford English arc ngisFered trade marks o lOwford Universiry Press in the UK and in wnain other countries Dictionary A-Z 1 348-Q Oxford Unlvel~ity Press ZOO?Database tight Oxford Uniwrsiw Press (maker)FI-t published 2001 STUDY PAGES between pages 182-3Second impression 2002 fips on learning phrasal verbs $2-4All rights mewed. Ho part of this publimtion may be reproduced, stored ina retrieval wtem. or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the lPhrascll verb or single ward? S5prior permission in writrng of Oxbrd University Press (with the role exceptionof phototopymg mrried out under the Eondrt~ons stated in the paragraph headed Are you a naturul born student? S 6-7Photocopymg), or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed w ~ t hthe appropriate reprographla r~gbts orynrzatron. Enqurries conternrng sport S 8-9reproduction outsrde the scope of the above should be sent to the ELT RightsDepartment. Oxford University Press, at the addrrss above S10 ComputersYou must not circulate this book in any other binding or coverand you must impose this same condition on any arquircr Envimmenta! problems S11This dictionary includes -me words which have or arc asserted to h a w proprietary Phrasul verbs in newspapers 51 2status as trademarks ox o t h t m i ~ Their inclusion does not imply that they have ,acquired for legal purposer a non-proprietary or general srgnlflante nor any other Ahmsal verbs in business S13judgement concernrngtheir legal status. In cases where the editorial staff havesome ev~dence that a word has proprietary status this ir indicated in the entry for Phrasal verbs in inbmal language 514-15that word but no judgement concerning the legal status, of such words is made orimplied thereby Using ~hrasal verbs in writing 316-17Photocopying 518-1 9The Publisher grants permission for the photocopying of those pages Using phrasal verbs in the passivemarked photucopiableartording to the following conditions. lnd~vrdualpvrchasers may make copies for thew own use or for use by classes that New phrasal verbs 520-21they teach. Srhool purchaser, may make topres for use by staff and student&but th15 permlSslon d w not extend to additional xhools or branches. under no The most common phrasal verbs $22-25crrtumstanrer may any part of this book be photocopied for r m l eISBN &1%431542-6 bst yourself S261 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2AcknowledgementsAdvirory Board: Dr Keith Brown; Dr Alan Cruse; Ms Moira Runtie; Guide t the particles a 349-71Pmf. Gabriele Stein; Dr Norman Whitnry; Prof Henry WiddowronPhonetics editor: MlchaeF k h b yGuide to the Particles: Graham Workman Key to the study pages 372-7&Z pages designed by Peer BurgessNon A-Z pager designed by Sarah NicholsonCwer desrgn by R~chardMorrrsData rapture and processing by Oxford Uniwrsiw P r a I Pronunciation inside back coverPrrnted in Swin
    • Information in the dictionary is given In entries, arranged E the alphabetical order nAmE describes verb, expressions, spellings and pronunciations used in of the key words and then in the alphabetical order of the particles. American English and not in 8ritish English, for example k t onsb, blimp outlup, duke it out. Main parts of an entryapproving verbs show that you feel approval or admiration. -, L+ - . - 4 7 , . . :eyTT-1.- - PJ* 1 * > ~ - n V v I > - BrE dtxribes verbs, expressions, spellings and pronunciations that are blow mlau: A m E blouf (blew /blu:lblor mainly used in British English and not in American English, for and irregular forms. Iblwn;AmE blcunl) r I example beaver away (at sth), doss down, put (the clock) h c k .disapproving verbs show that you feel disapprowl or contempt, for example dumb sth down, flash sth about. I Phrasal verb, The main forms of the verb + particle < ,blow away: ,I blow sth 1tway to be moved or carried away 1~y the force I$ the wind 1or by sws breath: to m a.e in thls way: It luas so windy thefigurative a figurative example is one in which language is used in a Ron- ., , neurswpr awuw. o sne mew awav cne oust on the .. ~tm r l y bIecuuwayod.sudden b m ze blew his -. literal or metaphorical way, as in His anger b l a d up (=suddenly became very strong) unmntrollobly. ( Definition. The meanings of I ,,,&. lid. & v + nlpmn+ adv ru v+aak+nformal verbs are usually only used in serious or official language and the verb. - (in italic type). -- - 1 ) e i w sb a- y I (iqforrm12) to impress sb a lot; . .. .. .- to surprise or Dlease SD. r saw <L*. uruy last ymr raw -.-. would not be appropriate in normal everyday conversation. Ucamples and it jwt b l Ir 2 (A&, informad, Examples are abide by sth, embark on/trpon sth, viefor sth. sport) to dele: Mitchell bCw o m y the 8humorous expressions are intended to be funny, for example toddle off and Grammar patterns to show other runnprs 6 v+nlpron*a W e t e rounded up some g d speakers for the conference. how the verb is used.informal verb5 are used between friends or in a relaxed or unofficial .- situation. They are not appropriate lor formal situations. Examples are bang on about sth, kick back, tuck into 5th. Further information in an entryless formal synonyms are verbs that have a similar meaning to the main - --.- - <". .,* -.,<,- TN7,- m- - *-*.q,.v, A*. , Special symbols show phrasal verb, but are used in less official situations or are more synonyms and opposites. . common in normal everyday conversation.less frequent verbs or grammar patterns are not used as often as the main Information on prepositions fmm the resz of the g m p . IEEj sNek out 2 phrasal verb or the other grammar patterns given. frequently used with the (adfrom sbtsth) to be much better or moreliterary verbs are used mainly in literature and imaginativewriting. verb. a r t a n t than other people or things: This Examples are yearn forsb/sth, eke out 5th.mow formal verbs have a similar meaning to the main phrasal verb, but are usually used in more serious or official situations, or in a less sblsih) t o o p p m or rehse to accept sththat you casual way. belleve is wrong Parents often stand o8 ogoinst utold-fashioned verbs are passing out of current use, for example, buck up, god rroublasome behnviour for some tune, then give . .- ira. EZ) stick out L r sth; hold out agalnsvror aboutloround,run along. st:hrare verbs or grammar patterns are not commonly used. 8 bv+a&slang is very informal language, mainly used in speaking and sometimes n3 o stand out like a sore thumb t~ be very Idiom related to the verb. n >ticeable in an urfpleas: way: Drvssed like t mt restricted to a particular group of people, for example people of the ,- thrai, y v u I* >w*u d . *.., vur " *- ,h.....h * m e u w * rr6urr.u :;LA r same age or those who have similar interests or do the same job. Derivative adjective related b outstanding udj 1 excellent: an OLrtslanding very obvi-spoken Examples are want in, wont into sth, juice 5th up. verbs are used mainly in informal conversations, for example Teak to the verb. 1 outslQndm~ feclfllres.. 3 {of payment, wvrk, prob- o earths f up! chuck 5th out. Information on grammar - lems. etc.) not yet paid, done, solved, etc: w r e w vtabm verbs and expressions are likely to be thought by many people to and usge. outstanding &bbs o I dont haw any ur outstanding. be obscene or shocking and you should avoid using them. b ouCstandingly udu 1 used to empkasue thewritten verbs are used mainly in written language, for example abound good qual~ty f sth: 01LtSlalLdingiy CYUI@USUC- o inlwith sih, spring from 5th. cessfuf 2 exawnely well: Owen has p h y d out. st aridingly thi
    • and particle are very common, or where there is wmething unusual or interesting about the verb. For example, phone bock can mean two slightly different thingr (telephonesomebody who has called you: or telephone sb for a second time J; pin 5th ~p means fasten something to a wall with pins: but there is also a noun1 What is in the dictionary? pin-up, meaning a picture of an ottr~ctive person designed to be put up on a wall3 th~s n dictionary we ~nclude several different types of verbs that are used with for people to look at , or the person who appeon in o picture like tho t.adverbs or prepositions, (often called particles). b lthese types of verbs can cause problemsfor learners, and so they have been la dmc Io a i it wrb + partide combinations. Sometimes when you meet combinations included in this dictionary. of verb and particle, it is impossible to guess the meaning in the context from the meaning of the verb and the meaning of the particle. Examples of these arefall 2 Particles t h e (meaning nothappen)and put up with m w l d y (meaningaccept These are the particles used with phrasal verbs in this dictionary, The "shows you mmebdy who is annoying without complaining*).There is often a single-word verb which are the most common. You will find more information about those particles with the same meaning. For example, instead of The meeting was put off until the n m day, we could say The meeting was postpond until the n a t dday: Single-word verbs, howewr. may be more formal than the phrasal verb, or used in slightly in the Guide to Particles at the back of the dictionary. - abmrk I * p l - *about... - ---v> <,"- w,---- above ~=-~.-v-v-37+ ~,"~* across + w#*~.v-~--, ahar m 3-7 F -- " agdnrt ---- ahead r----l#wmL ahetlwF different contexts. dong among aparl * around side *at * OW1 back before behind between own *6or forb Verbs which are always followed by a particular partide. Examplw of these are from *in into A 0 R on! forward rely on, crop up, abide by. These cannot be used wfthout the partide. *out -. --.of onsl ~rouah *t D t 0 fl ,- -c Verbs that are followed by a particle in a particular meaning. These verbs can under upon "with without be used on their own without a particle. but haw a different meaning when they are used with one. Brush 5th u is an example of a verb like this. Brush sth can p be used on its own meaning clean, polish or moke 5th smooth. Brush 5th up 3 Long verbs means study or practise 5th tog& bock the skifl or know!dge that you hod in the Some verbs, such as mme, go,put and take are used with many different particles. post: You should brush up your French bqfore you go t tofaflce. Other examples o In these cases you will find literal meaning of the verb plus particle included for are d / W ofj, gmw/grow up, walkhulk out. completeness. These rneaningr can also help you understand the idiomatic uses of the Many very common verbs fall into this group. Look, for example, can be used verb plus particle. For example, at run around, you will find the literal meaning run in with several different particles, and it has a special meaningwith each one that is difJereentdirections (Its a lovely pork fo run around in) as well as the idiomatic meaning different from look on its own. rook u the word in yourdictionary. o Im really p move vwy quickly from place to place, being very busy (Ive been running around all lmkingfomnrd to the trip. o h k cut! There? a c r coming. a day trying to organize the meeting.). Some more formal verbs also fall into this group. For example you can jbrmish a At the keginning of many of these verbs you will find a menu box with a list of all the room, that is, put furniture in it, but if you frrmishmmcbody with so#~tAing you particles that can be used with the verb, in the order they appear in the dictionary. are giving them some useful infomation. These verbs are: -< .----d Verbs with a partide, where the particle adds to, but does not change, the break orlng roll 1 t c)me rut do fnll give basic meaning of the verb. The particle often adds something to the meaning, hanu Ihold k sap l kit k knorlk lie live look go such as completeness. For example, you a n say ///finish work and then Illgo my moke move pas I pllay pulII push P" run send out or !//finishofJ m wd-and then IN go out.Wnish 08 y emphasizes that you are sat sn . 510RO I ... .. Slay . -! a. STlCK .I. &*I.- lWMW llll. uuln throw 4m.m lu~m, completing your work. Another wimple is wuke/wkeup. You e n either ray w k e ot 6.30 or w k e up at 6 3 . Woke up is much more common than w k . , I I .0 It is also possible to add many different particles to verbs of movement to create which is used more in formal or written English. Other examples are spreud/sprmd hulti-word verbs with literal meanings. For example, we can use the verb w l k in wt,fadelfodemay, ,slonelslmreaway.You will find more information about the these sentences: We walked down the rwd. o He walked up to me and ask& me for meaning of the particles in the Guide to the Partides at the back of the dictionary. a light o We sang as we walked along. o Walk amss the r o d , dont run. These aree Verbs plus particles whew each has their normal meaning. P a bock hw draightfonvard combinations of verb and particles. (meaning telephonesb again) is an example of a verb like this. The meaning of phone back can be worked out from the meaning of phone and back. Verbs of this type have been included in the dictionary where the corn bination of w r b vi
    • 4 finding the verb you wantlke phrasal verbs are arranged in the diaionary under their key verbs (for example. out) or as a transitive verb with the adverb + preposition out of, followed by a noungiw,move, sit)and then in alphabetical order of the particles. Within each panicle you or pronoun (Ideep out of my way).will first find the verb + particle, with no object. Then there are meanings of the verb Ifthe verb can be used with ""--v- - -"*Fa""" ,msh fnh ah; ,rush Into dolnn & .rush """-W"" , "" -."", 7"-that mn be used both without an object and with an object After that, there are an -ingform of a verb that follows s 3 Into doin~gsth to do or decide s t yI quickly tmeaning of the verb used only with an object. first verbs with people as objects (sb), WIithout thinki ng about ~t I:arehlly; to make sb it. this is giwn at the beginning: , . . .la.then verbs that a n have people or things (sblsth) and then verbs with only thin@as daI this: Dont go rushing znro anyto81 0 YOUobjects (sth).Verbs with itself, yourserf, etc. come at the end of those, and verbs that areonly used in passive forms will be last. For example: This tells you that all these sentences are possible: Dont rush into anything. o p-+y--G- Dont rush into leaving your course. o Dont rush me in& making a decision.TvGzF=-- 9" % w-,*-- .- 7izlx=----- b More information about the grammar of phrasal verbs is given I the section on n give sb up break sb/sth in put 5th ou Grammar Patterns (page x) give sth up break sth in put yourst give yourself up brwk into sth be put oui 2 Common subjects and objects At the end of many i f the verbs, or ad-;ki--?+; ;h;;-;~;s;h at the end of a n u m b e d meaning, wi etc. breaks out, it starts sudden~ly: u; They you will f~nd same common subjects wcluId have go l married in 1939 tT wur, had not or objects. These show you the type brnken out. o Plfire brokeof 4ton aferry) a t e d a y1 The phrasal verb E war, flre, fighting, mw, vlolence 2 ( a h ElThe arrangement of the verbs in the dictionary will tell you whether they o n be used of contexts that the verb is oftenwithout an object, (INTWNZITIVE), with an object (TRANSITIVE) used in, so that you can use it correctly yourself.or both with and without an object. "IbkBk ,Znr ."-- breaks down, it -.- ,----Tw*- if a vehicle, etc, .--*- For example, at breok out, you will see:Lmk at the beginning of the entry stops working because of a fault: he washing Sentences such as Fighting has broken out on the border, Fire hoke out in afor h k down: machine has broken down aguin. o We (= our m - i) bmke down t w k on the m y home. 2 if talks, warehouse. o A furious mw bmke out over the ownership of the painting are therefore very common and acceptable in English.This shows you that in this meaning break down is an intransitive wrb, used You can use these subjects and objects to help yau use the verbs in the right context.at bum down: -"- - - -without an object: My car bmke down on the way to work this morning.Thew arehllo forms of the verb - " ------"m bum down; ,bum sth down if a building 3 Synonyms and opposites. ,----- -- burns down, or sb burns it down, it is destroved When?there are helpful synonyms -w.---., - -- - - - - . - r .+ - . J - - - -- - -. by fire: The p a l m burnt down in the heinel&th ,pull In; ,pullInto sth 1 If a win or a bus pulls or opposites, these are given in in, It arrives somewhere and stops: The express century. o She thracstened to burn the hhr down. eon alphabetical order, synonyms and p~ lled in on lir ne. o The morch pulIed in, boy 27. to opposites that are phrasal verbs 2 (RrKj if a vehicIe or a IWiver pulls in, theyThis shows you that you can use bum down as a transitive and an intransitive mtwe to the skle of the mad and stop: 1 Dull in in firsi and then single-wordverbs. f, ml o the bus o He puEk d intu Ihe pc~ r k i n g f . - .. . Iotverb in this meaning. The definition ";; ,TA; ,;kb k;e ,upl,;ke;;6u-F,c These will help you understand D M~urn~og zneewm. .also shows you how to use it. 1 to stop sleeping: to make sb slop sleeping: Horn the verb and add to your draw in, draw inta sthLook at the b i n n i n g of the entry many timesdws Ihe b a b woke reup in the nrght70 vocabulary. Information is alx, m purr out, pull out or sthfor wr up. rk I uslsually wake up early in the s u m r o You look as if youve only just ken uplo Can you m k e given about the formality of the me up at 8?o He was woken up by the sound of synonym or opposite and whether it is British or American. As the contexts that the synonyms are used in may not always be exactly the same as the original phmsalThis tells you that you can use it as an intransitive verb (What time did yorr wake up verb, it is worth looking them up in this dictionaty or another dictionary to be surethis morning?),and as a transitive verb with an object (Ill wake you up at 6 3 . or .0) that you understand them and how they are used. For example, while knock down - --- - *,out -- -.Up -with yourself (must haw shouted Iso loudly while I was dreaming that -" -c7- ,keep I u t ,keep o ,;th to not enter a place; to remain outside: There m a sign scr ing y R1 can be used instead of break down in the examples given there, breok down cannot always be used instead of knock down.1 woke w f r up.) Keep <aut?. o Please keep out gf the o e 4whtle rc Im woskim. J They hod to get the police to breakkllock the door down. J If you dont open up,At keep out, you will see: v v + a d v + v*adv+prep A Im going to knockhmk the door down. J These old houm are going to be hocked down. I( These old houses are going lo be broken down.This tells you that in this meaning you can use the verb on its own (Danger! Keep ... Vlll
    • 4 NotesNot6 are given inN o places. Before * m Y * r . W <--r--"z- kl0ng t5 sb (not used in theprogressiue6ast?s) --- w - y . l l ~ - I - - - - - - - v+nlpron+adv v+adv+n v+pron+adv These three patterns are all used with transitive verbs. In order to be able to usea definition you will find information the property of sb:to be owned bv sb: Thea bout the tenses or a particular use k l o n g i to my cousin. 0 That land belongs these verbs cormly, you need to know where to put the object. The patterns showof a phrasal verb: you this. The most frequent patterns come first at each verb v+nlpmneadv v+adv+nNotes are also given after the ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ X Y X Y - - ~ - . , r t - r r - r - Verbs that can be u w l with these patterns, where the object can go either W e e n ,blaze away 1{at sW&) if m s or people Mazeexamples where there is a particular away, the guns fire continuously: Thegum k p t the verb and the particle or after the particle, are sometimes called SEPARABLEpoint of grammar or use to draw u u r r y, away as the enemy 2 if a fire blazes .I--.-" verbs. They are shown in the dictionary as, for example, tear sth up:your attention to. This b often away, it burns brightlysomething about the passive, or -8 laze is used with the sanle meanings. She tore the IeCter up. She tow up the lette~. She tore it up. + v + a bvwhere the verb without the particle When the object is a long phrase, it usually comes after the particle: She to^ up a//can alx, be used with a similar meaning. the letters he had sent her. When the object is a pronoun, it must come between the verb and the particle.5 Grammar patterns of phrasal verbs v + adv + R v + pron + advTo help you uw the verbs correctly, a simple system of grammar patterns is given With some phrasal verbs the object can only come between the verb and theafter each one. Thew shew you how the verb combines with an adverb, a particle when it is a pronoun. A noun m s follow the particle. They are given in the utpreposition, a noun or a pronoun, an infinitive, etc. and the order in which these dictionary as, for example, fight back sth: fight itlthem backwords o n occur. The short forms used are these:? -A U " 1 "y,3-.rrrrrr.-~,- . I X I 7 . -, .* ...mrr- - ,Fur .",.n*.-nlu .-a>.-. -9- 7- -. mr r- , * 1 - - fight back sth I tried to fight back my tears. ad rerb f- lmn = nourI or pronoun fight itJthem back I had an urge to scream but managed to fight it back nitive (withot P = preposition v + nlpran + adv erb form end n = pronoun There are a few phrasal verbs in which the two park of the verb must be separated .-- doinnl a. nf = ....,.... infin ... by the object. An example is mess sb aboutlaround: = not = verb T h y changed the flight time and d 011 the pussengrs around. r + nlpron e prepFrequent patterns An example of a verb that is used in this pattern is drill sth into sbThe following are the most common types of verb patterns used in the dictionary. drilr sth into sb The teacher driiied grammar into us right from the startveadv Intransitiveverbs, for example: R~II-IVB. break down My cur broke down this morning. A few phrasal verbs are only used in the passive. for example: klge2 carried away. hang around There was o group of kids hanging omund outside. The verb patterns will show you how to use these verbs. belget carried away will sit down have the pattern beiget + v + adv. betget stuck with sth will have a pattern Come in and sit down. be/@ + verb + prep.v + PWP These are verbs followed by a preposition. For example: Other phrasal verbs that are used with objects can also be used in the passive for rely on sblrth You con rely on me. example: The dm1 has been called ofl. Where this is common you will find an call k r sb Ill call for you at 8. example of the passive and a note. Verbs with the pattern v + prep are not usually come across sth I came across an interning book in the used in the passive. If they are, you will find a note about this (see rely on sblsth). library Orher pcrttemsv + adv + prep Some verbs are followed by an adverb and a preposition: You can easily work out how to use verbs with different patterns. For example, if you put up with sblsth How do p u put up with him? look at take sb up on sth, you will see the pattern v + nipron + adv + prep. This settle down to sth Come on children, m l e down to work now. shows you that the verb is used in sentences like this: keep out of sth Keep out of the kitchen until Ive finished I i i like to _ t o k e ~ u p ~ - o n ~your offerof o M f o r the night - ~ cooking. v + pron + adv + prep These lad two groups are sometimes called INSEPARABLEverbs as the object always follows the particle.
    • At set out, you will see the pattermv + adv + to inf. This dexribes sentences suchas: He st out to become a millionai~ the time he was thirty. ? byBoom out sth has two patterns:r+adv + nIdioms She boomed out instructions.v + adv + speech A voice boomed out, Nobody move!6 Building your vocabularyMany phrasal verbs have idioms ,l,WF.., . *--> a dug - ,+.-,rm. t *--. -,-.*lrl-.m ,bite alt offtocu sth off by biting f She bit off h t a piec .e of c h m h , o Hisfinger had k e n bitten te. rry*,. abidela-! ablde by ath 0to aocept d m a law an agreement. a decisio~ u etc. d obeg themilt Members n & abide by the rules 4f theclub rules, daclslm, the law )S*ll) comply (wlth nth) e V+PWP _ Accoantforsthcanbewedinthepassim: T h w i ~ i s a a * l * w f O rby rwmeses gzzi lor mwIjMto say that it is impossible to know why sb likes sbfsththat yw do not like at . all:humomw)She lor iwte! t seems to like you. Well - Iheres m acwurttingrelated to them. You will find theseimmediately after the grammar g$ 033 adv+n + v+r .. to snout tflbte/snap ~ D Smean om (lwormag abound{anbarndl accustom ieaknstmn/patterns. The idioms in the at sb or speak to them angrily, often for no good abouml in#Hh s h (urrittkn)to have a lot of ee,custom a$ryoumw t reason: Ionly asked him when the work w l d bt sth; to contain a lot of sth: The rm them i ,murself to doing dh (forno to make abound hiwithfish. stdyourself familiar w ~ t h to k a m e used to sth;in some way to the meaning of the *n Ean ( i ~ r n a to trv to do ~n ev+prep sth: It shouldnt lake iom lo m W m w u r slu-phrasalverbwhereyoufindthem, toomucho~sththatistoohiffic~tfory~~:~his d ~ n lo working in b o It hmk o while forFor example: time hes bitten flmore than he mn chew. -,, .,- sCCedslakstdl .hwahve nouns and C p d i S a s . accede to sth ( r o m l ) to agree to or allow sth that sb has asked for, often after you have bermto accuslom themseltres 0 thedark Q v n + prep ImNouns and adjectives that are related in meaning to a particular phrasal verb are onmwedlt forawhile: T h e n o w m m a n t ~ achete~kl ~ pii~icp-ure ta review the agiven after the grammar patterns or any idioms. Sometimes the derivative has ESTl request, denwan&, prerrm ache for sb- to have a atrong desire formore than one meaning, each one relating to different uses of the phrawl verb. -A-etosthcanbeus*inthem~: ~bl~~wtodosth:f~achfnglbr~. E 3 lone k r sbfsthto find the =me dmvative with a -- -r --- -.--- ----- --You will find the meaning at the appropriate entry, with a link to show you where --. ,mix sb up: b ya ,mixedI up to mate sb d - k -3 ..-. ..-. -47% > - . Have~llour 0V+PEP requests k e n u.xeded to? Qv+pre~ acquaint i ~ m t ldifferent meaning. unable to think r:leady or urtderstand what is account ~ a k u n t ~For example, you will find one h a w:ning: Now y uuw mixed rn up completely! acooud for sbrsth 1 to lmow where s ~ s t h acqualnt sblpurssff wlth sth 0to ~smeaning of the adjective mixed-up Im really c, o n.f m !.o H e g ~mi!xedup and cawht l or what has happened te them,esmially after make sbly~umIf famfl* with or aware af sth: Ine wmwrmzn, He&~d&mlakehissonaIongand~uaint hima t the verb it is related to,mix sb up; be/get mixed up andanother meaning at mix dh up F ,rnlxed-up adj ( i n f o m l ) confused because of social or emot~onal up krd. problems: shes a vew mixed- an acc~dent a natural disaster. All the people or who were wrking In the buiMing hnue nola km m u n l e d Ibr o Them are three files that I mnl m u n t fri wth lhe bELSiness V+"pmn*prep Account for7sbisth is often act /=kt/ -3x e R ~ M ~ ~ E D -at MIX mi up Cwm STH)(with *h), a link from one to . >L W " . . ,, .- used in the passive in this meaning. 2 (old- fushiontd)to destmy sth or kill sb: Olrr guns act rw sth to perform a partlcuLar mle or fun*the other. m u n t e d jorfiveenemyplanes. tim: W l l j l M OLS imWpm&for us?otorge ~ ~ Q V+PWP fines act as a detmmztfomolorisdp. accuunt for sth Ito expbln how m why 5th Dagent,m u l t a n t . I n t e r m e d h w , happened: to h the explanationfar 8th: How da e deterrent EFW serve ss sth you accountfir t e t h l the box has d b p hm QV+P~P peamd? o Poor hygiene m y he amomled for act for ab(also,&on w h d d s b . p t o n s " u b.Study pages the mwm in apes of the dissrrre. the fact behatfj i F sb a& for you or acts on behalf ofThere IS a 25-page section of study pages in the middle otthis dictionary, You can tha . .2 to beaparticularpart of sth; to beapar- t. you, they deal with your *airs for you, for ticular amount: Car crime nmrunied for 28% of example by representingyou in a court of law, oruse these on your own or in class with a teacher. They will help you to learn phrasal al m p o W o l m o Wages m u n t for Iess by doing your duty when you are not able to: Doverbs and give you practice in using them. thun half o the brrdgel. E3 a b r amount, a f ~ ~ you huwea solicrlor actingforyoufo The P r i m (particular) pmportlon, (so many) per cent tuas actrng on hhar o the Qwem o T e Prince f hGuide to the particles FE9 make up sth, represent sth 3 to keep a zwrsuctingon I h e Q w n s behuQ rccord of how the money in your care will be BEd cllentAt the end of the dictionary is a guide to the most common particles used in the spent or hasten spent Everypenny o thefunds f e V+P~~Pverbs in this dictionary and their main meanings. This will help you understand i~amountedfot: 4 to mns~der particularfacb or act on sth (ah& upon sth mrefimn I toverbs better and be able to guess the meaning of new ones that you meet. circumstances when you are maklng a decision do sth as a m u l t of advice, information, instruc about sth, especially when you are calculating tions, etc. that you haverecelvd Thepolice- the cast OF sth: The mst of thefilm and the p m anlng on iqformutionfromu m e m k of thepub- assing wereail m u n t e dfor m Ihemlculntwn of Iic, o I mjusi ucting on instructions.o IF my the cusi 4f the service. lEB take sth Into advicehod been rmerItrpon, this umuld-haw ncwunt hagpznd &lee, lnlonnablon, Imtmctlons
    • ....-.......-.....*,.,,,.-, ,,*. -,m,. * -, ,...-.......-......-....-......amount. , .,,.....,,,......, W Act onhipon atham be u& in thepassive background added to the afmosptm. o (Brb adhere /adWr)/ alight / a w l in this meaning.2 to have an effect an sth: The Thehousehnshenaddedtoouertheyeum. o T e h sdhem to sth (formu0to act i the way that a aHght MVupon s h t h n ta notimsblsth drugactson themntml nemus system. EtilAct f at the holal is of a wry high stundard Add d particular law, rule or set of instructions says suddenly;to h d or think of 5th by chance: My can be used on its own with this meanlng: The ta this t h qzmlity c the hem and the h e m ~ f that you should;tofollw or supportaparlicular crlighbsd on an old bwt o He$nul[y d g h t d -drugocls guickl~ and it Sclmr why this issuch apopuhr hoteI. opin~onor set of Mi& Thw Rnve adhemi on a solution. e V + P ~ P E i d problems, number, knowledge, anJoymant -Add to sth canbeused in the passive. strictb to the W m qf the t?m&. He found Ihe 0 B I g d u p o n W.th FM,act on behatf o sb; ,adon sbs behalf = f dlet u e r y d m l l loudhereto. o Howmonywpie 0 v + prep ACT FOR $ A Qv+pre~ aalrnlly adhere ta thrs vtew?,act 8th out 1 to perfom a story or events that ,add together, ,add sth torgether to come E Z i prlnclplau, rules, guldellm I B ksep t B o align /aklam/ have happened or might h a m , as if yw are together to plpduce 8th; to join two or mom ath (lessforma0 align yoursePF with sbrsth to publicly sup performing a play: The &her read a story and things, numbers, etc. together to produce sth: Adhere to ath can be used In the passive: The games, the dancing and the good f&d all All sofew repurremen&rntut beadhered lo. wrt a W m n , a group of people or a set of opin- thechildm acled it out. o Sheucfedoutherfunla- Ions: Thesenalwal&ned hImw,!f with the critics sies of w p stardom i n f h n t of her bedroom mir- added together lo make a mmombIe l e n . o 0 V+PWP Whenall the d mfactors err addad togethm I o the pro^^?& &rim. f ror o rnguratiw)T e lulwlenationwmfollowing h *~+PM+P~~P the dmma being acled out on the football field. tun understand her & ~ l o n . o Add the fuw num- admit / a (a-) aw Ell dory, fanksy 2 to act a part i real life: I n bers together and dlvtde by three. IF33 factors, numbers, costs admH sth (formaI)to show that sth such as allow /a%u/ found myse&fCIFIing out the role of good, brnve an explanation or an answer Is possible: to allow patient 3 (technical) to express your thoughts +v+adv v+adv*n + v+n/p-cm+edv sllow for sth to include sth when you are calm+ sth to happen: The situation admits of only one latlng sth or planning sth:Addan atm ten min- and feelings in your behaviow, offen without ,eddup(iqr3rmr) to seem reasonable:to& 1 erplenniion. h n g aware of it s e w : to have all the different parts agreeing IhamcBic. o ulps toyour journqrllmemalIo~~for !BE explanation, a- ZEE3 m I k w of sth Iue h w h t a lrrrgesike toallowfor #hefactt?mii! @v+sdv+n + v+nlpmn+adu w ~ t each other Therearethings In herstoty that h Q v + prep,act up (itbfornsllll 1 to make sb annoyed by just dont add up o Now that I know where she mqv shrrnk in the m h rwls lust night, its all Rmnning lo adrd up.W f.etllmt..., d the ~ s t b i l l t y , t h e m behavlng badk trying to get attention, etc: The agree/arm:/ W Allow far sth can be u s d in the passive: kidshawbeen&ingupaI1dqK2Ifamachmeor Add up with this meaning is used especially In part of the bady acts up, it does not work prop negative sentences.2 to increase gradually to agrw wMh sb to make you feel happy or This had not k e n a l l o dfor in the budget. erly: Thecarsatctingngpagtzin.o M y ankle bm- make a large number or amount: Saw a small healthy: You Imk m ! Marriage obviously t & v + P ~ ingup I= is painful and causingpmb1ems)i amount a h month; itll m n add up. 3 S two or f a g m wilh you. o M w h m m s dont agree with allow of sth toshowthat 8th such 88 an LEEl play up more numbers add up, they come to the total me (= they make me feel iwsick). explanation or ananswer is&wssible; to makesth EEXEIAct up Is & e n d I the progresshe n that they should or that you would expect: These -Agree wlth 5b is often used In negative possible:ThefuctsaZbwof only onewIerurtIon sentences. tenses. Qv+&act upon sth =ACT ON STH fim just dont add up. gv+adv ,add up( m p ~ b l l y BrE), ,addsth up to calcu- Q V+PP a g m wlth ath; a g w wfth dolng sth to * 5admit of nth v + prep late the total of two or more numbers ot approve of sth, m i a l l y a policy or a belief: Iadd amounts. lneuer muM& up o Shes WIY@ dont o g m with w p r l a l p u n i s h w l allude t sbrsth -0 o to mention sWsth at adding up in her hacad. o Sheadded t h e h u m s ,opn dlsagree with sth, dlsegrea wlth dolng indirectly o r in a f w words: He hated his e,add sth In to include sth with 9th e w to put sth d u p i n a t h e .o I ~ b u s e a c ~ k u E a t o r t o a d d sth into sth e h or between two things:Sond me i h mothers way of a1IUdimg W Jmn but never mtu- up the bill. Q V+PBP ally saying her mm. newfigzres when the &itional haw h n E d numbam,fVgm, -om, Eort E a&W in,o Pve& z tm e x b u p a ~ p h s . n Alrude to sblsth can be used in the p s Qv+adv + w*adu+n 4 v+nlprm+a6v sive: Do you know lhe-n w h IWSalld8d t o Add can also be used w t this meaning: ih ,add up t eth 1 if two or more numbers or Ag- o aim at sth:afmat doing s h to try to achieve t in the reporl? IYP addeda mupleof exlrapnragmphs. Qv+edv+n + v+nlpmn+adv ures add up to sth, theymake a totalof 9th when they are added together: Can you anange the sth: to have sth as your alm: She3 drniRg at a V+PBP e sportsscholarship, o W e n d m o h a t i ? x m i r r g,addon;,addon to sthIAmF)to buildanwrtw numbersingmlrps2hladdup10IO?oThecostof amount/amunt/ wt . ts room or rooms on to a house or ather building: all the heeguipmmrtyou needfor a baby a & up ma d ~ A k m t o d o s t h I s a h ~ w i t h t h amount to sth (no! UlCBd i the p m m d w e~ Tkydecidad toaddon mthr than mow. mnsideruhie sum. 2 (irllormal) to show sth; ta n meaning:~ Z d o y o u a i mfoachkw? lenses) F to add up to sth; to m u l t in a find total Q v + & + v+sdv+prep,adds h on:,addsth ont nth to include 5th t o have a particular meaning or result:Hts e v W didnt redly add up to very much (= gave us very e v + prep of 6th: The msl of the trfpawu10ted t well wer a aim stk at sb!dh ifyouaimsthatap&imlar Xml o The money l p y in taxand i w m m o m or attachsthextra: Headdedaon lothebi1I. little information). o Ail in all, it adds up to a person or group, you do or say sth that you W Add (to sth) can also be used with this pretdycbaspemle sifuation. lriburlons arnunls m about 40% of my s a b q intend t have an &ect on them: The rrduertlsing o P D comstosth2tobeequQltoorthe~~meas meaning He addedfZ Lo the bill. IF3 amount t o 5th mmpniqn isaimdprimarilyal youngpeople. o 1 Qv+nlpmn*adv + v*adv+n r Qv+adu+prep sth: Whnl they drd ornunred lo a brerrch o con-f was maaiming my remclrk~utyou t m . o It doesnt matter w M b Ipay or my bus * v + nlpron +adv prep rernurks, cdtlclsm, campalgn b a d pays - it amounts lo the snme thing in the b W b n n a thing that is added to m included address/aniirm/ Aim sth a t sb 1 often used in the passive. s and o I#all amounts to a fot of hard work. E ) E with sth else: T e calalogw adverlIsed addans h Q v + nlpmn + prep address purself to nth (@mat) think to soma t Sfh 3 i you say that sblsth doesnt a f such a extra memory and soflwure, o a d d ~ n s about a problem or a situation and decide how prad~I~Wunits be alrned at 8th; b aimed; at ddng d h to amount to much, you mean that helshelit i not s you are going to deal with it: We must a d d m have sth as an alm or purpose: !ihe newscheme b wry important: HeIl n e w amount to anything. oadd to sth to increasethe size,amount, number, ourselues to lheprobllem of t m p o l l u t i o n . e i m a! reducing u?wrnp~ment. The fn~iormntlon wehove d m t a m o u n t 0much. etc. of sth: Taking the chiklren with w muld only a& to o problems, o Musk pIoyhg rn the w er+pmn+vrep + be+v+prep EE3 addup tosth @ v + prep
    • a s d a t e yourself wkh d s t h 0to b ~ I v e of all the hotets semiw. o Id like to s say that you agree with sb or with their ideas: ouailmys?Vof thtsopporduni& to hankyouall. It uras unrwzsonable io expm ihe D e m ~ l v l s lo EEi f~lllWes, opportunity .................. ....................................................................................... ......-.........................- .....................-.............. ~ f n t k m s e i w with spending curs and m & Qv+pmn+m i c. n- r a p P , d l ~ ~ U ~ 4 w d l averager m l back M I . . DEB p u f t m t + p u l l w t d ~ , p u l l o u t . o t d ~ nth;wlthdraw (from sth)(nmomfimO ev+pmn+vrep ,back away; ,back aWay from sblsth to ,average outto mult in a fair or equal amount +v+adv v+adv+pmp over a p e r i d of time or after m l m s i o n s : a move backwards away h m sbtsth frighteningattend /antend/ Sometimes I do tfw d i n g and sometimes my or unpleasant: He stepped forward and sha ,back up;,back rblsth uptomovebackwardsattend t sbmth (formal)to deal wlth w take o h c k d a w j in alarm o T e child bucked a t w y h a short distance,especially in a vehicle; to make jlallotmate W .It averages out over a month (= sbhth move backwards a short distance: You mn responwbilityfor 8th: to give practical help and results in us each dobg the same amount of from the dog neruousljr care to sb who needs i Ihnw some urgent busi- t rotmat (fmm sW&) (momfOt+fd baek up another i w m or so. o J&f backed em cooking). the van up and d m off qujdF1~ m m t i v e ) 4 ness t allend $ao (BrO Are you being attended o ev+adv +se@olsonncKa m 2 to? +v+adv + v+adv+pmp The w m n was backed upagainst the ~ 0 1 1 . ,werage 8th out (al rth) to calculate the aver- )svrr) w, mwme 5th (moreJormn bll~hOSs. d~, curto- ,back away from sth; ,back away from age of sth: yuu amage it our, theres am? mr ER) l o o k a f t n r s b l o o k ~ r ~ I h : ~ s s t m ~ euery .three minutes. o The tax oWhoritim @ v +adv + v + nlpron + adr v+ adv * n stolen doing sth to avoid doing sth unpleasant or (~f0~maO awmged out his profir at fl0m a year overfive dficult; to show that you no longer supprt an ,back up;,back sth upif ~ c b n c k e n p o r l s +v+prep action or an idea: We will laot back oluay@~om hacked up, ~tcannot move and forms a long line: yean. Two l a m were c M by the mW, musing @v+adv+n + v+n/pron+adv tough m w s m . o The unbn h h n s k d uway mattribute/ambju*/ from mlling astrike. cars lo bacR upfor mtles o The W j i c ts bricked ,average t sth to have a particular a al up to ihe m c lights.Ntrlbu!e sth to sb to consider, perhaw +v*adv+p~ep amount as the mrage overa period of time: The W B a c k 6th up is nearly dways used in the wrongly, that 5th has been written, painted, lime sheswmkpmctising thplnno auerages out ,back down (o-m sth)totaltebackachimor passive. spoken or created by a particular person: This at about an hour a day a demand that you have made, or sth that you 6 v t a d v + r+nlpmn+adv r v+adv+n painting is wualIy allributed t Goyn. o @v+adv+prep have said, usually becaw sb forces you to: Nei- )SYH) a d b e sth b sb lher of them will h c k down on this issue. e His ,back sbMh up 1 to say or show that what sb critlm weref o r 4 60 k k down. says is true: I tell my plr& I rws with you, Q u + nlpron +prep m m k 9j e (awoke /awwk:krnE ~ wilFyou Back m u p ? o Hisversion of events knotattdbuts sth to sblsth to consider that 5th is awoukl,awoken /awaokan;AmEawwkm/) EE9 cllrnb down ( w w 8th); glw In (to 3 s C ~ U ~ O B A COFF (FROM STHIPROM DOING STH), bock& up by theavidmlce~S m m e n t , elalrn EJ caused by a particular person or thing Hi3 ow- K 2 to support or help sb/sth: Me2 mmplalnad that awake to d h V 0 r n I )to h e aware of sth BACK OFF STH cess can be largely attributed ta hard wrk. Q She and its p s s i b l e results;to realhe or understand her hushand never backed her up In the control of s d she u m not going t attribute blame or a k a a Qv+adv the chiidnn, o W i n g her up (= playing music revengefor whol had hap- sth- They finally aluoke t thefulI &ent of the a ,back ott I (Informan to stop or ~~ EBD ascrih 5th to sblsth:put * d m to ah problem. o I suddenly a& t h m w infront of me, lo thefaa that Ihad annoying sb: Back off Md Ir me make my own e to support her) ~ lthe band Midnigh!Express. IEQ support sWsth s ( ~ S S ~0 F ~ O @ v + nlpron + prep * S W O ~ A W A K E NTO STH. AWAREN 80 TO STH decisiom. o Thepmshawugmdfobackflalard lenw the muple alone. 2 to move away h m r + nlpron+ adv v+ adv + n ~~~~) + ev+prep t backupn [C]fl](AmE,W ) ( - f i y &as sWsth frightening or unpleasant: As t h hmd an &ectiue) music that supports the mainauction/ k u n , BE oh-/ awaken/aawe~kan/ teacher apprmched the children btPdrad ofl singer or player In popular music or jazz: a retreat (fromswath) see also BACK AWAY, BACK,auction sth OW to sell sth at an audon, espe- aweken t mawaken sb to 5th e r n 0 backup 5ing.w for Steuia! Wonder o She once sag cially sth that sb no longer needs or wants:The o , AWAY FROM SBlSTH b w k u p f i r Madonna. to become aware of slh, or to make sb becorns gv+adv h w and all ILP mnlmfs will be auctioned fl o aware of sth, and its possible results: People a m +=U~UBACK-UP ~ ~ B A C K S TUe H n week. m ,back off (from sttdrom ddng h l , ,beck off ,back sth up 1 ( m m ~ ~ t I n g ) t o m a k e a w ~ o f a gmdunlly aluakening lo their rights. o The p u b sth (especially Am9 to decide not to continue to @v+adv+n 4 r+nlpmn+adv lit has h awakened 60 the full horror of the file, a program, etc. that can be wed if the ori- do sth orsupport an idea, in orderloavoid a dm- ginal one IS lost or damaged: W back up all the e situnlion. cult or unpleasant situation: The government +See U b AWAKE TO 8TH fiIeseuerynight. fl1e2 toaddsthextratosth, b n c M ofT in the face of strong opposition. o He especial& as a support: The lecturps will beavall yoursmtf of h W m l )to make use of &v+prep 4 v+nlpmn+prep refused to Lmk o f f r o m his wrlrer sfniemmt.o 8th. to take advantage of sth, usually to improve backed up by pmcttml work. o They backed up The &Is hwkd fl their demand for meeting their dmnaRdswith threats. your situation: Guests are mmurqged to auail wrth thePmidenl. &v+nlpmn+adv + r+adv+n seealso eAcK new ( O N ~ R O WSTH) w back-upn I[Ulsupport or help that you can Qv+adv + v + p p URP in arder to do sth: milihrv back-YDo Th# ....... ,back ontosth W a bullding backs onto h if) haw n huge-h&-up learn. 2 [ciasecond piece of sth, It has 5th tehind It: The Rote1 backs onto the equipment. set of plank percan, stc. that can goIf mum. replace another if necessary:He sourk k - u p if 6V+P~~P anotherplayer h t availubk. o the hk-up pian ,beck out; ,back out of slh; ,back out of 9 [C] (computing)a copy of a ffle, program,etc. doing sth to decide n t to do sth that you had o for use in case the origtnal is lost or damaged: agreed orpmmised to do:E w W i n g s a r m W . Haw you kepi a h c k - u pof thisple?oa buck-up Its too [rife to buck out mu o Theresstill time O disk back out of selurye the h o w . +s@e &h BACKUP B ~ B A C K T H UP m
    • baa MI (-I balem i - bang tbml banked on getiing a cup qf &ke at the a i m but ee i g uxls closed, o H was hw~king vw n e on ,bag sth up to put sth,usually large amounh of ,bale out: ,bale out of ath m~) = BAIL ow, ,bang around(also,brig nbeut esmially BrB she tmin k i n g on time. o She might already haw stb, intoabagorbags: Thewegetabbamhggd HAIL OUT OF STH I to move around noisily: We couM hear t h m cieawd up butlwouldnt bank OR It. up on thefarm andthen sentoutto theshop. ,bale out; , M e a2h out(&m =BAIL OUT,MIL h i n g n h u t upstairs,nuruiagihings. count on sblsth,eount on ddng M, Bag sth canalsobe used withthismeaning. Q v+adv+n a v+nlpmn+adv ,, , o v ~ evtadu ,bang away 4 . ( h f m m O to hit sth 1pwatedly count on sbl* dolng ath: reckon on sUsth, reckon on dolng sth,mckon on sblstk dolng ,bale at, .bale sbhth out of sth wlth lots of force or energy: She p k k d UP uh pe ath bail ( R ~ E )BAIL = SBISTI~OUT, BAIL SBISTH OUT OF STH hammer and hgan brvlglng away with mthusG v + prep * v +prep+ dpmn +to inf,bail aut:,ball *odd sth 1 (BTE a h .bale balk ma^^ asm. 2 if sth such as your heart bangs away, It ,bank up; ,bank sth up IBrE) tu form into a out, ,hkwt of nth) to jump outof a plane that makes very loud regular sounds: My hwn wap large pile; to make sth form a large pile: The is going to crash, using a parachute (= a large balk at sth; balk at ddng sth (-flu hngingaway unhea2th;Ip srrowI&ndbnnkduponeithero~of therwd. PleCe of cloth that owns out like an umbrella =enurn T S T H , M u L K AT DOING STH A Qv+adv Qv+adv a v+nlpmn+adv t v+adu+n and makes people fill slowly and safely): The ,bang away at sth IAm&,i?@~rmuOo work t crew jmt M time lo h i 1 orat 2 0 to stop very hard at sth: She ban& m y all drry a her t - dorngsthor takmgpart insthbecause it i s d f i - ,balls slh upWEE to spoil sth;to do 6th very A) assrgnment+ cult or unpleasant: Theactor who luas supmsed ,srw, bash away (at sth)(BE? ,bargaln ath away (mre) give away 8th valu- to badly able or Important in exchange for sth less valu- h bepbying !hewnboiM out. + see o h BACK A more polite. informal way of saying this &v+adv+prep able or imprrhant: The lerrders Med lo bnrgnin OUT,BACK OUT OF STH, BACK OUT OF DOING STFF 1s foul Bth up or bungle 8 h t ,bang sth down to put 5th down quickly and ev+adu v+adv+pmp away thefeedom of iheirpwpk. @v+nlpmn+adw v+adv+n with a lot of force so that it makes a loud noise: +v+adv+n + v+pmn+adv + v + n + a d v ( h,hi!Out ,ball sth Out(BrEah,bakout, ,bah b balls-up n (A, skng, espechlly i9rEj m e - He banged hisfist down on t e labk o He hnged h t i g that has been done very badly: I ma& a fwwnt) 8th out) to throw water out of a bcat with a con- hn thephone down (= ended the telephone conversa- tainer orwith yourhands: Thebwfwillsinkunless real boils-upof myexam. tlon) beforeImuId&xpInln. bargaln forlon sth; bargaln Form dolng A more polite, informal way of saying thls @v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n 5th; bargain forlon sbleth dolng sth to we h i 1 out. o Thgr siartedbaillng the boat out. 1s foul-up. expect or be prepared to do sth; to e m sth to bo=t,watW ,bang Into sbtsth tocrash intom hit sbtsthvio- &v+adv r v + n l p m + B d Y +v+dr+n happen or sb to do sth: We hadnt b u r g a f d f o r lenm usualIy by mistake: He ran around thecor- such bad weathe%o 1 hadnt bago tned on taking,bailsb out (fnw) ta pay sbs hi (= the money bandm u d l f ner and banged &to an old lady who luas mmhg the kids with us. o Ididnt $argainJor Jake being that sb accused uf a crime has to pay if they do ,bandtogethertoformagroupandacttogether the other way. at the wrtlr o When he tried to awue mIth Kate, not appear a t their hial) for them, that they so m order to achieve sth, etc: We tu band e v + m hego&ok than re h a d b ~ ~ d n e d f o rWhal o . can be set flwunt~l their trial together toJight thezer%forms. ,bang on a b w t sblsth (BrE, Ilgforrrml)to talk I hadnt bargained for was that veryfew pmpk +v+nlm+adv. v+adv+n v+adv or write a lot or tn a boring way abut 6th:Put is would speak English.,ballsbnth u :o t,ballsblsth omof 4th ( B E aEwy$ bmging on abut mlftlcs. She k e o ew BE) reekon on sblath, mken onddng ~th. a h .bale sbisth out, ,bale ablstk wt of sth) bandage /kndrd3/ hngingon aboul how t u o d r f u l herson a reckon on sblsth dolng 5th (informnh to rescue sWsth f¶vm dimculties, ,bandage sbMh up to map a bandape (= a IEE) goon (aboutsblskh) EiElThese phrasal verbs are u9uaUy used in especially financial difficulties: Thegovernment long narrow strip of material) around a p ? of i (g v+adv+prep negative sentences. hm ref& to $ail thecompany outagain. &v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n + the body that is @ u r d : Joe brrndngcd me up ,bang out sth; ,bang When?out (irV3rmuD e V+PMP until the W r mme. o I didnt see the burns 1 to play music very loudly: He h n g e d out the v+nlpron+athr+prep becawe herfingers wereall badaged up. tuneon thepiano. 2 to write sth very qu~ckly and barge/ h d 3 : ~ m ~ h - r & / C. ballowl n (ospciully AmE, fi~inanoe)an act of wlthout taking much care: She was banging out ,barge in (on Wsth), ,barge Into sth (InJ%r- EEJ wound. sbC l a nm k wn , glv~ng financlal help to a cornpan): economy, etc. Bandage sblsth up is often USA the in four mvek a w IE9 b S h d h Out (BrFJ; mno 1 tomteraplaceorjoinagmupofpeople 6 to save it from falliwg~varnmentIbank hiloukP pacsive. Bandage sWsth is also used wlth this chum sth out o a hiloulpnckage quickly and rudely, without being ask& Sony meanlng. A noun must always m o w out. but a prp t o M h , h t ... oShebrrrgedinonowmting Qv+nlpmn*adv v+adv+n noun comesbetween the verb and oat. wtlhoul knocking. o He just (his way) inlobalancepbselansl + v + a d v + n .v+pmn+adv the m m .2 to interrupt what sb is doing or say-balance A against B to compare the value or b a n d ~ l b n d i l ( . k . b d .bmdying, t#ndl.d, ,bang sbtsth up ( A d , iqfommfl to damage or ing,especially when you have not &n Inv~ted to importance of one plan, mrnent. etc aminst bandfed) I ~ J W sblsth, especially by hitting sth else: I joln in: As soon as I pn& for breath. &Id another: You m w ilh& the high &laa ,bandy sth aboul (also ,b.ndy .th amund banged up m knee when Ifell flthe bike. y barged in, 0 Youmn" j u t coma h r g i n g into o w aguinrt thelong tuorkinghlrrs. &v+sdv+n + v+nlpmn+adv wnuersnthnl eslwcialiyBE)ifa word,anme+ i bandied etc. s E B net sth amlnst sth about,it is mentioned or talked about by many beiget ,banged up (BrE,i n f o m O t o b locked Qv+adv + v+prep 6 v+ nlpmn + prep people, often in a careless way: The sturles being up or put in prison:He wasbawtdup in a S i W,balance out; ,balance sth outrupif th- bnndied about ore cvmplereIy fa&, o Hes nut pow jail for six months. barkw k m b a x k l that are very different or have opposite effects md onythrng like the £#ama lueekfism being i 4$~ belget + v+ Etdv ,bark s h outto ahout ath loudly: Shebwkdout t balance out or you balance them oat, they bandiedaround i n s W h m Z o h 8 r ~ ~ become equal in amount or value: you eat a m story, flgurer, wwdltann Ell ordsn, lnstntalons rap sth wl uoriefyof fd, protein and mrbohydmu will W Randy sth aboatlaround I usually usad s bank on 8- bank on ddng ath: bank W Rark sth can also be used with the same M o m out o w r a week. o We need to inu& t h m m the passive. meaning, He h r k e d o r d m at T f m on sblsth doing sth to rely on sWsth: to be moregirk m bnlance up the numbers (= so that &v+adv*n v+nlpmn+adv confident that sth will happen: 1m habankimp on g v + a d v + n * v+nlpmn+adv * v+adv+ap#zh there are equal n u m b r s of boys and girls). your help o Im hnking on you to helo me. o Id &r+adv * v+adv+n v+nlpron+adv
    • .. ................ . ................................. barrlcade -................................................................................................ ,,,.........., 10 -. ..... .........,....... * * barrleade/,mkerd{ ,bash 8th out (BE, wimal)to write 8th vwy ,W o u t ( l ~ r m a L sth esmiulty Brmto say or be down to sb to be the rmponsibilim of a to k bad,&= yourself& ,; I be*,-de qulckl% without taking much Eare: I dont do sing sth very loudly or in a harsh voice: 5 % besbsfault:Its&wn toyou@he@lhrmrmra t giw you an order She bawls it out. o The Qv+adv+pr%p sth youmetftsb Inl~ntoflnslde to put up a IJustbhthmout. M chiidmn h w k d o u t tht?songSn be d m to sfh to only a little money left line of objects at the entrance to a moo or build- in& so that nobody can get in or out, usually to ~ + ~ ~ , " ~ Y ~ m n + +v+adu+n 4 v+pron+adv + v+n+adv(mrP) b Imdownlomy l a s t & I h protect or defend yourself or sb else: T k p o l h , b s h sb UP (&rE, W r m b to attack sb vio- v + a d v + m Qv+adu*prep mild when he barricaded hi-rf in. 1"tIly ibetgo down wfth 8 h to have or catch an ill- t They b~rrbxded h e m i w h i d e their house. o t Famllm had to be bebarticaded insidea resta~rigap UP Bashsbupisusedlezs often than t esynw h * be/bl: m f m b k l (Warn, ~ m gwar {waa, , woa;AmEwaz, whe,wsm Iwa(r), #:(r)/, M n ness:Glllsdown withflu +v +a& + prep w h i k s t & @ n t s p r u wlslde. ~ nym beat sb up /bin,bmo be In 1 to be in fashion: mlsklrts m in #his e &W room, hwrse @ v+n/prOn+adv v + a b + n season. 2 to be elected t apolitical position: The o @ v+nlprnn+adv v+nlpm+prap -aRer -on bmocmtsam infir another iernt. bat Ml Mt.1 -at 12 - o n a m . . - / p l w p on a! *v+sdv baselbersl "away Base 8 h on sth ( a h at,,,~ t formno touse orhavem id- an-fieme. upon & mwp etc. ,bat sth arouml (inform0 to taLk a h t or &- cugsvlansor ideas,etc.beforeycu decide what to do: Wereim b a t l i ~ S m hiksomW e -. -- - em br bhind beh~ndm -onto -out -outfor be In for sth (Irsfomdj to be going lo experi- ence 8th soon,espeAally sthunpleasant Shes in forn shock. o It lwks hke were infiro srorm. as the point h m which 5th can de dml&: @Id I d ~ s . f i g u m 8 -down -outof -war ev+adv+pmp -down m Themuelisbnsedonatrwstorjr o&kbming &v+rlrpmn+adv 4 ~ + & + n befget In on sth (ilafwmafi tohave a sharein or the pmsecutmn cuse on the ev- h the design based w o of two .wit. rhs batten1 - -down W 4go d m with - -psd -thmugh knowledge of sth; to be or become involved In n- e. 0w hnr ~ r n ~ ~ r t h tustd upon i m r & imrm- ,batten sth downt fasten 9th firmly firmly &re #ton.o Sues kno.wl&e of Japan was bns@d only o odr -in -in- -/get in on - UP up wrist -up Mfore sth:Amyou3non~he?oIdlikelohinon hdeal. to prevent damage by starms or winds: Thqr -(well) In wltt~ -up for Q v+adv+prev on whutshehndmadin books. m m e lo batten &urn the shutters and doors a gd be (well) In with sb to be (very)menuwith bselslon, theoty, deslgn, qlnlon, stc -Into -uplo E 5 l l Base sth onRlpon 5th is often used i the n Wore the hurrimne hit -off 13 -upon sb and likely to get an advantage fromthe£riend- @v+adv+n r v+n/pron+adr ship passive v + Wpmn + prep . b a t t e n d m fhehatchw topreparefordif- +v+a&+prep ficult times ahead: Businesses are b m m-l n ~ .- -- b~ sth to try to gat or obtain sth:Saueml be Into s h to haw a taste for w an Interest in t down the h t c h e s and preparing pr a dimuz p o p k i n t h e o ~ a r e ~ t M w m j o shes b. sth: Are you inlo jazz rnwic?oH baen inlo esbash ~ J E umr J--.. bmngbuniw. IwrclnrImwhats&s& tmfnsssfnceMwtwasmIlBoy. , h s h sbtsth about ( B E , Worm0 to hit or QV+P~P eV + P ~ P strike sblsth and treat themlit in a rough m y : b m e r r ~ r ) ~ - . b at ab (, I- eswespecInIIy W.Ej = srr/ool he Off 1 to leave; to go, - M y i a hurry: I n Themuggerhadkshedherabout ,batter nth down to hit 8th EepeatedFy until it KEEP ON AT 68 must be ofl 2 to have gone bad and not be fit to (4 v + nlpion+ adv breaks and falls down: Theonly rurry &get in unrs be at sill to be busy doing sth:He3 kern at his eat or drtnk: This milk is on.bash a k y <at+th) (BrE)ta work very hml at ro hl&r thedoordotom essaynllnight. oIilbeal fialldny lomorroul +v*abu sth fora periodof tlme:IbaPhsdawyatihe&- @Jdoor= keakh clcmn:&.(hh +V+PW be off 8th 1 to have no interest i sth: to have n icie w~thouta r e a k h m I 1 until 6 b . +v+nlpmn+adv 4 v+adv+n be at It to behave badly; to argue or Wt: stopped liking sth. She cant b w I Skes &n 1. Ov+a& TIw kids om ai It again. ofl herfood all A. Thats i Im f l men for o t,bash 8th d o r m ( i ~ l , ~ ~ b ar~ ~ kt( s m t a & ~ r @ w ~ ~ l ~ u b . ~ k ) ~ l o be away to not be at Dome, especially when YOU lve. 2 to have finished speak- on the tele destroy sth and make it fall bv hittlnn it vi*-- Ib~:kl are on holidayMW.atlm or on a buslness trip: phone:Isnt heofl the phoneyet? ~ e n d~ h ~ ~ h ~ ~ ~ h a d l o b a s h ~ h e d ~ atd am; .baulk at d o [ sth to ~: baulk r o w ~ Well bt o m y for the month of A w w t . oHe5 b v + prep mdoorm *h break (mmfirmao, unwilling to do sth or to get involwd In rth away on brrsilmessat the moment. be ,off for sth(#rformoOm have a particular knock 5th d o w n ( m o ~ o m ~ +v+nlpmn+adv 4 v+edv+n because it is dlfflcult, dangerous,expensive,etc: *v+a& amount of sth: How am w fl for rm n (= how Hehulkedat theidea of Mlinghispurents where ke before ~b= B E UP BEFORE SB much havewegot)?,bash 8th in (infinraal, espedully Brm to bmak hemgoing. +v+adv+pr%p or destroy sthbyhlttingltviolently: Thwhdom be behlndsb to give sb your support Don War- EZZl Idm,mpame be on 1(of an went, a show,a perPormanoe,etC.1 had k e n W e d in. EQ wlndow, haad. skull. m -e E) E smash sth in - @ V+PW ,b * get that WW behfndpuall the w V*PBP w behlndvrfth sthtobelatedoingath,suEhaa to be happening: to take place: Is ##party on? 2 (of a performer)t o be on the stage;t per- o bawlb y paying abW, yourrent,etc:W * behindwiththe e form: Whos on m? Wereonafter the support o Bash 8th in is often used In the p a s s i ~ band, 3 (of f d ) to be cooking:Am the p o t o m +u+nlprcm+adv *v+arhr+n ,bawl sb out M m l ) to s w k angrlIy to sb I mortgage repayments. o Im Mind with my cob bemuse they have done 5th wrong: hfy baaa Icge usrgmenrs. m? 03Il .bash sbk k&bralm In (Womanto hit sb very hard: Shut w o r r l l baFhyour bminsin! hwledrrPe outfir hInsIrrk, +v + adv + prep cAv+adv & yours (spoken, ~lrformal) d when you u I S 3 tell sb afl (for 6tMfor ddng sth) hdownif a computer system ts down, it La not, b s h " (with nth) (ME. a Wrml) continue to workhe hard at sth: Leis bash on. oId k M r 6+ , . n,pmn + a* , , + adv + ,, working temporarily:SureIy y o w c O m P W isnt are accepting a bet or a c h a w bash on w ~ l h work. my ,-iwbwt am of speaking angrily to sb because they haw (wrmat) down again? be onsb if sth such as drinks,fwd, ti-, etc. are on sb,they are paid for by that m n : The E B eat on Iwlth sth) Imowfirmarj done sth wrong Qv+adv drinksumon mtonigh1.nkht. Qv+a& be down on sb t treat sb severely or UnealrlY: o @ v+PreP HesbeenreaUy&wnonmMl~
    • be on sth 1 to be taking medicine, a drug, etc: be outof sth tohaveuwdupa pupply ofsthand be up ta sth (Iru3rmal)1 to be busy doing sth, S h e s k n on ihepillSorlenyears. o rntonstrong havenothing left Wemoutof swar mpe~iallysth bad: Whol ?laveyw been W ,beal sb baaktomakesbmwebackwardsaww 2 to ~ ~ i n k i l k m be talking to sb on thetelephone: @ v +a& u prep labehy?~ ThekldFmqufet- IrPn sum theyrew from sth: She rws beaten tuck bythePames.0 shes ken on thephonefor ~~ to be eating be wer sb to have returned to your usual state ro M gmd (= they are doing 8th bad). 2 to be as T W t r M lo beat theenemyf o m back. or drinking &: Im on I thW ~ I W Y of happiness after the end of a relatfonshfp:It g o d aspeopleexpxt: Wasywr ntaol up tostand- Beat sb back isusuallyusedin the pass&. th FPmorniag wns hardat~rst, Im o m him nour but ard? +v+nIpron+adv * v+a&+n . Av+n-lr P.YC &~*adv*WP muvkatb up? (spoken i n f w m 1 used to ask ,beat down(on/upon sbl*) heat: the sun beat8 V ev+wp I if what am you an? ( s - , I@oml) used when you are wry surprised at sbs behaviour be and are suggestingthat they are acting in a siml- * " to your state of health after an illness:Hes o m theflu ~ sb if there is sumethingwrong: You h k terrible! Whats up? 0 Imuldnt rcndersland what was up down, it shines with great down all ufternmn mn r The sun bw# a clear sky. 2 if rain nom beats down, it falls with great form: The rnln lar way to sb using drugs mfth George. 2 used as a greeting to mean how was lanling down on #hem. Q v + m are you?, what have you been doing?, etc ba on about st h (bg-orrnal,m p ~ i aly@ tol ev+adv talkaboutsth,oPteninaboringway; torneangth: be wstt(wmo~toshowthatymthink be upon sb (formnilto be going to happen verg , b a t sb~sth d m to persuade nb to reducethe Hes a l w y s on aboul how rnllcn money he eorns. sb is so old that they can no longer do anything soon T~etecrwn Isalmasr umn ILT. price of 5th: to get sb to accept a lower prim for Or interesting *ldren &Whedat The 0 WhQtareyou on about?(=I dont r e d y h h anrIaid he w a s m it 4 v + prep sth: Chrk triadlo h i them down lo a io~erp*. stand). rn knock sblsth down ev+adv+prep +v+prep+~t @ v + n / p m + a& a v + a h +n ( J 7 a h h m ) bIgheep rb at 1l (mmal, be *mugh (b ab) to be ronnected to sb on the e s p m BrE)b try to persuade sb to do sth $y ~ [ to "Iephone Y w h t h m ~ h m m Yourr ,beat 9th down 1to hit 8th hard. &n many *Othemnagwmm ,bear ~QWI s b t h ( a h ,bear Idarm upon on times, untll ~tfalls down: Tlae pol& had 0 M t talking about it verg often and in an anno- sblsth moreformnl) 1 (=phi@ BrE) to move the door doun, o h p l e am h n d l y beat- the way: Iue k e n on at my husband to go so the doc- towards sblsth in a determined or threatening 106 but he mnt. be through (with sblnth) (especlnlly AmE) to dam down mgether hat b w k (= they are not way: A m u x l cfjournalisAF born do~un the on rushhg to buy it). EEl dear b w k 5th BE) n q sb havef~nishedusingor doings* tohavehished minis~oA hwrimner is bmrfng down on d m ; batter 8th dmrm 2 to make 8th flatter or Q v+adv+pmp v+pp a relationship wrth sb: Arent you FAmugh w? c e w l Am&. 2 (eswtirrlly AmEE if a prob- Youve h n lower by hitting it hard, usually with sth flat: Ibe sonto *b 1to becomeawm thittsb 0 He p r a m h i Re was through lem o r a d i t l c u l t situation bears down on you, ~ w d spade to t a t d o w n themuduntil it u w a hw has done sth wrong or illegal slid be trying to with dmgs. o Keith andIare through. it makes you fwlvery worrid and has a severe ev+adv and hard. o 5%0 rwmen tried to beot down the catch them: Thepaliceamn!onto wpt. 2 to talk mecton you:Thedraught i s h r r w d o m n wry j E Q m on his back. E J flames Z to sb about sth, especiallyto coinplainsbout sth or ask them to do sth: r e k n onto the muncil u hE UP up 1 to be awake: b m W e a m all night. 2 (of the wlnd, the sea, &c.) to hard on farmers. 3 (espciaJly AmEl to press + v+nlpron+adv + v+adv+n or push on sblsth: Cligumtiue)The g o m m e n t ,bed sbtsth off 1to drive sblsthback or abut Ihe no&. increase in strmgth or bpcome violent: I n the has announced It will bear down on (= deal by lighting: They b w t off an attack & hhrebe! e V+PWP morning the wind uxrrp up and we m t twdyfor a strictlywith) irlflntion. army. o ~ e % i e d lo beat the thugs o with a fbe amto to find or sththat cwld dOYk sof1irag. 3 ((spoken. iwiirnm0 (of a drink a @v+adv+prep stick. E E l attack,attnckar 2 to defeat s h t h in meal, etc.) to be ready: W 3 up!Come andgel It. hirvevery gd results you or sb else: She could be onto sonrsthing (= she might hw dis- *seeab To bear onmpon sb/sth u r t )to be connected o md a comwtetltlon. Themmpany has beaten W V o n withsblsth: to hovean effect onsWpth:Thisdaci- strong competitionfmrn abmnd. E d chl!enga, E coverd sth that wf pmve important). fl @u+adv sion bmrs d i m l y on our evemiby [iues. mpetltlon $v+PW hup against a b t h toke fadng problems or E9 dfed stusth & v + a d v + n + v+nlprwrtadv nod,tohave sbtopped work asapmtestand ba difficulties: W e k up agailrsi tough mmptifion. EEl7lThis verb 1 rnaLnly used s In written Eng- beat on sb MrnE. idormal) to hit o t klck sb O rhmprayers Mu& lh@Yuh?re raarV up .. on strfke: Themstal workersorsstlllovt. 2 to be " 11Sfi. repeatedly nolonger in prison: IveheardSmilA3out aminsf it I= i a dimcult situation). o Do YOU n e V+@P see O h W A T SB UP:BRAT UP ON SB if a jury (= a group of m p l e who decide the results of a competition orwhether or not sb 1s * mlirewhtWuh~pagai~fl v*&*PBp guilty of a crime) is out, they m stiu trying to be UP bfore sb at.^ be* *)to -r ,bear s b t h out ( e s m h t i y Brm to show that ev+prev sth is true or that what sb says Is W e : to support ,beat 8th out 1 to pmduce a r m m b~ M W sbtsth:Iolwaysslrldshed doruell. John will bear 6th such as a drum repeatedly Ei rhythm 2 to Z ! make a decision 4 to no longer be in fashion: in court or before ajuof*: Hesup mom t h j d ~ @ me out on this. o John will bevlr out w h t l s 0 ~ putoutaflwbyhitting it withsthsuchasablan- ~ Black ls out thisyea,: o F b l i r e w s s m r o & out ~ r r o ~ Thisih~isrwtbormout@thf~~. ket, a jacket, a brush, etc. He used kisjnclfet 50 of fashion these dqvs (= no one is gwlite any 4 v + a d v + ~ m v+PreP ~ +v+n/prcn+adv 4 v+adv+n baat out thefInmes. IiBJ flames, flm 3 to make a more). 5 if an action,for example, b out, i t isnot be up for ath 1 to be mnsidered for sth, espe ,bear up ( u w r sth) to remain cheerful and in p~we metal flat by hitting it with a hamme of possible or Is not allowed: Shll w g @ t g d k m cially as a candidate for ajob, In an eIection. etc: conml in a diffcult situation: How is Your etc: PUmgotd mn be &ten out foform V q Illin one evening m mek?Mondays out -Iue god a t Shes upforpromotion, o &formal)Thmtrm 50 motkr?"Shes W r i n g up very mu l How are l eLo sheds. E E goldnmn,dent Fretrch class. tickets w f o r gmbs I= mailable for people who you?"Oh bearing up g v + a c i v + n v+pmn+adv v+n+adv(less Qv+& askquicklyt 2 tobeforsb to buy2seeyourhouw +v+adu J%wuenA the Jury b (still) out on s k used when you ( is up fir sale. o A Picmso is upfor a u c t f o ~ 3 are say~ngthat is stihot certain: T ejury is sth h b a r U r n 8b/& = eEAR ONh7PON SB/STH ,boat sb ~t(Forath)(AmlT)mdefsatsbinamm- (i*msal) to t ready to take part In an activity: w stillouton whether w i n e m hgoodfiryou bear with 8b tobeptient withsb: ifwulljurrl petition: Thgy &at w n h other wmganiesfor L The newjob wrll beachallmge,but Im upfor it.beloutfwsth;ba hittodosthtobetrying 4v+&*Prep bee* wrth mefor a moment, Ill hy to find 0 &. the contract. Shes ~tndsr btofstmin. Just beor wlth her a @v+nfpmn+adw v+adv+n very hard to do sth or to get sth: Hes outfor b Up ta 4b 1 to be sbs responsibility or duty: r e m e . 0 Everyomsjusl oul for lohat they can Bearwlth sb i usually used in the p-nt s beat sb to sth; ,beat sb YO H to achieve 13thor Its up lo you lo makesun thehoztse Lr kept tidy- 2 tense or to ask sb to be patient. g l thesedays (= they aretrying to get things for e tobe lefttosbtadecide: Shalt wgaou6? Itsup reach a place before sb eW.Beckham h every- ea l themselves).o The & m a team wnnt lo win toyou. e v+PWP o m eke to the ball. o Book iww W r s o w oe thisreom, bu#Smzilawout t stop them. n ev+adv+pmp else beabsyou bo it! +v+a*+prep v+adv+tolnf +v*nfp~pn+pwp
    • beat up................... .....................h ..XI . ..... ............................ m...... 14 .. ..I...*...-.........X....IX ...I.................. .. _ - ."*"""" .......................... . ...... .............................. ...........-..................................... .... " 15 " bHe off, k M Sb uptohit orkick sb regeatedly: H e r b b h g bone $ p e r k ED spclu, clar*, group, en ! l bindpmmd/ W n d . b ~ m bamd/E d bandlrsedtoWhm~.oThegangtmn#round,beg off; ,beg b f f oft ,beg off dolng sth to eatngory 3 to be part of 6th or connected w t a ih becsting up old India. ,blnd sb over ( a ) warn sb that they wllF l wto ask tobeexcusedhm sth;to say that you cannot part~cular time or place: These things beIong lo hare to appear in court if they break the l w a bWh sb up (informal. h m t ) the pusL o Wrztm like him belong t a different o do 6th that you are expected or have p r o m i d to again:He was b o u n d o u m t o l r e t p t h e ~ . + ~ ? Q ~ D B E AU P O N S B T do: S e was asked & work the weekend shift bud h @nercafmn EEi thm w, generation B i n d s b m i s u s d l y used inthepawive. &v+nlpron+adv v+adv+n b ,beat-up ( m m h l l y A m ( B E m l l y she tried to beg OAF o He kgg@doff ~Lstiing his Q v + m &v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n ,baterr-up) udj [usually before noun] (infor- grulndparents. blnd sb to sth v o r m n to form sb to do sth by EfBpull oltt, alout d atk,pull out M ddng l belt ~ b e ~ t t making them pmmlw to do it or making it part ma0 old or damaged: Hedrives a h t - u pold mix -L, h a t yourseH up (informan to blame ywrself ,belt sth d m ( A M , t@rmoO to drink ath of a legal document: Th@mmpany directom we a for 9th; to criticize yourseIf: w dont sllGceed quickly: Hebelreddown hisher Z knoek sth back 9 hound to wcmq (=they have promised not ta say anything) about thefrr#ureoJ the wmplny. o thefirsf t i m , weshouldnt beat ourselves urn but Qv+adv+n + v*nlpron+adv The bandfound they tuew bound fo the mnbuct. try ugain. .e)v+pm*aW ,bell out ztb; ,belt FMhem out (lrbformaoif Bind sb to 8th is usually used in the pa%,beat up on sb W,i w 3 1 7 ~to ) ~ attack sb belfeve In s M t h 1 to feel SUE that sbtsth you belt out a song or a piece o music, you sing f SlIC physically or with words: O m m it3 mot OKto f u exists: Do you klieve in ghoslppo I believe in or play it very loudly: Nobody mn belt alrl a hne Qv+nlpr~l+w~ b w t u p o n ~ v r w i f eo H e w a s d o f denling . God.o 1dont belieue in aliens. + see a h nlsee- likesiwmn, o A mdio h i t d o u t p o p music. ,bind 8th Up (with sth) ta tie a long thin piece of upon the Presidernt in thepress. LIEVR It4 SdSTH 2 to have confidence in sW&, to mA noun must always follow out, but a pro- fabric mund 9th to protect it: S ~ bound up his E + Seealso BEAT ON SB feel surethattheylitwilIbesucceWlorachiwe noun comes betwm the verb and out. wounds with bar&$es. @v+adV+prep sth: Mypamnrsalmuys k l i e v in me. o I h w 60 +v+adv+n r v+pmn+edv Q v + d v + n + v+nlpm+adv believe i a p d u c t W o r e I m n sell rt. n ,belt upIBrE. WrmaO 1(spkm)used to tell sb Im bound up In st41 to b very busy with 8th;beaver / t r / % m ) OV+PP not very politely to be qulet: &*U up, will you? to be very intm-sted or involved in sth: Hebtm belleveIn sth:belhva In dolng sth tofeel S ~ Uup ( r n f o m l ) 2 to fasten the belt that I hound up in hls work to haw much time for hls,beaver away (st ah](BrE, lrlformal)to work thatsthisright or valuable; toapproveof sth:Do you wear in a cr to keepyou in yourseat ~fthere a childrw~. bound up wlth 8th c l w l y connected very hard at sth: She*$ been h v e r l n g atmy at you beltem In w i t u l punishment? o She M Y is an accident (a seat belt) buckle up with sth: The history of She mmmw is ~ I Y her homeuwrkforhours. believe in running rrsks. o Ivealways b e l W in @ v+adv bound up with the histary o the CranlfarniIy. f @v+adv giuingpmple a s m n d cham^become~brkhml ( b n wmeml Q V+PWP bend (m, t n b mm b i bmrtl (MI l b r t l . b w lbml) becoma) belleve ~ t of sb to accept that sb is capableof h ,bend downto lean down: He &nt dorota ond bAeat sthtotrytobitesth:The&gbEIatthe a particular action, etc., especially a bad or kissed heron thechmk. boyshand.becomeof sbhthO t o happen to sWsth: immoral,one: Taking drugs! 1cant belime f h t 6 v+adv QV+PP I w n d e r w h ~ bmm o the m p l e wfto lived t f oSLucy! o If I hudnt seen him &M it. I would ~dwroWhtwLfl$ecwne~us~ ~ Imuer have b e I i e d t b o him. o She is &*r- my ,bend - , ,bend aver sth to lean mrw: to ,blte back (aswab) to m t when sb hasc f bend h m the waist: Bend ouer nnol lolxh w r harmed you and ay to harm or crlticiza them: job? mined io believe she worst of me (= think I am youcrtficizehim, hell b i t e k k =Becomeof sblsthisalwayswdhaqws- foes, o He was bendingouer his desk, mtinstins capable of doing, and l i l y to do, 6th wry bad). @ v + a d v * v+prep EZL) hll back (atsWsch) tlon w t what ih @ v+ nlpmn prep @ v+adv + m b e n d owr a - bc (to do rth) to do (4 v + P ~ P everything you can or make a great effort to do ,blte sth back to stop yo& belong~ I T R UA&-19-1 ; from saying 5th sth, especially to help sb: We kd o w M k - or Ram showing how you feel: She stmggqIeri to belong to sb (MI rrsed In t h e m l w m) wards to kfairla all the chiIdm. b!te back the Iwrsof dhppohtrrrenr. o M ~ k e bit,bed "down ( . ) 1 to lie down to ga to sleep &E f ta be theprolwrtyof sb;to be owned by sb: The back his onget o The word idiot*came into her somewhere you do not normally sleep: Young hourre belong& to my wustn. o That land belongs bet w lM. or h m u e n t bsb y, hmd, butshe bit it back. people h k k d down in ahrwnys. IEB doaa iothegollduh o W h o a b w t h e m n k b ~ & ? 2f i tmg, b s t l ~ , betted). E U w o w , anger, retort IlE) l u p p l a u nth d m (BrE, lessformal)2 ( a h ,bad In) if sth/sb a llme or an event belongs to a team, a group of Bite sth back is not used i the passive. n new beds down, itthey W m e settld and start bet on s t k b t on sbdolng sthtorelyon~th people, etc. they w the mast succemfhl,popular e or on sb doing sth and expect It to happen: Do @ v+adv+n + v + p m + a d v + v+n+adv(mrP) to work well: Itll take a whilefor the new sysbrn or ~mportant: Britain drd well in the athletics you ihirrk shell corn. wouldnt M on it (= I ,bite into sth 1 tocutorprrss lntothesurfaceof I ro bed &wn. o The tam players have M i ei wmpatition, but #heoby klongwI to N ~ m o y dont t h ~ n k is very Hkely). oDonr bet on me it st h: Themllm bli inro his neck. E cut Into atb Q down well a the Mrn n Thesecand havd thettuentiethcentuury hlonged 2 to have an unpleasant effect on sth,especNly still being hem wheny#u get h c k ! @v+adv to the young. 3 if a job, a du& etc, belongs to BE)cwnt om sblsth,~ounton ddngath,count by making itsmaller. Therecessronis bitinginlo you, it is your responsibility. Thejob o d k r p f ourprofits. on sbleth dolw s*lbeef J~HI linirsg ta chzld belongs lo thepar@nb.o The credit Q v + prep for our smxss hlongs io #hestaf (= they made QV + P ~ ~ P,W up nth; ,wM e m up ~*donnal) to ,bHe sth off to cut 8th ofP by biting it: She bftofl make sth bigger, stronger, more interesting,etc: us s u c c e M , for example by working hard). n n h e of chomlale. o Hisfinger had h e n bitten - Securib has hen Wd up. o Tha mmww hns e +Y+WP ............ ............ been Wfngto ktf up its imp, belong to ath 1 to be a member of sth, f r o @ V + a* n + v +WPM + a* A noun must always follow up, but a p m example, a dub, an organhation or a f m l :I aiy lar way;to advert& ssblsth as 8th: ~ome$a#im& + nrerecefvlng w h n l h n s k n billedrnarauolution- mf*nmsbb headoffotf(frlfom0 shoutto noun wrnes between the verb and up. dont b b to any polrtiml p~rly. ew ooPortUgaI fi-b or speak W them angrily,often for no goDd @v+sdu+n + v+pron+adv olreody belongs to the European Union.EXi nty treatment. o The rnrn bilw ;Q hrinkl AT I M ~ ~ , , - , reason: 1only asked him when the work muid be t b w f w b p ndj [only before n o w improved; (trade) union, club, (polltleal) party 2 to be part finished and he almost bit my head ofl blte o f f made bigger, stronger, more Interesting, etc: of a particular group or system: R a t t h m k e s more Man you can chew (informal) to t r y to do security beefededup belongtotheuipwjiamily. o TThesethmturtlesall
    • bkek ................................ I . ...............-.... X . - ................-...... .I....................A... 16 . I .I ....................................... _ -..+ .......- .... L I7 ....X...........................................~.....n................................-.............- .-. . blow away ....................... too much ar 6th that ia too 6t - for you: I"hk blare p l e a ( r h ~ blerl~ ~n ~eo~le,thgrbecomesimilar tothepeoplearound ,blockfihouttosbop~tornoiisehmooming dImehe3bi~n~momlhan~mndtaudtauI,~ in; to cwer or hide sth: The blocked out Ublam O M Out if music bm rmt. them:H should try 0 blend h wfth the W a e LF h- bmen myhidher tongue offjout much of thesunlight. o m u r u t i w ) Im W tu 0 a radio, etc. blares out music, it is produwd blr nore. medto say that youwrsh you said 8th that the tnIfFc n0i.w now Ijwt block it out I= I dont you have just said: Sam looked hurt and Mark or played wry loudly: M s c tuas blaring our ui + S e e a h BLEND INTO STH; MERGE IN (WITH STH), Irom somwm, The radio wlrs bhriw out MERGE INTO STH hear it). cuuldhaw bitknherherngw on: + BXi MgM, run, .ound rock music. +./+a& S B blast wt. Mmf sth w t ( k m w n t ) E @ v + a d v + n . v+pmn+adv + v + n + a d v ( h black ~blekekl ,bland s h In 1(in owkIngEto add motha sub t v+adv r v+adv+n + v+nlpmn*adv stance to ath and mix them together: Heat the PrePW),black out to lose consciousness or bse your burtergently and lhrm &nd I a h t S l @ ~ u r X ,block s h t h out;,block sb/sth u of sth n B ) F ot memory for a short time: Thepain hit hlmand he blast r n ~ m t m b l r e s t ~ mix sth In 2 to make a suhtance mix with to avo~d remembering swath or thinking abut bkksdout. another so that ynu cannot see where one ends sblsth, especially sth unpleasant: He rried lo ev+adv ,blast a w y (~ s W a h ) if a punor sb using a gun blmk the ~ncident o his mind. owl f blasts away, the gun fires Ioudly and continu- and the other starts: BIend theqeshadow in with k blackoutn a temporary bss of oonsciousnegs yourfingem. o He ble& m she c h a m 1 lines to ,sv*1 blot sblath out,btal sWsth owl o ath; f or of memory: When d d you stud hauinr r E m ously: The machirwgw b h t d w y all night. make thepicture look softer shut 8th out, shut sth out of stb: lupplaSS sth bhckouts? ev+adv Qv+nlpron+adv + v+adv+n +v+adv+nev+pmn+adve v+n*e&(less +S W Q h BLACKOUT at BLACK STH OUT ,blast s M h away ( e s m kki ssb or l s m to ) f u n) w e t v + n/pmn + a h + prep ,black ath out to turn out ltghts mmpleteb or remove sth or break it apart vlolentl~for example w ~ t h gun, explosives, etc: They h u e a , b l d Into8th tolookorsoundsoaimilar tosth ,blocksthuptofillsthsuchasahoklem@etely cover windows. etc. so that light cannot be seen that it ISdIfEcult for anyone to see w hear It sep so that nothrng can get through I All the win- t from outside: b h h d out windowslhouses o The blast& a w the s of this h u t i f u i MI.& to a make o twd o flgurotiw) This t h r y h u ken ~ arately. T e animalsmn become a[mosl ~nviriibk dows hnd k e n bhked up h city rws often b h k d o u t (= there were no lights by hlend~ng into ihe longgrms o Thenew devel- EEI wlndow, door, hole,Rlsplaw because there was no electricity)by power cua bIns&daway by thenemevidenm. Qv+nlpron+adv 4 v+adv+n ,sv*, blow sbMh away opment should bknd inlo itssurrwndin~s. E J window, city EZJ background, surroundlnp b ,blacked upadj completely full;not clear:Ive Hack sth out isoftenused in the psssive. e v + a d v + n + v+nlpmn+a&(m) +saaabo HI.END IN;MERCE I N (WITH STH).MERGE got a blockwl-up nor;e. Q v + a d v + n . v + w n + a d v + v+n+adv(rnre) ,blast "ff when a spacecraft blasts ofF,It leaves INTO STM b blackout f (mp3ully Brm (in the past) a the ground and goes up into spa=: The m e %t +v+prep periodof timeduringa warwhsntheslrwsmd bius.Moff at 7.2Bp.m buildin@ w r kept as dark as possible so that ee m Hft off ,blotsbrsth out; ,blot s h t h out of 8th to the enemy could not see whatto bomb 2 [usually *v+adv avoid remembering sWsth or thinking about pl.] (BrE)acoveringfor windows that stopslight t bl8~t*Wnl[rlthe moment when a spaceffaft ,bRmp autrup(AmE, iMormaO to becomefat: to sblsth, espe~iallysth unpleasant: He wanted 0 leaves the ground: BIaslafl uttU bP in SO semnrls. galn weight blot out the memog~ from outside corning In,Orthat stops bright light +v+adv IEImmorles, thught. bidaWsth out, being seen h m outside: blackout material 3 ,blast out: ,blast sth out iF music blasts out (also outageAm& a m o d of time when the block sblsth out o# stll; shut sth nut, s h d sth or aradio,etc. blasts outmusic, It bpruducador electricity supply to a place stops completely played very loudly: A B w t h sang wus blastzng blinkjbhkl out o 5th f lEti3 This is now t e most common meaning of h ev*n/pmn+adv + v+adv+n r out a t f i f l ualume, o The m$iu was b h t i n g out ,blink sth a W y to clear 8th BPm the eyes by v+nlprm+adv+m blackout. 4 a situation when the government or h q mkmusic. blinking .(= closing and opening ywr eyes thp w11ce prevent a radio or television pro- ,sr*, blare out, M m .fhout ,blot sth out to stop light or noise in; to quickly): H blinkedawy a tear e gramme h m being broadcast, or do not allow +v+adv + v+adv+n v+nlpmn+adv mteam c w e r or hide slh: Dnrk c l o d s wexe blotting out some news or information to be given tothe pub- +v+adv+n * v+dpmn+adv She sun. lic: The government have heen a s c u d of main- EB3 l l g M sun,ttwr,round Mock s?h wt ,blink sth bsektotrytowntrolyourteam!~nd Qv+adv+n * v+rtlpmn+adu toinfnga news bfackoutowrelmionfraud" myseff b l l n k ~ n g ~ c k ~ ~ h h ~ +~eeafso L A C K O U T ~ ~ R BLACK OUT ,blazeawayl (atsWrth)ifgunsorpeopleblaze away, the guns fire mtinuously: Thenunsk e ~ i E l only tmarIs) blank ~l$lsegkl biazing away at the enemy. 2 If a fire blazes 9v+adv+n + v+nlpmn+adv away, it burns brightly,blank out A m , &form0 If you or your mind ( blanks oat, you m t remember mythinn or B a Blaze is usedwith the 8ame meanhgs. E & v + a& ,block slNsth In to stop a vehicle from being -* -wt you become confused:I h o p l & n l blank out in ,blare up if a gre bl- the eram. am,it suddenly starts burning more strongly: @ u i His anger g md drlven away by parking too close to it: Youre 18 -down in, into -off -0Wr "UP - blodrlngthathfini in, o ~ h i y h a d p w k e in d UElH Blank has the same m - e. blared up u n m m i k h l j t frontof me,b h k I n g m I n ~Iwasblackdinbj, @ u+adv - rfrv+arl" ,blow alrey; ,blow Hh away to be mwed or ", two Io,-r&ssoIhadtoleavethewrund~Ik.,blank 9th o d $ to delibxately sth Q) v+nIpmn+adv + v+adv+n(& fwwnt) carried away by the form of the wind or by sbs unpleasant Your chlkfhmd mqv how ken diffi- blendhlendl . . ,block nth off1t o ~ l o s e a m a d o r a n o t h e r p ~ ~bmth;tomweinthis way:~twmso w i n d y ~ h e m cuU but you mn?just blank it out. 2 to cwer sth written or printed, for example, with black ink Ibled In (* if *) rwmetHlng in by placing a barrier acmes it to stop s t & . h gohg in or cornme out: The mi B bIocXBd mdreel a f t IE m d J bkw OW? 0Aslldden b m blew h ~ s W P Q ~ W 0 s e blew away #heduston the lid. . h news- so that it -not be m d : All ihe names in the remn had been blanked ouf. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .- ~ - . ~ ~ w ~ ~ blend i n m l y with thewpet. o Tha n e w o m leaks.-kh street, mad, areal, antrank EE) ,blow sb away 1 [lqfwnurb imp- to sb a lot * v+pmn * w*n+adv(rrve) close sth off ( o 8thlsb) 2 (especmlly AmG) to t to surprise or please sb: I s c u o h w ~ o m m o n b h k m t b k d in )-,&[ with i&&&it&m[sur. mundings. 2 (wtth sb) if sb blends i with other n reserve a period of time for a particular activity: B d w a y last ymr and it just blew me awa~a T h u W y aflernoomare blocked offprsporbs. @v+n/pron+& + v+adv+n
    • boll down ............................ ~ .....,........,. 2 IAmE, idormat, s p a m to defeat ab easily: ,blow out;,Mow ath out1 Wafhmebbws H B l b h q t n a b i ~ c m ,blunder into nth 1to w l into 6Weth because ~ - ak Mitchell blew m a y theother r u m . o a t or sWsth blows it out, it is put out by the atlcm blows up i your face. it goes ~ w byd y n you areawkward or unable to s She blundmpd : +v*nlpmn+& + v+adv+n wind or mme air: Them WQS a s&n gusr of wrong and causesyou harm or embarrassment intoa tree. 2 teaceidentally And yourself ina dii-,Wow sbisth away to kill sb or remove or des- mind and the m n l bleur out. o She twk a deep md e b blow-up n I {especinllyAmE) an explosion 2 ficult or dangerous place or situation: She blun- troy sth with explosivesor with a gun: He threat- breathand bk-wout ail thecundk 2 if a window ylmm an n i o n when sb becomesvery angry: d e r d intoa dangernusownof theclrjrafterlosing e n d to blow us a m % o They blew hk k m p g blow8 out,or an explosion,etc, blow it out, the an argument:The lensionsbeluxen themended u1 her way. 0 He had innocently blundered into a nwuy(= by shootlngthem). force makes it fall out: All the windows blew out a blg blow-up, priwie dkpute. B blast nbiatk avray in the blast. o The expbsbn blew our the win- 4 Wt?dS0 BLOW-UPat BLOW STH UP *w+m + v+Wpmn+adv + v*arhr+n dows in the butldmg. e v + a d v + r+adv+n + v+nlpm+sdv #law sb/sth up to k sb or destroy sth with a id,brow dorm; ,blow 5th down It sth bbm bomb or an explosion: The h w k m thraalened down, or the w ~ n dblows It down, it falls to the ,blow S out WmE, i?g-1, b to wrt) defmt slb toblow theplnneup. oOAj&einIfalyruasMown ,blurt sth out to say sth suddenly and without ground m u s e of the force of the wink An OM easily: The home F m blew out the Suns by M m up hy a car bomb Iapf uwek thinkmgcmrulEy: %$been anmi&nt,she wk tree hnd bbwn down in the &rm o H m - points. Blow sblsth up is often usedinthe passive. blurted out o He found himself blurting oui the dredsof treeshavehnblowndown this iuintm @v+dpmn+adv v+adv+n Q v+nlpron+adv + v+adv+n whole story to her Qv+adv + v+nlpron+adv r v+adv+n b wawwt n W irlformal. sporl) an easy , ,blow ath up1tofillsthwlthairor gas: Y w W @v+adv+& v+adv+n + v+rrlpmn+adv,blow In; ,blow Into sth (lnformab) to arrive victory lo blow up the tyres on your bike. E Q balloon, Zl somewhere where you are not expPcted: Laok +seealsoE~owow~at OWT stow E B Inflate sth ( m m f o r m n ~ I& stk boardfbxd:AmEbad/ whosjusl bbwn in! o How you h r d whosjwt ,blow ath out 1 to breathe sth out fmn your down 2 to make 9th larger: What a lowly photo! ,board s h up to cwer awindow or a door wlth t blown into town? mouth. She inhakd and then bIau thesmoke out. Why dontyou have it blown up?@Eiphota Isrrr, + v+adv v+prep exhale 9th 2 to All sth, especially your cheeks,w ~ t h She blew out her cheek in ems- air enlarge ath (mrefmmf) to make sth seem more ~mportant, 3 betteror w r e than ~treally IS: os boards:Allthe windows had &en b m k d up. F 3 wlndmv, houw,shop B,blow off;,blow sth off;,Mowsth off sth Board sth up is often used inthe passive. 1 if sth blows ORor the wInd blow& off, it is it pamtwn. cheeka T e whole Marr has k n blomn un out o all h f @v+nlpron+adv + v+adv+n removed by the forceof the wtnd: M y hat bkwofl +v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n pmportiom. F B exaggerate sth (moreJorrnQi) oAgusl4fwrndblewherwofloTbrooJwas U !blow yourlshb bmlnnaul (ir&mmn to kill i E ~ v + n l p m n + a d v v+adv+n blown o r llae Greemhoz&. 2 if sth blows off in yourselBsb by shooting yomIfIthem in the b blow-up n a lacger picture made from a photo an explosion, or an explosion blow s t h off it 1s head or pictun: The blom-LID h o d a SCar on the ,bob up 1to come to the surface quickly: S h s violently remwed: Thedoor blewoff inlheaxplp ,blow Itself wtIf a storm blows itseaelf ant, it attacker 3 c h k . dive$ in and hbobbad up nfiw =rids LWr E t h ~ n sion. o Thee+plosiunblewthemf off ( t h e h o w ) . loses its force and stops: By morning the m m +seeaIso~ww-~~at~~ow UP middle of the pool. 2 to appear suddenly: She t blowup odj [only More m] that you can hbbed upfmm behind thefence.. pup up @v+adv + v+nlpron+adv v+adv+n + h i blown is v out. te v+ nlpmn+ prep + v+pron+adr fill w ~ t air or gas h +see also BLOW-UP atBLOW UP QV+& mblowlknack s M Dtl tO i m p m or ,blow over 1 if a storm blows wer, it bemrnea surprise sb very much: When Ifirst W the less strong and stops: W e s h e l W in a barn until s w it blew my sacks o n o , the sMra blew wet IEQ dle dmvn, subside 2 if ,bog d m( mA tobe unable to makepmgreas:,blow off 8th; ,blow It &(A&, i r & m d j to sth such as an argument blows wer,it becomes ,bluff sb wt.(oId-fmhioned,i&rmaL (?s@n[ly The bill hgged down a t kfngpaspedb Can- fw Y deckde no2 to do sth you should do or w r plan- ee less immrtant and is forgotten: Dun? m m back AmEj to lie and pretend In order to h i v e sb gress. ningto do: Jmh bkw off herclnssesonfiiduy to work until the argument has blown over EfQ +v+nlpfcm+sdv r v+adv+n (bv+adv afLermn togo shopping. subslde ,bluff I out{es@dlyBrEj to lie and deceive sb be~get t ,bogged down(In sth)1tobelget tuck EmX A noun m s follow off, but a pronoun ut +v+adr In order to get out of n dimcult situation, espe- in mud orwet gt~und: tobecome stuck in 8th and comes betweenthe verb and o ff. ,blow over ,blawrmth mmrifsWslh blows cially when they suspect yw are not being hon- unable to m a h progress: The m r got bog& @ v+adv+n v+pmn+adv over or the wind blows sbhth over,they fan to est: i he asks any dimult questions~ f youll have down m the mud. 2 to beunabletomake progress,blow 3b 0ff(.4naE, InirmaOto disappoint sb by the ground becauseof the force of the wind:Gne to b I m it out. o I know euerylhing so theres no in an activity: Ihniget m& down in details. o not meeting them as arranged., to end 8. wlation- of the irees had blown o w r in the stom. o The point lryrng bw itout. l Im rather we down (with work) at the gd shrp with sb: W uwre srrppwd to go out yes* e fence had been blown over in a storm. Qv+rt+sdv moment. day, but he blew meoff: Blow sblsth over is offen used in the p w ,bluff sb out of sth (oWfmhbmd, AnFF to + belget+ v + adv stand sb up slue: Pedesk~am were blown over in &e force deceive sb in order to get sth Porn them ,bog m(BrE. sZmg) used to tell sb rudely to go + v+nlpron+adv + v+adv+n winds today. F 0 , c h m t $h sth, of chwt sb out of sth away:Sog oflISn tryinglosleep!,blow out 1 if a lyre blows oat, it bursts sud- g v + a d v r v+nlpron+adv + v + dpmn * a&+ prep clear off ( W o r m 0 denly:One of &front t m bkmout. y hrrt ,blow up 1 to explode; to be dstroyad by an @v+adv 2 rf an oil or gas well blows out It suddenly explosion: The bomb blew up as q r f s tried t o sends out gas with great force defrrse it. 0 T e cur blew up when it hit the wL h l explode (more formal) 2 to staxt suddenly ,blunderarouml: ,blumleramund sth (ah +v+adu ,blunder aboutPmund, ,blunder abrmvmund , M I away if a liquid boUs away, it boils until F blowout n Ianoccasionwhenatyre bursta on and withfom:Aslosm blew upjusraftertheship there is nothing l& The w w in the s a m n u sth especially RrEj to move about a place in an a vehicle while it 3 being driven 2 an occasion s Ieftmrt. o R row has blown upowrtheleaklngaf awkward or uncertain way, knocking into had all bolledaway. when oll or gassuddenly escapeshm anoil weU ir$ormcrtioion t t h e p m . E dla d m 3 [a* sb) o Q )ar.) wapOrah(m~j-ormul) thmgs: He blunder& a b u t in the dark, &ling 3 (BrE, i!&rml) a large meal at which pmple eat too much 4 W+ inform0 a large party or (rnformaR to become very angry: MYmum blew u p a t m y c d a d f o r ~ p l n g m u p m h t eoHfsattG . fir the light swilch. o f blun&d wound the v+adv + soclal occasion tudeannoy&meand f bkw up. j b t , hying lo be quiet. ,bolt d h down 1 to make a liquid less In quan- +v*adv v+prep tity by lmlllng it IIB) r e d m nth (morefOmU0 -B see a h BLOWOUT e ~ o w OUT at SB ev+adv
    • boll down to -.........................................................*.....-.. ...*.r......-....- ......-.... 2( 2 (to 8th) tomake sthsmakr by semwingunim- ,bomb out ElnjBmE, qpdallykmh)loPailvery bottle ybntl: A ~ E W portant parts and leaving only the essential badly: Themovkbombed o u r n t t h e b x o ~ , ,bod sb o e ,boot sb out o sth (ir&rmaI, ,bottle out: , W e out of sth; , w e out f things: Boil the report down lo Ihe key wznts. Bomb is&ou&with thesamemeanlng. especwlly BrE) to force sb to leave a place. job, of dolng sth (BrE, iqfofmnr) to suddenly E l 0 wndvlnw 8th (moreformal) Q v+adv school,club, etc:Ill have to boosyou wtsoon -1 decide not to do sth -use you are too fight- &v+nlpron*a& 4 v+adv+n berg& ,bombmi out: e ,bombed o d mt want to lock up. o T ~mnnnger h i e d him oat of E en& I hoftled out o phoning him at the k t f,boil down to sth (not used in thepmgmmIw of sth ff a person is bombed out,their home 1s thetenrn, o He luns bootedout the h o w by his mrnute. ,sr*, cMekon out chlclren out ol sth.chlcken - f e r n )if a situation, an issue,etc. boll3 down to d~stroyedby bombs: if a building 1s bombed fn ther sth, it has that as itsmainpart: Itall h ~ f s d o w n out, It is destroyed by bombs: T h y got bombed ,srrrr kkksbout,ldEkYboutofrth~hfimml), outvfddnglth lo money rn the&. out. throw sb out,thmw sb out of sth Qv+adv v+adu+prep +v*a&+prep +belget+v+edv r be(get+v+adv+prep Boot sb out, boot sb oat of sth are often ,bottle sth up to keep your feelings, especialEV used In the passive. sadness or anger, hidden md not telE other,boll m r I If a liquid in AN, etc. W over, it boils and flows over the side of the pan: Dm? k t bane A ~ bwnl E m: +v+nlpmn+adv + v+sdv+n + pwple how you a feeling: Tell m m n e hour m the milk borl o m 2 Onto 8th)(inform0 if anger. ,bone up on 8 h ( W r m a l )to study 8th:to look v+ nfpmn + adv + pr%p yo~~re@ling, in.&&@ boltlingit all up. t an argument, etc. boils mr, it change and again at sth you a h a d y h w lrnurl bone upon ,boot up;,M up (mmputlng) if a m- @ emotions,feelings sth I becomes very violent and diicult to control: myFrench &foremgotoParis. puter boots up, or sb boots it up, it is turned on @v+nlpmn+attv v+adu+n The unrest could boil owr inlo civil wul: o She inlerrupied swiftly ,!&ire hts m p r muM boil v + adv + prep + and becomes ready to use: My machine tsnt boot- mgupupropriy. o When-youh# a m w wirl up, owragain. EE)explode appwr on t h e m o B w i the computer up and ,bottom out if markets,prices or ktd situetions k +v+adv , b k In(at.th),,bOOk In@ &th(BrE)toarrive enaryowpassword. computer bottom out, they reach their l m t mint and,boil up Lf anper, an argument,etc. boils up, It then stop getting worse: The m n hnsfinnlly starts to beoome stronger ormore violent at a hotel and arrange to have a mom: TRajr Qv+adv v + d p m n + & v + v+adv+n $oltomedout. +v+adv h k e d in (at the 5 Fmncis H o w wing a f a h 6 mme.o She M e d into a hotel in the c rw oj et border /lmda(r);AmEb3nl-/ +v+adv, h i l SWI up to heat a liquid or some fwd Boston until lt bails:Illboil the W k u pegainand well FEE) checkIn(atah);chkhtosth border on sth (alsoborder upon d h ( h f o r - bouncem-si Rrrveacupof tea. BE0 check out, cheek out of nth M I ) 1 to share a border with mother counh~ ,bounce sth around(frsrormat,e ~ 1 ~ s c l a l f y ~ ~ ~ or Boil sth can be usel with the same mean- region; to be next to a place: Many slates bo&- @v+adv v + w p to discuss 5th with other pmple: Were bouncing ing. ing on t h EEam mger Fa jora o Their garden samnew ikksarnwrd. @ v+Wpmn+adv * v+adv+n ,book sbllpourself In(atsth),,book sluyour- border$ on the Riwr S e w n . 2 to mme close t o self inte sth(BrE)toresemaroomatahotel, E E Ideas being 6th: Her selfar@dence bordm rm a r m etc for sb: Iue Booked rrs in at the Plaza. o The ~ v + n l p m n + a d u v+e&*n 4 gance. o Our task h r & n on She impossIbk E!D hote! I w m booked into was awfuI. o H booked es verge on ath ,bounce back(from mth) IAmEcrIsn ,wmp beek,bollix sth up(AmE,slang)tomnfuseorchange h a m ! f r m n rehub~litutionclinic. (lnb ath)] (Informal) to m v e r w l after you el sth:tospoilsth E i hotel E Q v + prep have been ilUs~ck had a dimcult time: No mat- or mess sth up (JtbfOmO, lwew sth up @ v + nfprm + adv v + ntpmn + prep ter whnt happens, she ahays b o u r n back wry (slang) ,book up (lw ath) ( w u to reserve a fBrE) quick1y. @v+nlpmn+& * v+adv+n place, fur example on a lrip or a course: I h k & d ,bore into sbleth (lltemv)if mmebodya eye8 I r )r e c o w (from sth)(morejbrmal) s. upfor the coursenwnths I h l l c e . n bore into sblsth,they stare i a way that makes n @v+advbolsterrbmtstalr):A ~ bwi.1 E W Bmk (for 5th) can be used with the same sb feel uncomfortable: His blue eyes seemed to ,bounce Wck: ,brim sth back if an e meaning. b m into fm mail boancea back,or the system bounces it,bolster s h t h up to support or encourage sb: to make sth better or stronger: He tried t bolster o +v+adv 0v + P ~ @ P back, it returns to the person who sent It up their momk o The high i i m ram helped be ,bookedup 1 if a plane, restaurant, theatre, ne f M u s e the sgetem wet deliver it to bokre* up them?wm$ etc. i s b o up, there are no seats, tablea etc. om Qv+& + v+adv+n v+nlpron+adv EEi confidence,morale available:Ail theflights are h k e d up Be ,boss sb arwnd ( a h ,bM. sb #but a w ,bounoe ab ide sth;,bounce $b Into Bolster sWsth is morefmquent. fully h k e d is often uwd with the same mean- ciolty BrE) (fnformnl) tell sb what to do i a to n dolng sth (especiallyBrE) to make or force sb Qv+nlpmn+a& v+adv+n ing. 2 (informal)if a person is booked up, they forceM or unpleasant way: Hes alwuys bossing to do sth quickly without g~ving them time to have no tlme available: He mn!see you tomor- hki wiJe m d m. think about it:IfeltId heenbounced inlomppon- row, hes booked up. Q v + nlpran+ adv ing apmposalldidnt really agree with.,bolt 8th down ( r r T to eat sth very Wrm ) +be+v+edv =This phrasal verb is of€cn used in the quickly:Ehadlohltdownmy br&fa$t. botchl%DtJ;AmEba.tf/ passwe. mo d fo ,botch d h up{ i r l f o m t )to spoil 6th by doing it @ v + nlpmn + prep E E E Bolt nth isalso used w t this meaning. ih ,boom out if a sound or sbs voiw booms mt,it badly; to do sth badly: I m W o f f i l n g my corn- ,bounce sth off 8b (iMrmol0 to tell sb eLse +v+n/pmn+adv b v*adv+n makes a loud, deep noise: Hls uolw boomed out, pure6 hes botched il up cunnplp&E~ your ideas to find out what they think about announcing the w i n m . E33 mess sth up them: We wmable to sharepmblems and bounce +v+adv Botch sth is usedmore frequently with the ideas o each other n same meaning:botched a m p & at DrY ESl Meas,bornb along (ir&rmal, espclally BrE) to move ,boom out to say 5th In a loud deep v o w @ v + dpmn + prep She bwmd out #n#Wfans through n bud +v+n/pron+adv v+sdv+n very fast,usually havehicle b b t c h p ( a h b k h ) n (Wrmnl,-I& +v+adu h a i k o A mice hmmd out: N o M y moue! &v+adv+n v+a&*spwch B a piece of work that is badly done r a
    • bow m 1 u branchfim:ntJ:AmEbmntJj ,breakdown1 if a vehicle, etc. breaka down, it t keakdUmI n = BRRAKDOWN at BREAK DOWN,bow d m 1-t( sWath) to move your ,branch Off 1 iS a road or path branches aff, it stops working because of a fault: The m h h g F ,brOkOH-down d j = BROKEN-DOWN at BREAK m h i n e h a broken down ogoin. o We (= our DOWN head or the top ~ rof tyour body forwards or leaves a larger one and goes in a different direc- car) bmkedown twimon the way home. 2 i talkn ,break In Ito enter a buluildtng illegally or by f downwards as a sign of respect: He 50 tion: ShefolIoruad thepath until it branched ofl o h w down the king. 2 (to ~Wsth) do what to Over Ihe bridge0 rwdhmrtdrosoff lo the right, 2 a marriage, etc break down,they fail: Negoii- force: Sm my broke h last night and sbk the o L d sb tells you to da without trying to resist: We if a person branches off, they leave a road or ations kt- the two sides haw broken down. o PC& video. o Thepr@tghlershad to b r e d in to @se W f usl bow down and IPI the gwernmpnt Thirnaorriage bmke down &er thmyetars. 3to I S W th??lZ. V C See a h BREAK 1lYTO STH 1 2 (on path and travel in a diflerent direction: Go past do whaleuer it wan& thefirm and branch off towwds the he, lose control of your feelings and start ctying:As sth) to interrupt sb when they are speaking or Qv+edv @v+& she drove a m Ijwl bmke down and wept. 4 if dolng 8th: H e r r ~ l o g i z d f obmkrng in on their r your health breaks down,it becomes wry bad: m n v m ~ t i o no Mary bmke in: Its not herfauIlI .,h Out,,bOw o d of 8 h to stop doing an ,branch out (Into sth) to begin to do a new job or t Herhealth bmkedown asaresuitof thestmin. 5 & 1v + m activity or a job that you have been doing suc- an activity that you do not usually do: Th@mm- (Into sth) to be divided into parts so that I t Is eas 2 v + a & r u+adv+speech msfull~ often for a long time: m thinyymrs r pmy u bmnchlng out inm Eumpe, o Shes I ~ P ier to discuss, to analyse or to deal ~ 8 t h My : b break-In n an entry into a building using in politics, hefteels it is time 60 bow out. o Smith ing thewmmny lo branch oat on her own. weekly budget breaks down as foSIow: 50% for force, usually illegally:Therehm been n serhof wili h w w t of p r o f ~ ~ ~ l ofwthlE ol the end of noI Qv+& mt, ~ 0 for Jwd, 10% for mvel, and 20% for % brwk-msm thearm. themson. ewrythtng e h . o Thejob bmksdown inlo m n * v+a&+pi-ep brazen / % I T ~ I ,break s b i s t h In to train a person so that they Qv+adv p a r k + see a h BREAK STH DOWN 3 6 (Into 8th) if get used toanewjoborsituation;totrainahorsebow to 8th to agree unwillingly to do sth w to ,brazen out s t h ; ,brazen It out to behave in a substance breaks down, it separates into dSf- so that you can ride it: We try to b m k newomen accept sth that sb else wants you to: The g o v m - a confident way as if you are not ashamed or ferent parts or changes into sth else in a chem- ingenlg o Thehorses hadnt been broken in. m n t euentually $ o w e d f o p u b i i c ~ u r e . embarrassed about 5th you have done, even ical prooess:Somepesticides breakdown W 1 in e1 Qv+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n ESl pressure,the Inevbble though you should be: The wnutor brazen& it urclkl:+ $ e e a h R R E A K STH DOWN 4 Isvlu, glve In ( osblsth) t Q v+adv ,break sth n 1 i you break I new shoes or F f n out as the listof smndaIsgm. boots, you wear them untll they becomecomfort- O V + P ~ W A noun must always follow out, but it G anoccasion when a vehicle h braakdorm n 1[ I or a machine stops working: W had a b m k - e able- I m k me w k s lo break in t h e new book. f comes between the verb and out. EGi boots,shoes EfX) weer ath In 2 (Am& (in &v+it+aUv r v+adv+n d ~ w n o n way home o o bmkdown !ruck2 [C] the a fallure of talks, a marriage, taw and order, the past) to prepare the engine of a new car for,bowlsb out(incricketlto makethepwscm who normal use by drivlng it slowly and carefully IShitt~ng theball (thebatmnan)have tolemethe break/brek/ mmke 1brauk;AmEb m k l etc: a bwkdown in communication o They were b t h responsiblefor the breakdown of their mar- car run 8th I (Rrm n field by throwing a ball that they cannot hit and brokenIbraukan: AmE bmukanl) Qv+adv+n + v*nlpmn+adv that hits the wlcket (= the threesticks behind the a riage. 3 [CJ period of mental illness when sb batsman); todismigsa whole team in this way becomes tired, depressed and unable to lead a ,break Into sth 1to enter a building, open a car, normal life: He had a nmorrs brtmkdomn lnsl etc dlegally andbyfom:Athi.$mnbreQkinloa &v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n ywr 4 [C, usually sing.]detailed informationor mr m under ten s w d . o Three houses in our,bowl sb over to surprise or impress sb a lot; to figures that are the results of dividing sth lnto street I n been broken inso thk week aw affect sb deeply: We were bowL&om @ the news. its parts to explain it more clearIy: Get me a housa, car Break into 6th can be used In o Phillp hwIed w a l l ouer by deciding logo inlo breakdowno how the hemoney was swnt. 5 [U] the f thepassivein t h i s m e a n i n g . + s e e o h ~ ~ N 1 ~ I~ n uduertking. act of dividing a substance into its pasts in a 2 to suddenly begin to do sth such as laugh, Bowl sb over is oRen usedIn the passive. ,break away 1 (from sth) if an object breaks chemical process cheer, run, etc: H broke into a run when.he saw e ev+nEpmn+adw v+adv+n away from sth that is holding it in place, it becomes sepamtedfrom it: The t w t hnd broken b ,broken-dm udj [usually before noun] 1 (of the police. o Her faw bruke into a huge smile, o a m y from i t s moorings. 2 (from sb) to escape a vehlcle or a machine) not working: a broken- The audimce bmke inlo appInmEZM suddenly fmm sb who is holdlng you or keeping down cur 2 in a poor condition: a broken-down smlletgrin, r u m , song, kughbr 3 (Brm to,box sb in to prevent sb from doing what they you prisoner Theprisoner brokenwayJhm the m ll use a banknote (= a piece of paper money) of want, e s p l a l l y by mating rules or other dim- guards. 3 (from sW8th) to leave a group or an ",break sth down 1 to make sth fall down or high value to buy sth costing Eess: IdMnt mntta cuEties: Tha~~was unable ta Qct kauiw organization, such as ap~litical party o r a state. open by hitting it hard: They had doget thepolfce break Into a twentpmund note. 4 to interrupt the DernOcn3fs wre Baxing him irk o She LunS because of a disagreement, usually in order to In breok the &or d o m door IE9 knock sbs thoughts: Her mothers voice broke inlo her boxed In by rulesand mgulntions. form a new one: Seueraf MPs broke away lofirm sth down2 todestroy orremovesth,especially a though&. E E i though& dlsturb sth 5 to Box sb i i often used in the passive. ns a new par& o Ruo stub broke away from the problem or an attitude or opinion that sb has: start toget involved in an activ~ty that it ~s dm- Q v + nlpmn + adv @!@roilon. (fmm tblsth) to move away from a 4 Our arm LS to b m k down barriers tRnl exisl cult to become involved ~nand to be successful at group of people or a crowd: She managed lo between teuchers and mrenls. E E bawlera 3 it: Thewmpony is hnuingdzpcuI@ bteaklnEinto,box sbtsth In to p m n t a p m n or a vehicle new mrkets. o She ts iryinl: lo break inlo jour- from moving by surrounding themlit with other b w k awayfrom thehepack (= in a race)and estab. (Into sth) to separate sth into smaller parts in lish a W. o H bmke oway from the group ond e order to analyse it or deal with it more easily: miism ! P markel 6 to open and use sth that E people or vehicles: You cant park kre-youre you have k e n saving for an emergency or a spp boxing tho! mr m! o He muIdnt o m the mme ouer t talk tow.5 (from 6bIsth) to reject a o Ive broken damn ihe costs by country. o T e w m - h tradition or the usual way of do~ngh i n g and do t m y u m bmken down Into smaller units. o Tlne n ci&l rxxas~on. had to h k Into my sauings t I o M e r k a u s e he wus in by the other run- Mrs. -Box BW& lu isoflen used in the passive. +v+nlpmn+adv v+adv+n sth new and different: The cumpuny is trying lo brmk rrwayfrom tfs t d i f i o n a l Image. &v+adv queslfonmn be broken &wn hfot m p r s s . 4 s a also BREAK DOWN 5 4 (Into sth) to make a sub- * pay for the rrtp. v*vrev stanw m t e into its parts or change in a ,break off; ,break 8th off r (&a ,break rth t b m a k a w odj [only Wore n o m j a break- chemical pmcess: Enzymes in the mouth and off sth) to separate sth from sth else, using,box s t h up to put sth in a box or boxes: She away group, political party or part of amuntry stomach h k the fawl down 4 See also BREAK force; to become separated f o sth in this way: rm boxed up a E the OMd b y c b # k io send & her d nm. is one that leaves a larger group: a breakaway nOWN 6 The kg of the Dbk just bmke o g o A m m r of f~ionlmouementImpuhIic @v+nlpron+adw + v+adv+n @v+nlpmn+a& + v+adv+n t breakaway n [sing.]an act of separatinghm a larger grouplstate, etc.
    • A w ~ t h W b m k m o f l o H e ~ o f f o p i s E B o f an imporlrrnl breakthrough In the n e g o t i o l ~ o rbMh up (Into nth) 2 I a group o f m l e m e - ,breathe8th Into sthtofillsthwith life,energy f et chmlrrre Imdgaue i me. 2 to stop speaking or t Jo was only 19 when he gof his breakthrou,qh as ing break up, or sb breaks them up,they go or enthusiasm: She has h t h e d J % s h SWe into stop doing sth suddenly before you have An- am away in different directions: The mtiw broke itit movie industry. ished: He broke off abruptly m the rnfddle of a , b m k thmugh; ,break thmugh sth 1 to up aper two hours. o Police broke up the ldenwn- m Hfe. sentence. o W had lo b m k fl our hol~day e and stmtion. o I dont mito b m k up theparty (= I Q v+nlpmn + p p make a way through a barrier using force: He relllrn home W i n t e l p o They broke ofl their m n towards the barrier i an attempt lo b m k n dont want to make everyone else leave), but I ,breathe out to send air out of your lungs mnversation as I approached. havelogo. through your nose or mouth:Emthe out slowly ++ v+adu v+adv+n + v+ntprosl+adu r through. o Demonstmlors h-id 0 break through the pol& cordon. DS3 bawler 2 (of the sun or +v+adv a v+pm+adv + v+n+adv(Iess throughyour mouth asyoustand up v + nlpron + prep moon) toappearfrombehind sth: Thesunfinully fwusn0 IS@ exhale (morefonnul) EB9 b d h e in 2 v+adw + v+adv+n+ v+pron+adv + b break-up n IC1 WI thedivisionsf a cornpan a 6 v+adv bmke through in the aftermoon. o It stopped rain- v+n*adv(mre) ingand thesun broke fhrou~h theclo&. country, an organization or a gmup of people ,breathe sth out to send air, smoke. etc. out ,break sth off end sth such as a relat1onshIp: to seea also^^^^^ T H R O U G H STH into smaller parts: the brmk-wof the Chmmon- through your nose w mouth: -he the OlroUt Theyve broken afl their engagement. o Britain +r+adv + v+prep - m b t h ofamily brmk-up slowly and sLeadiI3 #hrwten@dto break fl dipbmatic re[ntions, o ,break Through sth 1 to becomegmaterin size +S& a h BREAK-UP at BREAK UP (WITH SB), E E i alr, wmoke EEi exhale sth (morefirma0 They were Aouingan @air but she broke it a or quantity than a particular lwek Urnploy- BREAK SB UP ,opn breathe sth In E E dlplomatlc mlatlonk engagement, talM m t f i g u m s hove broken through the three mil- ,break up(lntosth), ,break sth up(1ntosth)if +v+adv+n + v+nipron+adv negotiations BE) terrnlnMe sth (formal) lion barner 2 to sucoeed in dealing with a sth breaks u p , or sWsth breaks It up, it +v+adv+n + v+pron+adv v+n+adv(mr@) problem such as an att~tude sb has and the that becomes separatd into smaller pieces: The ship ,break out 1 i f sth unpleasant such as a fire, a difficulties that it makes: I tried hard to bred bmke up on the he&. o Break the W l a t e u p war, etc breaks out, it starts suddenly: Thty through his silent m u d . o Womenare starling to r t m l l p-. no o Smtenm m n be broken u p ,bream In; ,breeze Into 8th ( i r t f m 0 to into c h rrser. arrive somewhere or enter a plaw ln a casual, w u k l haw got married in 1939 tf mar had not break through the berries that keep them out cheerful and confident way: She brwed in at btvken out. o Afire bmkaoul on aferryy&erdnp &v+edv v+nlp-m+adv + v+adv+n of lop m n u ~ . overcome sth (more E3 eleuen and greeled ewryone with a s m i k o He lausrl m r , flm, Rghtlmg, row vklence 2 ( a b f o m n ,break gfh upto make 8th that is rather W i g , breazcd into t h e o m andannoumd he w a s h w ,break outof sth) to escape f o a place or f o rm rm +S W a h BREAK THROUGH,BREAK THROUGH STH such as a period o f time ora pattern, more inter- ins. a situation: Two terrorists have broken out of ev+prsp estingby addingsthdifferenttoit: Ibreakupmy +v*adu r v+prep Blockwall Prison,o She longed lo break out o ,break up 1 (mpxially BrE) if a school or the f doy by going foro tvnk in the o f i r m n . a Draw the daily routine. 3 i sth breaks out on your f ings were used lo break up thepage. ,breeze Yhrough 8 h (imformor)to succeed in t chlldren in it break up, school closes for the doing sth very easily: She b m z d through the skin,your skin becomes covered insth: I holidays at theend of a pried of the school year EEi day, monotony kee~ brenkini: out (= T keep getting lots o f spots). +v+adv+n * v+pmn+adv + v+n+adv(Iess firssexam. (a term): We b m k upfir Christmas ?mi wmk. o O ~ + P ~ P o S m t brokeout aEIover h i s b d p Haw the schooLF b r o h up yet? 2 (of a relation- J?wueno v +adv2also v + adv + pmp ship, a band,etc) to come to an end;to stop work- break wlth sbisth (Tormanto end your connec- brew W I kout n an escape from prison h ing together: Their marriuge broke up aler ten tion or relationship with sbMh bemuse you no t adbreak n the start of sth or the sudden years. o There are mmurs that the band are longer agree with them: N k k broke with hb ,brew up;,brew 5th up(&X, Wonnu?) pre- to appeamnce of 5th unpleasant or violent: the out- breaking up.@ E inawlage 3 [usunil~ y inl father t set up h~sownfirm u pare a hot drink o f tea or coffee: Come hto the break o mr oan outbrwk o f ~ p o i s o n i n g o thepmgmsiw f e w s ) if the connection between f +v+pre~ kitchen while Ibrew up. o Ill bww up afreshpot ouibmksof min two telephones, or two radios that are used for break with I h (farno to rej& sth such as a o len when theyarrive. f, m a k d h nut to get sPh ready tobe used,eaten, sending and rweivlng messages, is breaking tradition or the past and deEide to do sth differ- I Jtea E drunk, etc: Thats ~ u news! Lets h k I u p , the people speaking can no longer hear each ent The prince broke with W i t i o n by gohg i o +v+adv + v+adv+n v+pmn+adv L v+n+adv out thechumpgne! other clearly: T h e s k ~was breaking up. o Im l study a b d o The new directors am eager lo Imj EEl champagne sorry - what did you my?Youre breaking up. breQk with thepasl. t - bp n (BrE,irui?mk)an act of making a e v + a d v * n + v+pmn+adv+ v + n + a d v ( m ) ev+adv @9 tradltlon,the past drink of tea;the drink that you make,break out inAnte sth to suadenly become ,break up(w3th 8b), ,break sb uptoendarela- &v+prep covered in sth such as sweat: He broke oul in a tionship with s b R o b and T bmkeup last week. o cold sweat a! the thorrgnl o the trial, o M y skin f Shes just broken up with her Wprend 4 rmnt breathelbri:bl ,brick sth IWup to AU i or block an opening n has broken out in an,itchy rash. klieue my bestfrknd is m l i y trying to b m k M ,breathe In to take air into yuur lungs through w~th bricks: Thefii-eph? hnd heen bricked in m sweat, rwh up! your nose or mouth: B M h e i through your n someyeass Wore. o SomeMy had bricked up all 6 v + adv* pmp ESl splIl up (withlfmmah), lplk sb up nose a you stretch up. p.o He b~tlnerdin deeply s the doors and windows.,break through (mmInlIy AmE) to achieve 6 v+adv + v+nlpmn+adva v+adv+n and then spoke. E l wlndow, fireplace, d m your first ~mportant success In sth; to make an bmakup n IC1nSIthe ending of a marriageor Inhale (moreformf) Z3 b r e a t h out E! =Brick sth Inlup is often used in the lrnportant or new discovery: G h n CIose broke a relationship: He moueriamy aper the bi-mk-up Q v+adv passive. through ma star with hi% tAttmcf&n, o Scien- o hrsmtsrriage. o orricrge break-up f F @v+adv+n v+nlpmn+adv ,breatheath 1 n take air,smoke,a smell,etc, in 1to tats belelraw they h u e broken through in thew + S W a h B R E A K - U P a t B R E A K UP,BRBAK SBhTH UP through your nose or mouth: We walked ahng brightenP b r W f~hta~tllstthe W , d the beach. brsathmg in thesea ail: =The phrase to make a breaMhmugh is ,break up;,break s h t h u p I (ltosth) i a f I G air, smoke EE) Inhale a t h ( m m f Q m ~ ,brighten up 1 if the weather brightens up, It E ! uspd more often than to break through: ScIt.n- gmup of people or a family breaks up, or sb breathe nth out becomes clearer and brighter: Afler a dull smn, trsls have mu& a major brwkthrough in their bre& it up, the members separate and donot +v+adv+n +v+dpmn+adv it shouw brghten up [n&r EE9 clear up 2 if a ~ghtagamslAID$. shy together: The m n f e m broke up into dis- @v+adv cussion groups. o She had never intended m b breakthmugh R an important disoovery or break up hk.fami[jt o The SLlviet Union k g a n lo development;sbs first important success in 5th: b m k up in 1W1. B spllt up (Into nth), spllt I
    • 1 brlng an ........................................ *.............................................................. person brightens u p , they become happier and ,bring sb back ( osth) 1to returnsb to a place: t d m to the gmund (land): Thepilot brought the EEI experts, police+ boopr2I thepolice bring f more cheerful:He brighlened up when t h q mid to take sb home: III bring you k k again after phne down Wet3 @ E lplane BE)land sth sb i they take them to a police station toques- n tiecouldgo with t k m . EH) cheer up the par& o She t M to bring him back (= to @r+n!pmn+a& + v+adv+n tlon them or arrest them: 7luo men have been *v+adv make him return) lo the m t t w in hand. o f i t - M n g ttm hmuse d m to make an audience brought infor questioning.ESZI suspect,brighten slt~ to make s i h more interesting, up t ~ ~ t h e d r l v wthemar inprison m n t bring my of laugh or clap i an enthusiastic way: Herper- n Q v+adv+n + v+nlpmn+adv excitlng or atkactiw: Ive brought someJloroers sister h c k (= return her to life after she has been formam browht the howdown. ,bring sblsth In 1 to take sWsth into a room, a IQhrkhlen theplace rtp a bit. o Brighten up your killed). 2 to put sb back in their old job or pas- ,bring sth d m onlupon sb(fom0 tomake h o w , an ofIloe, etc: &uldyou bring in another b w l m m ~uith f e w p m , a Ition: UnlW hnw brought back their old man- sth unpleasant happen to sb as a result of your chuir? o Bring him in! In informal lan- mplece.mommcheMrthup ager actions: He had brought nothrng brat trouble guage bring: sb in sth rtnrl, less often,bring sb v+nlpmn+adv + v+adu*n @v*nlpmn+adv v+adv+n down on thefami& sth in are also u d : Could you bring me in ,bring sth back 4 ( o sth) to return sth to the t Qvtrdpmntadvtprepr v+adv+n+prep another chair? o Could you bring us some t w in? brimm m )jmm-( place it came from: thedmdoesntflt,brhgit bring d m the eumln m sth;brlng the 2 to attract sblsth to a place or a business: The $ack t the shop and mI1c h a w itfir you. 2 to o curtain a m on 8th to finish or ma* the end of utsftorcentre rsbringing in moreandmorepeopk,brim mrw(wlm sh)(uually used jn t h e p r o m siue & if a cup or a cantainer lwhm over a ) make youremember sth or thinkabut it again: 5th Her decrsion to retrre bmught down the cur- Ei3 bUsheS8, c u s t o ~ r stourlam , with a liquid, It is so full that the liquid flows Talking a b u t his dwth brought it all back m iatn on agiirtering 3@ymrcaree,: -B t oh BRING SBISTII INTO STH over the edge: He film my RWso full it was me. o Thephotos brought L m k hnppy memories, ,bring sb forth (okfifashionerSnersforma[, t mw) o +v+adv+n + v+nlpron+adv brimming our! o Her eym were brimming owr rnemorfss3 tomakesth that existed orwas glve birth to sb: She bmughtforfh aasoa ,bring sth In 1toinhpduceanew1aw:AnauIow wrth team done before be used or done again: Am you m chlld was brough#intoimpmwrwdsaf@. o N e w m - ovemor*(wlthrth)~nson~K) fauour of bringing bnck the death penal@?= +v*adv+n r v+pmn+adv v+n+adv(less trob were brought m to limit spend& and bor- + v+adv reawe stk; relntrduw sth ( h f hmoreformat) 4 (for sb)to return with 5th for sb: What shall I J?@quent) mwfng. Ieglslatlon,F a w m Introducesth (moreformal) W Briog sth In is often u& in,brim over with mth (nol&ininIhemmfw ,bring sth forth 1 to produce sth;to bring back for the chrldrenpom Puri.? In make sth happen: Her m r k s brought forth a the passive in this meaning. 2 (law)to give a t a m ) i sb brims overwltbsth,they show a lot f informal language bring sb back sth and. less of a particular quality:Shes brimmingowr with harsh response. 2 (oldfmhrondl to take sth out decision ma court of law: T kjury brought m a often, bring sb sth back are also u A in this verdict of guil&. i E only verdict, declslon 3 to 3l mnyi&mond enthusiasm. meaning: I brotghl the kidr h c k some books. o of a container ev+adv+n + v+pn+adv v + n + a d v ( k mention or include sth: She brotdght In other evi- WnRbsnce, exelternmt Canyou brrngmesomerhmngback @ v+ adv + prep muent) dence tosupport her argumnl. @ v+adv+n r v+nlpmn+adv Qv+adu+n r v+nlpmn+adv brlng sbisth before sWsth(k~w)hpresent sb ,bring sth fornard 1 to mwe sth to an earlierbringh l (WM. bmum ~ b m ~ ) date or time: Well have t brlng the dale of the ,bring sbEsth Into sth 1 to take sWsth into a a forjudgment; topresent sthtosblsthfor discus Jinalgameforward. meetlng, date EE@ put place: Briw that c h ~ inlo thedining room. 2 to r sion or a decision. Children should not he mdude or mention sblsth in a discussion, con- brought t&re a court. o T e n w ~ v a s h brought 8th forward El9 put 8th back 2 to sug~est a subject, an idea, etc. for discuss~on: brought She versation, etc: Why do you alwajs have t brlng o kfom thejudge. fnnunrdproposals for a new school buiidmg. Pete into it (= mention Pete when we are discuss- E 9 I ~ e r e B h a u l . b f o m sbhth,hautIb b ing sth)?o Iknewgoud manage do bringf w t h l l up befom sblsth (iMornm0 propowl B T put ath forward 3 Ifinonce) to EI move a total from the lmttom o f one page or r ~ l . into theconwrsation!J to attractskdsth to aplace Rring sblsth before s&th k usually used or business: The advertising cammign should ln t he pasive umn of numbers to the top of the next p a g e m balance S 3 carry ath fornard E Bring bring morepeople inlo the bookshops. v + nlpron +prep +seeakoa~!wc SBISTH I N 6th forward is often used in the passibo in this ,bring sb d m ( - r0 to depress sb; to meanmg. 4 (technuxrl)to put a document in a file Q v+ nlpmn + prep make sb unhappy: Spending N w Yeor abne e until the particular date when you need to deal ,bring sth off(In@rmat) to manage to do sth dif- brought me righ t down. with it: a hring forwadfile (= one that contains ficult suocessfully:E w were chi? to V ~ O r q t ng pel sb down;dep- Q v+ nlpmn+ a& . (moreformal) b documents for a particular date) o Wirhthis sofl- but t k y muldnt quite brSng it o Thompsm, a ware,thesystem will remindyou when the bring tiwnew gwfkeeper;brought ofl a sup~bsrave.,bring rth abouttomakesth happen: Whathas ,bring sblsth d m 1 to take sblsth f o a rm forward date arrives. Bring sth forward pull sth of( brought about this d r a w 7 0 His nerwus bmzk- higher to a lower level: They brought all the i s only used in an office context with this mean- Q v+pmn+adv v+sdv+n. v+n+adv dorunwas brought &ut b y s h m . boxes downfrom theotlk 1to make sbEsth fall to ing, and i usually used in fron t of a noun, as rf it ,bring sb an (BrEI ( A M ,Mng str a7long) to s changa, tttu d c o l l a p m o rth f the ground: He was brought down in t h e m a t # is an adjective. help sb t d m l o p or improve when they are o m cause ath a m . o Their plane WQS bmught down by a u i p Qv+nlpron+adv+ v+adv+n Iearning to do sth: We naad lo bring on the young @ v+adv*n r u+nlpmn+adv knt storm. o WhensheBl1, shabroughthimdown ,bring In sth;,brlng sb In 8 h tomakeor earn t pbyem quick1p o Theres no time lo bring,Mng sb a h g m =BRING SB OM wrth her o He brought down the bird wrth asin& money for sb: How much is she bringing in evety emp- afonggmdually.,Mng s h t h alongto bring sb/sth somewhere shor. 3 to make a government, a leader, etc. lose nwnth?o Has job only brought him i a small n +v+adv+n + v+n/pron*adv with you: Cnnlbringmysisleralongm6he~? power or be defeated: The m d l brought theAn inmme. ,bring sth on to make sth unpleasant happen: o She bmughtsome CDsalong. gouernmenfdowm IEEJ government +v+a&+n + v+nlpron+adu*n The hw?Tattad was brought on by sbress. o Its Qv+ntpmn+adv v+adv+n @v+nlpmn+adv 4 v+actv+n 4 ,bring sb In 1 (on ath) to get sb involved in sth, not likeyou togetsomt.Whats bruught lhfson,bring sb around( m A =BRING SB ROUND ,bring9th down 1tomake sthsmallerinsizeor especially toadvise or help, etc: Crrn wedeall with (= has made you so upset)?,bring 9bl~th around(wmlbrhm) = 0RrNG amount: We are determined O h n g down iw- this wrrhout bringing thepolice in?ord like Fo EEi hmrt M a c k , d e p d o n W calwn stk SRIBTH ROUND % price war rs bringing the m t oJ tron. o 5 bring I n s m r Lacey in on this invstigotion. o (momformno flights down. EQi lntlatlon, prloea Ts?*) M r Fxperls werebrought in mndulse thegovernnmt. Qv*nlpron+adrr + v+adv+n,bring sth arounrl to 8th ( e l & A m = ath (nwreformal) 2 to make an amraft come RAINC STH ROUND TO STH
    • 3............... ~ brush pastbrfnssth on sbryourseW(ah brlrrg stit upon ,bdw sb b=BRING S 0 ROUND 1 ,bring sb/sth up to 9th to help sWsth to reach etc. because you do not w n to think about It or at sblpursfl morr form0 to be responsible for , b r i g A and B together 1to help two people an amptable level or standard: They have now you think it is not important: She qukkly sth unpTeasant that happens to ~Wyourself: or groups toend a quarre1:to mite two p p l e o r brought Ihefbothld ground up lo t h required brwhed the Idea otuo)t rsmr)dlmlss sth Youve bmught sham on the whok fmily!o groups: The crisis brought the family closer safety slandards. Qv+dpmn+adv + v+adv+n Dont Mame ma! Youve brought this on yourself together 2 to introduce two people who have + r + nlpron + adv + prep = ,brush by ~b/Sth BRUSH AGAINSThYIPAST l E shame, dlsgracm ! i never met; to help two p e ~ p l e come together ,bring sth upon sb&oumatf = BRING STH ON SB/STH @ v+ dpmn + prep socdly: I t was me who brought them logethez SBlYOURSELP ,brush sb&Ou*seR down (especinIfV BrE) to,bring sb out to helpsbtobe more confident and getAandBtagether clean sblyoumlf by brushing theirlyaur clothes less shy: H e ! r g w d a I b r @ q i n g w l m u s inm- +v+n/pmn+adv * v+adv+n bristlelbp~gi~ with your hand, especially after theylyou have urewees. o A year at mltege h m m l l y brought ,bring sb/sth together to collect a group of fallen: Sheslood up and hrushd herseIf dotun. IreroatQf~If bristle wlth sth to be covered in 5th: to haveor pcople or objects together in one place: This contain a large number or amount of sth:a mf 3 SWU~SO BRUSH GdYOURSLLF OFF Qv+adv+n + v+nlprcn+& erhihition brrngs logether many arlislsrw*. ev+nlpmn+adv bristling wrth TVaerials o Thest@ brisrb with,bring stb out 1 t u b ,king ath out d ath) to +vtnlpmn+&dvr v+adv+n emficpncv. ,brushsth d m ( ~ I a l 1 y B r E ) t o d e a n s t h b y take 8th wt of sth; to remove 8th f t sth: He ,bring sb up1tocareforachidunfflheor sheis mm W Bristlewith sth is mainly used in writing. brushing it thoroughly: B m h your cwt down to bmught amrdoutcf his wllal andgawil t u b grown up: She luas brought up by har aunt. o I @v+pmp getthemudoflo Thechildmnrueretaughthowto mtakesthaut,takerthdofsth2topm was bmughf up(= Igrewup)ona~3rm. chll- E33 brushdown theirponies. duce or publlsh sth: Theyre bringing out a new dren,famlly, daughter, E B mlse nb (Am@ broadenIIXCXW BE3 mat. aklrt,etc. sportscar thisyeuc o How many a l b u m hawthe IEiHBringupachilddoesnot mean thesameas -B . S E i ? ~ k 0BHllSH STH OFF 1 band brought out?^ Thepublishers are bringkg lonk after a child. 2 to teach your child a par- ,broaden out if a river, a road, etc. broadens e v + d p m n + a d v 4 v+adv+n out a new edition 4f Ihedicliona~y nexl spring. 3 t~cularway to behave. etc: They bmught Ihelr out, i t becomes wider to make a particular quality easier t o w , taste, Bmaden is also m?dwith the same mean- ,brush off; ,brush sth off if mud, dust etc. chrldren up very strictly. o We were brought up to brushes off, or you brush it OR, is remowd it or notice: Tfmtdress brrrylsoutbhemlourof your bP p01rte und do who# m wete told. o a well Ing, but less often. by brushing: B n t worry about the mud - itll ey~s. Z colwr, ~~r E B emphaslm 5th Ei brought up chlIdEEi children, hmlly, daugh- +v+adv brush off easily when its dry. o We were abk to ( m o r e f o m4 to make st h appear that is usu- ~ ter, son DTB raise ssb (Am@ 3 (law) tomake sb ,broaden "wt; ,broaden rth out ( e s m l l y brush thedirt off guile w i l y ally hidden: She always brings out t h worst In appearfor trial in a coutt of law RrKj if sth broadens out, or you broaden it meo T e situatfbn bmtrphl out the viciousness h out, it becomes more general or includes a Qv+adv v+nlpmn+adv * v+adv+n Bring sb up is often used in thepassive. in him the best7the -t +v+rilpmn+adv * v+a&+n larger number of pwple or thine: L6 3 b ? n - ,brush sb off ( m r mF to refuse to listen to 1 rr 0 Qv+rdpmn+adv + v+adv+n t upbrlnglng n [sing.] nTj the way in whfch a out Ihe dlscussIon to mlk about Bdmtmron as a sb: to ignore sb in a rude or unkind way: He tlrIed 1also v + nlpmn + adv + prep child is cared for and taught, especially by par- whole. lo mphm lo but she W h e d him ofl hpa-,bring sb out in 5th (BrE) to lnake sbs skin be ents, whilc he or she is growing up M e n is used more frequently with the + liently. E D rebuff sb (fotmat) sm a h BRUSH E same meaning. SBISTH 2 tO get rid of sb: She muklnl ASIDE 2 mered in sth such as sweat or spots: T b m a W ,bring sb/sth up (to sth) to mwe sblsth to a bring meout m a m h . higher place, especially up the stairs: &w&5.sl Qv+adv r v+adv+n * v+rdpmn+adu brush Rogeroff mar thern @v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n +v+nlpmn+adu+prep mas bmught up to our room o Callurn is down- browseI ~ W Z ! b brush+W n (ivormal)rude or unkind behav-,bring sbMh owr to take o r bring stdsth to a stnirs. ShulI I bring him up? o She bmught her iour that shows you do not wantto be friendly: to particular place. especially sbs home: Whmr h o d tap aorrdloppd him, o Ibmughr the cup up ,browse thmgh sth tolookulmughahk, a giuesb the bmh-off your skter gefs bnckfmm Nau Y * bring hero iomy l~p.eondmkas&of m . m magazine, etc. In a casual way, without reading ouertuseew. o Bringyourdmtroueraradsit with ,brush sb!yourself off to clean sWyoumelf by +v+nlpmn+adv 4 v+adv+n everything: She bruused through T e newspaper h brushing theirlyour clothes quickly with your lrsl ,brfr~g sth up 1 to move 8th h m a lower to a whileshe waited. hand e + po + ~ d r n v+adv+n & herhnd sopro- book,newspaw h ~ ~ hposition: She brought ~lp er e v+ prep +~ t e a BRUSH SB/YOURSELF DOWN h,bringsb round(Brm ( A M ,Mng sb aWnrl) iect her fare. 2 2 mention a subject and start to (gv+nlpmn+& v*a&+n 1 ( a h ,Mng nb to)to make sb conscious again: talkabout it: h w y t i m Ibrlng themalter up, he Shegently slapped hisfm brrng him mund.2 lo changes the subjecl. subject, matter E B ,brush8th Off 1 to clean sthquicklyby brushing it. Hepacked uphis hot o n d b m h e d i l oflqukkly- (to sth) to persuade sb to agree with you, or to do ralse sth (mo!vforml) 3 (to 9th) to lncrease a ,brush a1pinWbyrpaststusth to touch sbl what you want. lbmught him sound m my way of total, a price, a number, etc. t a higher level or o + see o h BRUSH STH DOWN 2 to refuse to listen sth lightly when you move dose to themlit: A cat to, discussorampt sth:Rokrtshwh@dcgT alle- thinkingin I h e d . FS3 wln ab mer(tosthth) amount This donntim brings the total up to brushed agarnst hffileg, o H bmhed @/past me e + v + nlpmn + adv S 0 W . o O m got another gorrl, bringing the and run out. gutions of corruption. o She brushed ofl ofem of help from herfriends. 4 see also BRUSH s a l s ~ ~,bring sbtsth m d (esprIn1lyBr.Q W m u - score up to M. S total E l raise ath (more (gv prep + ASIDE 2 ally ,Mng sW8th alpund) to bring sWsth to sbs forman 4 ta bring f d from the stomach back out though the mouth. The botrys just brought ,brush sblsth aV4ldd 9 to push sbEsth to one Qv+nlpmn+adv + u+a&+n home: Ill brzw the pnpem round to your hoaw side: She brusheda strandof ttairaride.2 to ref- ,brush d h ovt 1 to brush sth, especially hair, thiseueniw. up her h A $ a s t . t h w nth up (rmfomb), use to listen to sWsth or lreal themlit as unprt- + v+nlpmn*adv a v+adv+n vomjt sth (more formull 5 l o make sth appear on a computer screen: C e n you bring that.file up on ant: He brushed my proiwts wide c paid the m d thoroughly to remove knots or to make it straiphter:§he brushed out her h i < w h e d her,bring 5th round tm d h (Brh)( a h, n ath Mg xreen? bill. o Every time I by t explain,you b m h me o fare a d go#in@ W .E Q hair 2 ( a h,brush sth K around to sth A d , B ) to direct a canversa- E mi& l@ wavosth arkIdaway; dlsmlss a M t h E out o sth) to remove knots, etc. from your hair f +v*dpmn+adv + v+adv*n trun, a dlscusslon, etc. so that you are talking 4 S?t?afseBRUSH SB OFF 1; BRUSH STH OFF 2 by brushing: It l m k haha(f hour lo b& out all an about the subject you want to talk about: He ,bring sbup agalnl irthtomakesb Wz sh Iet +v+nlpmn+adw + v+adu+n th6anglesin hishuil: tangles, knots always brings the wnvermtion roundlofoofbalL orfacesthanddealwith !t: Thbwsebrhgsclsup ,brushsth awrty (fmm sth)l toremovesthhm Qv+adv+n + v+dpmn+adv EFl wnversmtion,dlseusslon against !heproblemo punishment inschools. f a surface with a brush, your hand. etc: She 2 also v + nlpmn+ adv + prep @ v * nlpmn+ a& + prep v + rdpmn+ adv4 prep brushed a stray hair awuy frwn her fm. ,brush past ~b/Sth BRUSH AGAINST/%Y~PAST = tears, IMIr, dust 2 to ignore an idea, a thought, SBlSTH
    • ................... ...brush up ....... ...,...-............................................................. .........." .. 30 .........1..1...I.- .............-.... ........1...1-.1.. ...... .............................................................. .............................. .......................................................................... 31 .... * bulld up,brush 8th up; .brush up on 5th (esmiazlv buckle. IWI . ,bugger oPf(BrE, A, shm)to go away: B-r ,build upto become greatet stronger or larger in BrE) to study orpractise sth in order to &t back o and h u e me alone. o Clives buggered off ID n number: Queues o t m are building up qfrm f m the skill or knowledge that you had in the past ,buckle down ( o rth) (Irllbrmnf) start work- t to Ihepub with Julie. the acctdent. o I mlrtd fed the angw butlding up but have not used for some tune: I& to brush ing or dolngsth in a serious or determined way: inside me. Clear o f is a more polIte informal way to f . up my computerski2.k. o You should brush up on He trwdto buckiebwn to some wrklstudy. EE) accumulateImorefimb say this, your French Woreyou go to h m . knuckle down (to nth) Q v+adv &v+adv t3Ei skllls, FrenchEngllsh,e k ETQ poIfsh 8th Q v+adv bul~dupn [sing.] an increase in the ,buggersth upW E ,A, slang)to spoil sth:todo up;raviawsth(eswciallvA~.revlmsUr(Br~,buckle up ( a m [ @ m 0 to fasten the belt A sth badly: Ih rwtgolng to li her bugger things e amount, strengthor n m k o P sth: a buikd-upof =Rrush 8th up cannot be used In the that you wear in a car, etc to keep you in your ctsrbon dlaxide in theatmsphere seat if there is an accident la seat beIt): Buckle upfor nae. passive W Mess sth up is a more polite informal way +seeuIsoBuILD.wPat nurm up (TO sm1,BurLD O v + a d v + n v+pmn+adr v+n+adv(& urn kids. YOURSELF U P (TO STH); BUILD-UP at BUILD SBISTH E B belt up tosay this. f ~ ~ m+ t+) + prep v adv Qv+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n UP Q v+adv ,butldup(aosth),,bulld yournelf up(wah)tobubblerbnbll bufld/bdd/(buItt, built fifltl) gradually p m p m yourself for sth such asa race buddytbndi! (huddles, Duddylng, buddled, or competition: Start gently and build up t the o,bubble over (wlth ath) ta be full of excitement, buddled) ,build ath amund 5th (mEalso ,build sth enthusiasm, ideas, etc: m y ~uewbubbling over mestrenuow exercises. o Build up slowly until r ,buddy up t w l t h sbtsth betget ,buddied mundsth)tocreatesth.basingitonaparticular youmn jogfor3Uminules. o Ruiklyourseif uglo with excitemmt th~ng,person, idea, etc: Thestory is built around Q v+adv up totwith sbtsth (AmE, in$urmal) tobecome theday of thepe@ormnce. friendly w~th or work closely with another sb the adventurn of IZknigh&. Q v + a d v r v+pron+adv,bubble under; ,bubble under sth if sth is Build 5th nroundlromd s t h is i s e n used bubbling under, ~tis already fairly sucmsful person: She buddied up to Loura. hoprng lo get to F bulld-up (to sth) n [C, usually sing.] the time 111 the passive. but i s not yet as sumssful as other things of the o kmiv her brothe~ l a s k d loget buddied u p with before an important event, when pwple are Qv+n/prwr+m gradually preparing for it: the build-up t the same k ~ n dalthough it IS likely to l so soon: , x an e x p r i e d d i u ~ u belget+v+adv+pp ,build 8th ln;,bulldsth into a h 1 tomkeath Olympics This is our k t of tracks bubbling under -songs +v*adv+pmp a fixed and permanent part of a system,a plan, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Z S O E I UBUILD UP;eurLn-UPat ILD-UPat ihal m y swn k i n the Topa. etc: .%f~gmr& againstfraud are buili into the @v+adv v+prep budgelbndgl BUILD SR~STH UP system.2 to make sth a fiwedand permanent Wrt ,build sb&oumeH up to make sb healthier or,bubble up 1 if a liquid babbles up from the ,budge up(BrE, ir&rmb to mow up: to make of sth larger: Theftash is built mto the mmem o ground, etc. it rises up in the form of bubbles or more mom for sb else:Budge up a bit! Id like to stronger: She gave m Iois of vlhmlnsand min- Thrsdlshwashercon k burlt in. erals to burM me up. making the sound of bubbles: Watm bubbled up Sitdown 100. Build sth in and build sth into stb are from the pool. o @gumtive) Clam wall bubble m m0Ve:up oft~n used In the passive. Ruild sb up cannot be used in the passive. @ v + nlpmn + adw up (= start to form) lu&r this aftarmn. 2 if +v+adv Qv+nlpmn+adv * v+adv+n r v+nlpmn+prep laughter or m emotion bubbles up, ft becomes r ,bulk-inE a b Jrrbutkt lesPJ%qmt) ed. [only ,buildsblsth uptos@ahutsblsthwith.tht stronger and starts to be heard or seen: I mutd budget rb~dgrtl before noun] forming a fixed part of a larger enthusiasm, often praising them more thanthey I the anger bubbllng up inside me. o Laughter budget for 8th to plan to save or provide an & structure: a h i l t - i n cuphard o Thecumma has d e s e r v ~ has been built up S be theanswer So He o came bubbling up. abuilt-mmh. the nafronspmbIems. amount of money for aparticularpurpoae: Dont ma ~ u l l d sbtsth up is often used In the p a s +v+adv f o W to budgetfir the cast@ lexthbooks. P Inbullt adj [only before noun1 existing as an S1VC. Budget for ath can be used in the passive: essential part of sWsb: the inbuilt suruiml buckmnkj instznct of animnls Qv+n/pmn+adv + v+adv+n Tlreseextra coslshawnot been Budgefedfor P buildup n [C, usually sing.] a very enthusi-,buck up (okffushwned, BrE, informno used to 0 v+vrep build on sth (ahh14ldwpon sth nwr@fonnnO astlc description, m i a l l y of a performance. tell sb to hurry up:Buck up! Well h €me. to develop f u r t h e r h m sth that youhave h d y that is Intended to make p o p l e excited a b u t it ZEE) hum up ach~eved: need to build on last years surress. We and want to see it: Thereuiewrsgave the phy a @v+adv ,bug Out WmE, i~&mcrl) to leave i a huny: I n o Thlsoourse builds on n i s t ~ n g skills big bu~ld-wp,buck up; ,buck sb up (OM-&him&, BrE- EE success, skllfa+ strengths, achlarsmmb 4 seealso RUILV-UP at D U ~ L D P ;sul~n-UP pr~*ked my m andthen buggedout. up y U at znformal) t become, or to make sb, more chm- o Qv+adv Build &upon s t h can be used in the pas- BUILD U P (TO STH),BUILtl YOURSELF U P (TO STHI SIVF Thts successshouirl be builton, not &nored. ful: Buck up! Thems no school tomorraw! o He buckad up when I said he muld go, o A d y out a + v prep+ ,bultrl 8th up 1 to collect or create sth, often gradually over a period of time: She has built rrp will buck you up. ,build sth on: ,build sth onto sth to add sth an unpressiue calL?ctmn of pinlzngs. E3Ti cOl- I ! c h ~up,elmar sb&oundfup EO r ,bugger aboutraround (wlth dh) W E , A, such as an &a room to an existing building: slang) to waste time doing stupid or unimport- leetlon, llbrary 2 to develop 9th: T e m o w e r h Q vfadv v+nlpmn+adv They h a d built on a large extension at the back of had built up a god relationship with hb st@ o DJbuck your fdeas up I&rE, iqforml)to start ant thfngs; to behavein asilly way: Step bugger- $heh u e . irtg aboutand Msgei on with it. My father built the business upfrom scratch. O behaving in a more acceptable w a ~so that work : @ extenwfonI Hurrrel has built up quite a repi&tionfur hemw gets done better, etc Mess around or, i British English, me$ n v + adv + n + v+ nlpmn + adv v + rtlpron + prep about is a more polite informal way to say this. as a reporter o We are gmduaily bu ftdlrrg up a +v+adv bulld s2h on sth (also bulW 8th upon aM mmp picture of what happened. W bualness, repu-bucket /%MI JormaO to base sth on sth; to use sth a9 the basis tation, picture 3 to increase sth or make sth ,bugger ab aboutraround( B E , A,sbng) to or foundation for 9th: Our cumpang has built its stronger: m r on mident, most driven need to ebucket down ( B E , irlformol)to rain hemfly: rt treat sb badly or in a way thatwastes their time: bucketed down all &yY reputation on thequality of i t s p r o d W build up Iheircvn@aplceagarn. wnfldenca, Im sickof hing bugger& ubout by my h. Q v + dpmn + prep trust, strength4 to rover sth so that it 1s h~gher +v*adv -Mess sb around or, in British EnglFsh, mess sb about is a more polite informal way to say this. + v+ nlpron * adv ,hlld sth roundsth (BTG) = BUILD STH AROUND $TI1 or stronger than before Qv+adv+n . v+nlpmn+adv
    • bulld up , 32 ...................................................... " ........... ....................................... - S burn out before n m ] 1 owered bump,%.unp/ up udj [ u s u a ~ ~ y bundletbnnat Buoy sblstb up i often used in the passive, s with many h o w s orbuildings: Thespeedlimit is ,bump ,Into sb (imrman sbby chance: Buoy sblstb can also be used: Buoyed by their to meet ,bundle sb OW (to sth...) to send sb somewhem l o w In built-up areas, 2 built-up shoes, b t s , recent V I C ~ Wr h t e a m l r m c o n v i ~ mn win they bumped an oldfrw in lawn In a hurry or when they do not want to go: She thefinal. or heels have extra he~ght added )6YHJ id0 S b bundIed herson off SoschmE.,buildYOursleW UP 1 =WILDYP(TO m), YOURSRLP IIP (TO STH) 3 = BUILD SB/YOURSELF BUILD & +, . - ,bump sb ,off(iMmD to murder skHeh i t - packsboff (to...) Qv+n/pron+adv + v+&+n Qv+n/pron+adv * v*adv+n ,buoy sth ~p@nance)tomakeorIteepprlcsata UP led bumpihg 0 f f S a l e s . high or satisfactory Iwel: Share p r h roere ,bundle up; ,bundle nb up (In ath) to dress inbuild upon sth =BUILD ON STH +v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n warm clothes;to put warm clotheson sb: Bundle buoyedupbytthenews, o lo buoy uplheecommy E E l prfoeabuild sth u p o n ath =BUILD ~ T B STH OH ,bumpsb&y,bumpsboPfsthl tonotallow up! It sfmzingoursi$e! o I bundled up in a EUW Buoy sth up ls d e n used ln the passive. sb ta have the seat on a plane that they hw blanket and made hero cup o t . f m Buoy sth isalsoused with thismeaning. bulkpd~ booked. b u s e seats h v e lmn sold to more wrap up (In nth), wrep sb up (In 5 h . wrap t) @ u+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n y o u m K up (in sth),bulk outfup; ,bulk sbMh OWUP s ~ t l y people than the plane wl carry: Wlh more {e il peopleflyingthess days, them i a g m # chance s Bundle sb up is offen used in the passive. burn/bn;ArnEb~nnf AmE) to increase In size or weight; to make . v + adv v + nlpron+ adv @ (burnt,bumtpxnt; sbtsth increase In size or weight: Griswald had o ~etting f Bumped off your flight. o bum& drnEbamt[ or burned. burned b m d ; A m E bulked upfor this maah and won easily. o Laul Bump sb can also be used ofl t r c r u e i k m ~ ,bundle 8th upnogetherto put or tie thinw b3:rndl) busrnessesareheiping lo bulk upschoolcornpuler with this meaning: We were Iote a r r i v i w at the together 1nto a bundle: She bundled up her airport a d the atdine burn@ w. 2 (espxially clotl~esand pmM them into a cupbwrd o T B h ,bumaway; ,burn sth a W y to disappear as a labs (= provide more computers). result of burning; to make sth do this: Half the Qv+adv .r v+adv+n a v+pron+adv* AmE, computing) to break the connection papers uwre ail bundled 6 - t d y io be bet- sbs computer and thelnternet, so that fhmwnaLuD# candla had burnt away. o The fire had bur& v+n +adv(mre) o w a y p r t of the mf they can no lower use the Internet: Some W T S ~ v + n l p m n + a d v v+sdv*n wu[dnt login,orherskepl~tt~gbum@ofl o Q v + & r v+adv+n v+pmn+adv r v+n+adv to be bum& off the Xnterwt @the Intarntlt, El bung ( h f w m t ),bully sb into sth ,bully sb lnto dolng 8th server, webslte E.9 klck sb uff, kick sb OW ,bum d m if a fire bums down, it b e w w to force sb to do sth by frightening them or s t h dlleonnect sb (from M ) i (moreformal) ,bung sth u p (wmh ath) (BrE, I m i to stop m i )m less shong and burns with smallerflames:They threatening them: You cant bulb m rnto saying W These phrasal verbs are usually used mthe sth from moving or flowing through sth by put- sat by thefim, wuWling it sbwly bum down. mylhiw! passive: I was worried about bang bumped off ting sth in or across it: Shes bunged the sink up m burnup Q v + nlpmn * prep theflight. w ~ t lea Ieaves. h Q v+adv block ath up moref for ma^ Q v + nipmn+adv + v+dpron+pmp ,burn d m ; ,bum sth d m i a buildhg fbumfinmi I-mm.) +v+n/pron+adv + v+adv+n ,bump sb up ( o (to) ( O f o m l )to m w e sb to a t b ,bunged up d j blocked, not clear: My nme is burns down. or sb burns it down, it is des-,bum around ( B r E a h ,burn mund) (irlfbrmal) more expensive seat in a plane without charging all bunged up thlsmorning. troyed hy fire: Thepalme burnt dourn in tfzeIRh to travel around or to spend your time doing them extra, because there are not enough seats century. o Shethrmlened#a burn t h e l r o ~ d o w n . nothing in part~cular at the price they have pa~d:Jgot b u m up lo bunk p ~ k { IEEWBnrn sth down is often u& in the Q v+adv busirrpss clnss. pasfive. EEl3 Bump sb up isoften used in thepassw. ,bunk c l o w n ( ~ l l y A n ~ & t o U e d o w n t o s l e e p Qv+adu + v+nlpmn+& + r*adv+n,bum aroundtround sth (iMormal, especially BrE) t travel somewhere with no particular o Q v + nlpmn * a& somewhere, especially somewhere unmmfort- ,burn sth dl remove 5th by bur- to Burn able or far only one night We bunkeddown in an plans: qfter I lep schtwl, I bum& around the ,bump sth up(irrformar)toinmaseorraisepth: old Barnfur thenight. tl~aoldpainl Wrempainting ihadoor 2 ( a h off ~uoridfornyear: Thewnlpnny bump& their p r i m up by 10%. ,burn sth up)to use energy by exercising: Walk- E Z l dms down (BrE,informal) I E the world, Eumpe.6tc. E prlces ing bruklymnbwnoff alotofmlortes. E E tal- @ v+adv Q v + prep Q v+n/pron+adv r v*adv+n orles, fat ,bunk boff:,hnk $th(BrE,fnfwmel)tosiay OH &v+actv+n r v+n/pmn+&$v,bum sb out(ArmE, informal)to annoy sb:I w m bunch/bmtI/ away from school or work when you ought to be r d l y bumme$oul t h t there were M tiCke& ,bum out: ,bumsth out if amachtneorpartof + v * nlpmn +adv ,bunch up; ,bunch sth up if material there; to leave school or work earl^: especially without permission: k t s bunk OR#hk &r- a mach~ne burns out or sbkth burns it out, it,bum round(Brm=BUM AROUND bunches up, or you bunch it up, it forms tight noon and go shopping. stops working bemuseit has been u&tw much folds Thesheessbutl~hd upunder him every tima or has got too hot: The club91hns burnt out. o I,bum round ~ f (hS 2 h BfE) =BUM AROUND/ G PC l b ESKi schoof, WOrk IBEl s k b On, s k b OW SUI burnt out themlorin theflrstcar Ihad. RliUND STH he moved oShe bunched her skirt up and (BrE) jumped. &v+adw hr. v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n +v+adv*r+prep Bunch sth up P often used in the passive. ,bum out ,bum S t s e M out to stop burning + v+adv + v+nlpmn+adv + v+sdv+n,bumble around: ,bumble around sth (BrE ,bunch u p h g e t h e r ; ,bunch s M h up! becauw there is no more fuel: Blow out the mn- dles Worethey burn out. o By the timethefire brt also ,bumble akut, ,bumble about sth) to together to move closer together to make a ,buoy n h t h up 4 to make or keep sb cheerful gudearrived thefire h d burnt (iiseIr)out. more around in an awkward and noisy way: I and confident: Winnhg the mn buoyed the m c th -B SECoh BURP4 STH OUT tight group: to make sWsth do this: The chikfren c u d hmr myfather bumbllngahui downsrairs. ol team UP. o T?Mparty did dittle to buoy up her @ v + & 4 v*pron+adv bunched fogether in littk groups in the p W o a film o two sisters bumbling nround theiv f ground. oA11 the rwmm were bunch& up sprrits. oShe was buoyed up by her fathers ,burn out; ,bumyourself *outto become very home, makingtea pmis@. 2 2 keep ssblth floating; to stop sblsth &hind the i&r tired or sick and unable to oontinue your work 9v+adv + v+prep Bunch sblsth npltogetheris often usedin f o sinking: I wlard, km the salt water rm r g by working too hard over a p e r i d of time: Its o buoymeup. the passive. high pressurn job and many people burn out at a! @v+adv v*nlpmn+adv v+adv+n young nge. o 4 k carries on wnking so hard* heII burn h i m I f out.
    • bum oul 36 i buy out ---- .....------....... ....... .................................r....................... . ~ ............................ +=Oh BURN I3 OUT, BURN SB OUT O F ITH burst Into sth to start praducing or doing sth bust /Inst/ (bust, bust or bustd, bunaed) button~ b ~ m t (bv+adv * v+pmn+abr suddenly and withgreat force: Theoimrqf?burst ,bust wt;,bud out o sth: ,bust sb out: f , b u t t o n up; ,button d h uptobe fastened with b burnoutn [CII l the state of k i n g very t i e d JI f n t o j l a m s (= suddenly staned to b u r n ) . o lwas ,buM sb wt o sth (Informnl)t o e s c a p e h m f buttons: to fasten sth with buttons:He b u f l o d or sick because you have d e d too hmk so relrevedlbamt b t o laars (= suddenly started somewhere, usually prison; to help sb to do this: up hismal. Burnout is common among Zeachen. to cry). o Thecabs ewm burst into IUe (= sud- IIls Iasl mouw lu~s about a guy Gusting out of IEGI c o a t , j a c k & , a E . ~&up,dosthup t ,buWout (esmbl[y BrE) (AmE wually denEy started to work). o As the curtainfell, the Alcatruz. o Hbfriend$ b u s M him out of jail. E 3 unbutton,unbutton & ! I ,burned-0ut)vei-y tired or sick k c a w e you have audmce b m t into apphllse (= suddenly started breek out, break out o alh (mowfnrma0 f Button and button ath a ?also used with n worked too hard:burnr-out rock singers to clap). @v+adv + r*achr+prep * v+nlpmn+adv r this meanlng. + S e e a h BURNT-OUTat BURN STH OUT EEJ tears. flames, laughter,life v + rdpmn* adv + prep ~v*nlpron+adv+v+sdv+n,bumsb out ,burn s b out of 8 t h t o f o m sb +$WQl%9 RURST IN (ON SBISTH), BURST INTO STH ,bust h p ((wth sb) (BrE. Informal) if a couple or t .hthned-up 1[usually before noun] not toleaveabuildingbysettingfire to 1t:Agnnghns QV+PWJ showing or expressing your feelings openly; not two & l e n d s bust up, they havea quarrel and sep tried to burn a woman out of her home. burst o n t o n t o 5th {also %urn upon sth mom arate: T h q bust up rlffmfiuepurs togethet: o I very fr~endly: buttoned-upwlmw~ ( A m 0 his 2 +s e e a h BURN OUT,BURN YOWASELFOUT formal) to appear s a m e w h e suddenly in a dra- ~ bllsl up with Tim a whileago. very formal in appearance; traditional rather Qv+rdpmn+adv * v+adv+n + matic or unusual way: A &or new lalent Ras than new orexcit~ng EZ)break up (wRh sb): aplR up (wltWhum sb) v+nlpmn+adv+pr%p burst ontont the lennwscme. o Q v+adv,burn sth out to destroy sth completely by Rre, m scene b k t - u p n (BrE, inform0 1 (with m) an argu- buy /bar/ ( b w g ~ , bwm Pa*/) - so that only the outside or the frame is left: Two Q V+FP mentora quarrel: Wehada hugebust-upandww , b u y sth backif somelm3y buys s h hnck,they t mm were burnt out in the m h . ,burst out to say 8th puddeo, loudly and with were not talking. 2 the end d a relationship buy again sth that they have sold earlier to sb W Burn 8th out is usually used in the pas- strongfeeling: ?hateyou!she bwstout ,bust sth u p (iqformao q to end sth such as a else: The bank will supply and buy backfo- 51VP BE) exclalm(lbrml) meeting or a relatlonshlp by disturb~ng win-or currency o Hesold themr in 19Wfort400. buy +See~kO OUT, BURN ITSELF OUT BURN -f S e t a h BURST OUT DOING STH ing it: The police busted up the mwting, it h c k laslywr cost W f m . +v+rdpron+&d * v+adv+n @ v+adv*spe& break 8th up (moreformal) 2 ( A m 0 to llrfzlre, +v+adv+n 4 v+nlpmn+adu b bumt-oul (especially BrEj EAmE mually b &urn n a sudden strong expression of azl damage or b e a k sth:He busted up his knee in the b buy-back n the action oF buying again sth I burned-out) adf [only before noun] completely emotion;a sudden increase in an attitude or an mident. 3 (Am@ to break a company o r a larger that you have sold earher: a bwRlequipr~lent buy- destroyed or badly damaged by fire: burnt-out activity: an outburst of angerllaughter o smr- organization Into smaller parts EO company beck (= when a shap/store or company buys back buses o bured-out h o w d i c outbursts of violem o She upodogized for b w k sth up (moreJiormal) sth you have finished using) 2 (businas) a form +see also BURNT-OUT at BURN OUT,BURN YOUR- her outburst. v+adv+n 4 v+nlpmn*adv of lmrrowmg money in which a company seUs SELF OUT ,burst out; ,burst out of sth to leave a room,a its shares with an agreement that it will buy, b u r n up 1tobedestmyedbyheat: T k s m budding, etc. suddenly and noisily: The door bustlerbnsrl them aga~n a later date: a share blry-bnck0 a at b u r d u p as rEenhred I h e e a r t h s a b n ~ s p M ~ opened suddenly ond a m n burst out of the 2 share buy-backpro~mmm (usually IbS@d in theprogressive l e ~to ) a w a h how. ,bustle abuttamund: ,bustle aboutr fever ora high temperaturn:*is burning up- Qv+sdv + v*adr+prep around s t h (e~ppciallyBsE) to move about ,buy sth in(BrB to buy sth or a large amount of somewhere in a busy or h u r r ~ d way: She was sth for a special occasion or in order to have a she&adocm~3Lfafirebw~up,itgets ,burst OMdoing sth to begin doing sth sud- supplyforthefuture: IIlhawlobuyinentmJii stronger and has larger flames EEB burn down already bustling about,gettmgdinnerreudy denly: We looked at one another and burst out g v + a d v r v+prep they remrningtosiuyJiorawhile. ev+adu hughitlg mo d f o, b u m sb u p IAmE, itlformul) to make sb very E 5 Iaughlng, aylng butt mnt~ Q v + a d v + n * v+nlpmn+adv angry. The way he rarrs ma really bwm m up +see also BURST OUT; OPITBURSTa t BURST om ,buy Into sth 1 to buy shares in a cornpan% for Q v + ntpron +adv @ v+adv+-lng ,butt In (informal) 1 (on sWah) to rudely inter- example to gain wntml over it: They are lookkg,burn sth up 1 to get rid of sth completely by , b u r s t through: , b u r s t through sth t o m m rupt sb when they are speaking:He apobgked to buy Inlo another insunrnce m m n DGl ~ burning. I m going m burn up aI1 the rub suddenly through a door, a barrier, etc. with for butting m on our mnversation o His numes company, buslnesa 2 (ir&maD to accept sth bishllmsh 2 =BURN STH OFF 2 great force: The curdrovefust up to the& block T e r n anually. she budled in. Interrupt that Inany other peoplebelieve: Wedwrl buy inso &v+a&+n * v+nlpron+a& am3 burst throryph. o She burst through the door (sMsth) (moreformar) 2 to interfere in a s i t u - the myth t h t money u Iheanssrarfomryfhing. pursued by Sun men. o The sun burst dhmugh the ation that does not concern you: Stop butting i n Its nothing lo do with you. Intodore (with QV + P ~ PburrowI % ~ ; A barnu1 ~ E clouds. ,buly sb off to pay sb to stop them acting agalnst @v+adv + v+prep sth) (more form0burrow In sth to s m h for 8th among things in bum Upon ~ t = BuRST ONlONTO STH h + v+adv 1 alsov+adv+speech you, causingtrouble for you,etc: T g hadto buy Brennan off to slop himJmm talking. hr a container: She burrowed in h e r m k e t o n d e w - ,buttout(s&en. I&mal,especiaIlyAmE) used tuuliyfound nferu m h . (3v*n/pmn+adv + v+abr+n +v+prep to tell sb rudely not to interfern in sth Qr to go away: Butfout!ltS mwofyour h i n e s p . ,buy sbryou*seM odl,kry ~~ of sth (Bmto pay money MI that sblyou can out In bury you~ietf 8th 1to go to o r b In a place Qv+advbur~t /bxs~~~l~barst/(krrrt, bunt) where you will not m e many people: He buried et leave a n orgmlzation, espe~iallythe armed,burst In(on tblsth)+ ,brat into sth to enter a h ~ m w the muntrjr t write a book. 2 to In o forces. before the time agreed:A&r fourymrs in mm, abuilding, etc. suddenly and n o i a i intm involve yourself in 5th completely; to spend all the M t r y I bough1 mysey out. your time thinkingabout or doing sthand ignore ,buttersb up(irbfonnnl) say nice things about to Qv+nlpmn+adv + v+nlpmn+&+prep rupting the people who are in it: He apologized sb because you want them to do sth for you or fir bursting in on our meetfng,o The dow sud- everythingelse: She buried herself in her work in ,buy s h t h o u t to buy part d a m p a n y , bus5 an attempt toforget. EEl work, book give you sth: We bet& butier him lrpa bit W&re d dmlyflewo~nandMiabumm. Shemndown o ness,et~.fromshe19e$othatyoumallof itand Q v + pron + prep w mkfor his help. control it: I tuam lo buy her out and have the thestairsandburst inlothekilchera. D soften sb up +maISD RURST INTO STH +v+nlpron+adv 4 r+&*n +v+adv + v+prep
    • h o w %i mysew o The mmmny w m L au h our us g t by t Cmman b w i w s m e n . w E J partner, wrnpany +v+nlpron+adv*v*adv+n a t buyout n. (?inam)situation when sb buys enough s h a m in a rwmmny to gain mntrol of it call ~ k ~ i l ,call by ( i ~ u m espechlly Brm to visit a place l, or a person for a short time, usually when you,buy 8th up to buy quickly all of sth or as much - amund are go~ng somewhere else: Could you call hy on as you can: Thyvebught u~nall theland in the -away yowway home?o Janmlledbybyo brmgyour$lP. arm. -back m dropby E@l company, Imnd, pmperty @ v+adv+n + v+pmn+adu + v+n+*(mw) - bv -down @ v+adv ,call ~b d mto shouttosb t0 a& them tomme -for -forth down f h m a place which is higher than you: Ive -in mlled himdown (= to come downstairs) lo h k -,bun around;, akmnd 6th ( a h,kLa h 38 -off fast a l m d y . abautrmuntl, ,kmalmtrtlmundsth espminlly @ v + nlpron + adv BrE) to move around quickly and busily: She W To call is the most common way to say 90 ,call sth down (onlupon sb) (litemry) to pray buzz& round (the kzlchen).o The photographer telephone in Amerlmn English. It is also used that sth unpleasant will happen to sb because of butzed aroud, cMfw the Eight. o Questhns in British English,but to phone and ta ringare sth bad they have done to you: to make sth bad buzzed round inside my had. more common. happen to sb: Hecatleddown curseson them + v+adv * v + p p ,call around;,call around s b t h ( mto A IBXi curses, wrath, u off(faformel) used to tell sb, not veryb n telephone a number of dflerent pwpTe, usually @ v + a d v + n 4 v+ntprm*adv politely, to go away:Buzzoff IIpn hying lo work! 0 to try to get information: H k n calling call for sb (BrEj to go to ebs home,for example, es I wish hed GuzzM! amwtdsrying logettk hetpriceona cornpuler o and take themor go with themsomewhere: Shall D clear off: go away (murefirm0 ImIled around #hanerghbourhd lo get support Icallforyou at e i ~ h t ? Qv+adv for m wnrpntm. y Q V+P~*P,buzzround;,bu+r rpund sth (esmiably BrE3 Q v t a d v 4 v+prep call for sth if a situation a s for a particular = HUZZ AROUND,BUZZ AROUND STH ,call sb away to ask sb to stopdoing what they action or quali& it needs or requires It: This are doing and go somewhereelseto deal with sth: calk for a cekbration!~ h t shes doing mils Wu o He was calledauhw to t?wph~m. She wa.scuiM forgrmt skilland m - u. awqyfrom the meeting i deal with an emergency. o EEU Call for sth can be used in the passive: Call sb away IS almost always used in the Ibugheraetion By tht?gouemmni kmlkdf01: passive. Qv+prep Q v + nlpmn + adv b uncalld for [of m a r k s or behaviour) ,call back WE)to visit sb again: Ill m l l hcA not fair or necessary In the circumstances: I later whenyour wlfesat home. shrill tgnore that u n m l l e d f i r m r k evtactv call for sth; call for nbMh to do 8th to ,call %sick;,call sb back to telephonesbagain demand publicly that sth should be done: The or to telephone sb who telephoned you earlier: group lnas c a l ~ J o a boyma of the elections. o r Call badr In an hour - hell be hem then o Kub The otherdimtors hawmlM for him to reS&n. phoned. Cunyou wIl herhck70 IYlcallyou back Call for sth mn be u s 4 In the passive: k wrth thedetails Inter: total bnn on nuclear ~ nhas baen miledfor s @v+adv v+ntpron+adv Q v + prep + v + prep + nlpmn +m inf b callback n 1a device i a telephone that auto- ,call sth forth ( f m 0 to mduce a particular n matically calls agaln a number that was busy reaction: Her remarks have called forb h r s h when you first called it: a nrllhck faeilie 2 a crrtkism in Ihemedin. telephonecall that you make to sb whohas called @ v+adv+n + v+pron+adv v+n+adv(mm) you earlier ,call In f [+ adulprep] ( m ~ i u l l BrFI to visit a y ,call sb back4 toshout tosb totumaroundmd place or a person for a short time, usually when come back to a pkce they hnvejust I&: I ran ofl you are going somewhere else: Hecalled in at t e h but hecalled me back. o Westarted to wulkofl but ofice W o r ehe kftfor Londom o She often m Ils m were m16d buck by the police oficer 2 to ask sb for u chat. E 9 drop In (on sbtat ...) (~rfarmcrb) i 2 who is applying for a job, etc. to return so that to telephone the place where you work: She you can talk to them again: T h m pwpk wem called in sick lhts morning (= telephoned to say culled buckfor a saw& inderuieuc that she was llllsick and would not be coming to @ v + nlpron + adr work). 3 to make a telephone d to a radio or television programme: Many listeners caILad in to rompbin. ev+adv
    • .... .. fn call.. ......-...... ..-.............. ............ ...... ...............-....II...............-...III_...................... .... 1.1. .XI 11 . 38 . _ _ _ ..................... ........ .......,,..... ........ _. I ..................... * carry......,,.......,,... around ~alUn (AmE) a television or radio show in n ing. o He m k e in ihe night, wllingout b mm. ,call ath up I (mmpuling) to obtain information cannon /ka3nanl which people can phone t talk to people on the o o 77rey mIled out the n m b m o the winning f that is stored on a computer She mlled upall ,cannon Into sbMh (of a moving person, show, ask questions, give thew opinions, etc: a tickets. files he kd wrked on. E@i Rln, InformaUmn 2 to mil-inshow EZi name s h w t out (to a) shout ath a t b, m vehicle, etc) to hit sbfsth by accident and with bringsth b c k to yourmind:to make you remem- great force: She smpped su&enly and I aIrnost ,Call ab intoask sb to wme and help, give a d v i e (to sb) ber and think about sth: The sound of their mnnoned inio her repalr sth, etc: H threatened to cull in the es m w ~ a l sth mn be used with a s i m h r l laughter calW up memories of his own ch~ld- Q V + V P police. o ~ o u l I h a v e m m l i a p l u m ~ i n f t l ~meaning, but call o u W I sth out suggests sth ~~t M . memory BEj meail ath (formno 3 to ,cannon off sblsth if sth mwing cannons off KJ thrs. o Bombdisposalexpmtsuweml[edinwget IQllderQrmoreurgent. use a quality that you have: He c a I M up all his +v+adv + v+nlpmn+adv * v+adu+n * sbisth, it hits theml~t accident and with great by r d o f thedevice. rtserws of mumge. E rnaerv%s m force and then goes off in a diffemnt direction: EEl pollee,exwrt BEE3 send for s b v+adv+speech ev+adv+n + v+n/pmn+adu The brrlllxlnnoned off his Zg into thegoal. e e v + a d u + n v+nlpmn+adw ,call ~b but1to ask sb tocome to help you,when ,callsth V (BBtoorder or requestthe return of n there is an emergency: Pve mum had to mil he call upen nth =CALL O N ~ P STH ~ N "all wpon sb b d o sth =CALL O N ~ P O N TO SB e v prep sth, especially a product that has a fault: ~h dwtorous at night hfir~. eh callout an o We a d o DO STH t n a n u f m t m ~ u e cnlW in the faulty goods.0 h ekricinn. 0 Troops were Called our to deal with The h n k haw m l W in the Iwn (= asked for the the riot. doctor, flm brigade, electrfelan 2 calm /kmm/ capitalize on s t h ( a h c a p b I l w uponsthless money to be paid back) imm&&ly. to order or ask workers to stop work as a protest: frequent, momformal) to use sth to gain further E B recall nth(morelbrmn Miners weremlledoutonstrrke by union Iwden. ,calm down; ,calm sblyoumW down if sb advantage for yourself: They caprtalzzedon thew +v+adv+n + v+nlpmn+adu &v+nlpmn+adv + v+sdv+n calms down,or youcalm them down,they stop success bymrsingprices. o Theopposrtron triedto sb/sm off to order soldiers, dogs, etE. to t C~IIQMW E ) n -ion when YOU ask sb being angry. or excited and become calm: Calm cap;talizeonpopuhrdMn&ntover fhenew law. youinanemergency:ambum down!loesaldfmsorfy o Themuxrsnothingm success, apportunlty, potentla1 take stop attacking sb, semhlng for sblsth, etc: cvulddolocalmhdown o He wenlforu walklo nrU.oufs 0 How much is the plumbers m l l o u t advantag* of sth P l e a s cull your dog& W o d g charge? The noun caUis also used. calm h z m r down. o Jack lu~s s h W that so hehud to becalmeddown byhislaifeandson. v+ prep + Qv+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n +v*adv + v+nlpron+sdv + v+adv+n,call dh o~f cancel or abandon sth that has to ,call out for sth IAmE) to telephone a shop, store, restaurant, etc. to ask them to deliver fmd ,calm down; ,calm sth down to become camfor ab to likeor lovesb:Icare&eplyforyou. been planned or that has already Th luas mIled 40: ihe lQFr minu&, t o w a t homeoratwark:Msmlloutforpizzn. calmer; to make a situation calmer: The whole Care for sb can l used in the passive: I x TheyvewIicdoff Ihelrengugement (= they have end Out *h fim will haue calmed down by Iomorrow o Ive just want io be lo& and nrredJor bymmeMy. v+*+pmp spoken6nthem totrytacalmthingsdowna bit decided not to get married). o Polke miled off QY+P~~P , a l l sb ~rtocallsbtocomeovertowherepu =Calm sth down cannot be used in the thesmrchfor the climbers at dwk. passrve. *carefor sblsth 1to take care of and be m n - 6 3 3 matchlgame, e n g a g e m e ~ d i n g&I, , are, because Y W want to speak to them, give or sible for sb who is very young,old or sick, etc. or show them sth, etc: Call the waiter over Qv+adv + v+nlpmn+adv + v+a&+n search, strike Tor skh that is indanger or wuld bedzmagd: 5 % 6 v+adv+n + v+nlpmn+adv Qv+dpmn+athr * v+abv+n(mre) nurses give advice Eo the patients and those who call on sb i (@spciullyBrE) b vlsitsbforashort ,call round ( B r m to sb at their home for a wrefor them. o Shemmforsevenzl childwn wlth t lme: On our way boak, we r n l m on gmndma. short time: Ijwl mlledround lomyhello. ,camp a t(hformcrt)to sleep outside,usually in s m a I needs. o The wmpany Is cummitrd t car- o ... ET)drop In (on swat ) 2 0toask sb in a dmPmnd a tent: to sleep on thefloorsomewherefora short tlmc: f l there is nowhem tn stax wI h u e to I ingJor tke envfronment.EE ehtldren, the sick, the eldmrly W In thismeaning care for sWsth class,etc. tomsweraquestionorglvetheiropm- 9v+& ion: math &her alwuyscallron the boys ,call up; ,call sbisth *up(mpeciu& AmE) to camp out, o Pwpk mmped out in the schaol hall can k used In the passive The chrIdmn mre all (3v*prep make a phone call to a person or a plaox Call up to erwpe theflood mteK clean and well camti for + see a h LOOK AFTKR - 1 OWUpMl d h @ m l ) t o 1 mWShnpth, a n d m a res@ruufionfor8oclock. Shmlled o Qv+adv SR/STHfYOURShLF; W O K AFlXR STH 2 hid CErO fOl courage, etc. in order to achim sthor dm]with him WIM~ bus Station o Call up the o m b karnwut n (AmE)a time when pwple sleep sblsth VormaO to not like sWsth very much: I a problem: She had ro wlIon a11 her s @ r ~ ~ ~ k f o rMorgan. M t : outsidein a tent dont rnrefor o m . ,camp H up(BrE,irlTormal) 1 (of a man)to move @V + P ~ ~ P murage t o b z the ordml. E E strength, muram Call and call sb are also ftequently used with t h ~ meanmg. Call, up and car1 sb up a m s or behavedeliberately in a way thatpmple think mwould you c a ~ for ... e (format)used to ask sb very common in spoken English. is typ~cal a man who is sexually attracted to of ~t they would like sth to wt or drink: Wouldyou @ v prep + mrefor a cup of tw Pcall onlupon sb to do sth(formar)l tomakea +"Ipmn+* other men (a homosexual): He enjoysarmpmni? it up. 2 to exaggerate your behaviour oraperform- p u n e a d r~ adj not lmked after: neglected: serious or urgent request to sb to do sth: ~ m UP 1to officlNy ask sb to go to do train- The children Iwked dirty and urnred Jol: 4 atmilable in case Im callad on o help 0 we mi[ in6 in the army,navy or air form or to fight in a ance to make people laugh: I really romped it tip in thefinal scene. uncared-for#awns upon all w s 0 m e t the r ~ s u ~ t sthe e h . pc @ war: the ~7 h g m , he was t OM lo be m tmn. 2 to formally invlte or request sb to s w , mIl@d mSCrlpt fi b-11~ *m, +v+it*adv etc: lnow call upom MKSprtng hgiw thevoteof d"fisb(AmE)2(eswi~IQBrE)toasksb tojoin thanks. sth or take part in sth; to chrmse sb to play in a cancel / t e n s l / I-IC, A&-I-) W Call onlupon sb to do rn be ;used i n team: Hes bPen called upjor next weeks match. ,cancel out;,cancel s h out If t o or more ,carry d h around ( a h ,carry ah a m t w t hc passive:1 luas called on h mkea spmh. , Call sb up is often used in the mssive. things cancel out or one cancels out the other, mundesmlrlly SrE) (wlth mu)to take sth from @ v + prep + nlpmn + lo ~ n f @ v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n they are equally important, but have an opgoslte one placeta another; to takeslhwerywherewith,call out(to ~b),,eall out (tosb)toshout w sth call-up an order join the armJr Or air force: m z ~ u p ~ ~ M(-P@~ s m effecton as~tuationsothat thesituation daes not change: Thegains and Eosses ore e x p ~ t e d can- lo you. 1don"Eant tomrry shisbrrgabout with m all day o Tha CDphyer is light enough to mrry say sth loudly In order to get sbs attention or help:Hemlledoutlo hm ht shemTTa on wIk- C U ~ I Y BrE, an ofiicial invitation to play in cel out. o Our expenditure and profib cancel amund inyourpockel. a team or in a particular game each otherout. o Xhejob ishtrrdwork butihis is er+nlpmn+sdv v+adv+n cancelfedout b y t k f ~ t h n t 6 h e ~ p D a r e s o n m . e v + a d v + v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n
    • ,carry sbmth alongto take or mow swsth for- M if nothing has h a f r f r e d . m go on: con- b carry- n 1mnam)a total sum of money ,carvesbMh up(Ed, f&rmnb 1to wound sb ward: His body had been mrrW along by the tlnw 3 lwlth 6th) to continuespeaking or doing or an amount that is moved to the next ml- or their face badly with a knife:Hegot c a d np r i w ~ The crowd unrs so thick that she mmr- o 6th after a short pause: Well, she corrled on, um?bpapelyear, etc. 2 something that is kept outside thepub &t night. 2 to gd past a moving ried along with ti. o (figurative) Hls immense then I realized whem Id met him t f m Ted wo!o or from one s~tuation time and used in mother vehicle ahead of you and then suddenly move in enthwiasm carried usolIalong. look& up brieflj then mrried on .with w h t he ,carry sth round (wlth you) (wpeanlly BrE) = M n t o f itinadan~rousway:I~~a~~~~ruedu Q v+nlpmn+adv was doing go on (wlth 8th) 4 to last for a CARRY STH AROUND (WITH YOU) a lunatic in a Pornhe. o We saw the van wrue up ,carmy sblsth awayroff to support the weight particular time: How l o n ~ can this sitlrarwn sewmi mrs. w o r n turning lefl. E E person, car ,carry through ( o n M h 8th) (Am47 to do and EX9 cut 8Wsth up (BrE) of s b t h and take themit away: A strong current carry on?= go on; fast 5 (at ~ b(about Bth) ) finish what you have promised, agreed or carried thedinghy awnV. (iIrforrno0 to argue, quarrel or compla~n noislly; ev+nipron tadv * v+adv+n arranged to do: He wnuInced us that he would e v + n / p m * a d v + v+adv+n to make a fuss: Slop corrylnip on about how hard wrry through wfthlon hispromist. , c a m sth up to divide a oompam an area of b g e t ,carded a k a y to be so excited and yokr life is. o How long ore Iheygolng to kshoui- Qv+adv land, etc. into parts and share them out: They enthusiastic about 9th that you lose control of ingondmrrylngon l r k e t h a t ? ~ e (at sb) go m cnrvedthe helerriloly up into threeprovim. o T h (about sth) B (wtth sb) (~Id-fagshioned, irtformof) ,carry sb through;,carry sb through 4 t h thiews hurriedly car& up the Zmt. your feelings and may behave in a silly or to help sb to deal with a d m u t period: Her icl thoughtIess way: lgot so curried away with shop to have a sexual relationship with sb. Shes @v+adv+n v+nlpron+adv carrying on wtih her boss. &terminntion mrried her through. o Hrs mur- b ac- n [sing.] ( B E . i r & m O the act of ping that I compkteIyfo~of lime. o Dont get the age helped lo carry them through the digrcult mrrfedaway- itsnotthatexciting. +u+arhr dividing sth up into parts and sharing them out 1 alsov+adv+4ng times. belget + v + adu Qv+ntprcn+adv + v + n l p m n + p ~ cash i k ~ / 3 also v+ adv+ speech ,carry sb back (tu a*) to remind sb o 5th that f b m 7 [usually sing.] W E , irtrormnb a n ,carry sth Yhraugh to finish a task,a plan,etc. ,cash n(on*th) (informa0 to gain an advantage happened in the pask The song carried Irer h c k luas delemi& carry E excited or noisy behaviour over sth that i s not suocessfuUy: to her c h i l d h d . imponant; a as 2 ( A m a small bag or mse s her pplons, om Heh smrld from a situation in a way that p p l e think 1s h ~ s a PEj take sb back (to sth) wrong or dishonest: Maw busiwsses m s h d in that you carry onto a plane with you: Im hnvel- m ,k shellcarry it lhmugh lo theend. v+ nlpmn + adv h n g l ~ h t - I j w t h a w a cartyon. oDoyouhave IGE plan, pmposal, deelsln, ref- on the massivegubIic in&& in her death. o The ,carry 5th forwad 1 ( a h ,-my sth ,over) any mrry-on luggage? & v+adv+n + v+nlpmn+adv new law means videopimlesmnm [ongermhin Lfm?re) to move a total sum of moneJ: or a total ,carry a t h on 1to continue 5th. especially 6th by selling iflegnl m p h . amount, E one pageor column tothe next, or m Qv+adv that sb else has begun: Our c h i h will curry ,cash sth In to exchange 8th for money Cash ln from one week or year to the next: Thefigurn this tmdifiononqf#rus. + ~ Q ~ ~ O C A R ONY1 2 were mrried forward Jrom the preview m e , R ,cart sth amund (&a ,cart sth aboutrmund any remaining Wvellers c h e g m when you .carry on sth, ,carry WMem bri to do the activ- espacially Brm (wlth you) li&rmaD used to talk lE3 brlng sth forward In this meaning return o You will lose m o w if you m h your ity rnent~oned:Wew 6ry1neto mrry on a very about carryingsth large,awkward or unimport- c a r r y sth forward isoften used in the passive. 2 policy i n early rmportnof con-lion! o They carried on o mr- ant f o one place to another or everywhere you rm aharm, @Icy to belpsth to make progress or s u w e d : She will resmndencefw owfor2y years. o to c a r w on a go: I had i a r t q s h o p p n g a r ~ ~ n d ~ i l h o mealI t v + a d v + n + vtnlpmn+adv carry theprojmfforword afferIleuue. bwiinessltmde EEi wnvsnatkn, cornspond- @v+nlpron+adv + v+adv+n d q t o HecartsolImrtsof l r s e l e s s s t ~ a h u L ence, busl- ,srH1 conduct sth A noun carry ath around (with you) ( ~ ~ f O r ~ ~ , ,$ash up (Brm ( A d ,EMh out)t munt the o ,carry sb off 1 if a disease carries sb off+they must always follow on, but a pmnurln comes lug 5th around (wlth yw) money that has been taken in a shoplstore, r! e+ die as a result of it: Sheruascarriedfl by theepi- ktween the verb and on. taurant, etc. at the end of the day: W msh clp at e - . Bv+nlomn+adv v+adv+n demic. 2 to capture sb: The enemy mrried off a 1v+adv+n + v+nlpmn+adv ,cart sbtsth awayloWFinforrrm0 to take sblsth five oc[ock. Qv*adv myprisonars. 2v+adv+n + v+pmn+adv away with some difficulty: Two phwA lucre ev+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n ,carry sth out 1 t~ do sth that YOU youid you carted olf to hosp1taI. o The polin? a r r t d and Cast /kast:AmE m / t (east, cast),carry sbisth off= CARRY SBESTH AWAYIOFF would do or that you have W asked to do: to e e n c~ned40rwters x tojail. o,carry sth OH1to win sth: She carried fl ?nust mrry out a plnntuprommI~~n w o He And no o I E take sblsth awey moref form^ E) ,cast around (BrE a b ,,cart #bout) (for ath) uf Iheprizes. 2 to succeed in doingsth difficult; intention of canying out his t h w l s . o She hnd Cart sWth away/& Is often used h the (formal) to l w k around you to try to find sth; to to deal with a diftrcult situation successfully: carried out a!! hts insfructionsElZi threat, passive: He was carred a m y by turopolicemn. try very hard to think of sth: capl aboutfor rm He Shestlreonlypmn Iknow whocan m r a dress promlsa, order 2 to do and complete a task: to +v+a&+n v+n/pron+adv ~ m p eroule.oHe was desmnately crssling likethatandcaw f t o r carry out a S U ~ U ~ ~ I inue~tngufion to mrryout M o aroundforan excuse, o Xhemmpny whaviwi to Q 1v+a&+n v+pron+adv + v + n + a d v ( h repairslcWtesa o to a t out researrh o of is ry cast am& fewrishIyfir ways to cut its Costs. Iww~) nnf yetclear who carrledout theattack. -This phrasal verb is usually used in writ- 2v+Wpmn+& + v+adv+n +v+adv+n 4 v+pmn+adv + v+n+adv(kssfre ,canre sth " u 1 /& , a r m ath out of 8th) ot ten Cngl~sh. quent) &eahgyl to make a physical feature in the @ v+adv,carry an 1(with slh) ( o b,carry ondolng sth) earths surface over a long perid of time b %arry.outn ( A d , SmlE) a m a that you buy el ,cast sblsth *side (@rmo0 to get rid of, or give l e s w h l l y SrE) to continue doing sth or moving through the actIon of water, ice, weather, etc: in a particular d i m i o n , without stopplng m k e d f o a restaurant and take away to eat rm no attention to, sblsth that you no longerwantor somewhere eke:Letsgeta mrry-out. The wllIry was c r e out by gk.clers. uvd In Canyon workinglmithyo~r m& EuhileJbarway. this meaning carve s h out is often used in the t need: She jusl cast him aside when shegot borerI. o If she curries on shoplifting, shell end up m ,Carry sth I 1toelay sPh until a later time: nassive. 2 (for vourself~ build a sucoessful car- to o She h a henable f.o casl aside (= stop using)her jail. o She ignored me and carried on wrlfing o P mlledou! tohim, buthcarrlwlontbown therond. X h e p m h a d t be carried- a until Wed-3 o You cam c a w over 4 days Iwve to m t yeat kr,a good rephation, etc., often with difficulty whwlcharr sW8th dqgtad or hard work: She carvrd out a unique n~chefor 90 On, go OH dOlw 8th + See also CARRY pastpone 8th 2 to keep sth fmm one situ- herself in themusic businers.o Hes mrvedouta V*advn v*nl~*adv STH ON 12 to manage to continue living or work- atlon and use or deal with it in a new situation: s m s s f u l career in M e buikding industry. ,cast sth aside V ~ m f ito throw sth to one 1 ing in your usual way in spite of d r f i d t or You shouId mrry ouer what you h r n in schmf career, name, nl&e alde:He cast as;& t h e m w w p r impntkntly. 2 to unpleasant circumstances: LVe m w d on as int~yourt&l(f@. 3 =CARRY STH FORWARD 1 get rid of feelings+attitudes, etc. that are Md or wuaI a&r thefire. o Were all going to carry on + v+adv+n + v+nlpmn+abu e v + a d v + n e v+nlpron+adv 1alsov + nlpron + adv + prep
    • cast away ..................... ..*......,......,......,,,....,....... 4: .............................................. negative, or that stop you achieving sth: He& ,-st on;,casl sth on(in knitting) to makethe situation: The m w o a W w out eww war (= work, sleep 2 to 6nd out about things that have astdealIhisinhibilwm. o Thespmkmcastmod- Arst row of stitch- on a needle, or add new we are not prepared for it). o Mnny inwslors happened: it was gmi to s@@ Przrsy a d catch up esly aszdeond mk& a h #their s u m m , stitches: W o n andknitlOrows. werp mught out by lhecolbpseof thecompnny. onallthegosip. EE)threw sth aslde; toss sth all& (lass EFlstltchesEEB cast On, c w t sth off B U Catch s b out is often used in the passive. ER see 0 . b CATCH U P (WITH STH) forman @v+adv v+adv+n v+pmn+adv @ u + Mpmn* a& + v +adv + n (Iessfreqwnl) +v+adv+pp e v + a d v + n + v+nlpmn+adv v+ n+acfv(mre) ,catch up (wlth sb/sth) ( B E also , d c h sWsth ,catch up with sb Iif the police or people in be ,=st away (on ah) to be left samewhere ,cast sbtsth out; ,cast sbMh outof sth up) 1 to reach sWsth ahead of you by going authority catch up with sb, they Rnally Rnd out after your ship has been destroyed at sea: What VormaO to drive sb away; to get rid of sWsth, faster than thedit: She was walking sofust Ihad that they havc done sth wrong and punish them: wouM you & if you were cast away on o desert esmially by using force: She ws & out by lo run to mtch up (with her). o T k police car T W were inuolwd in burglary for wars W o r e island? swiety. o Heclaimed to beabie tomst ozh$emw. finally caught up with the vanut &junction. 2 to thepolicem&qht up wilh them. 2 (alsocatch up 9be+v+adv o The vilhgemhmi been castoutof their homes. reach the same level or standard as sblsth else om sb lessfrequeni) i sth you have done or sth f b = m y n a person whose ship has been des- Cast &boutis often used I the passive. n that was better or more advanced: We lo that has been happening to youcatches up with troyed and who has managd to swim to an 6 v+adv+n v+nlpmn+adv culch up wilh our cump?tilors in Europe. o Youll you, itstarts tocause you problems that you have island, etc. v + nlpmn +ah. + prep have to w k hard to mtch up with the mt qf the r so h managed to avoid: Hispast wfinally catch- r ,cast 8th back (to s W M ) to make yourself b outcast n someone who i s rejected and cksss. o When I wem back to school I found i had ing up wilh hrm. o The lute nighls were begim thlnk about a particular time, a situation in the ignored by other people and often has to leave a lot o catchlrlg up to do. f nlng to mtch up with h.?~ (irIforma0 to meet sb 3 past, etc: I Easi my mind back .o ourfirst m t - t their home and friends: Shefelt like a socihl out- +v+adv + v+nlpmn+adv* v+adv+n(ram) you have not seen for a while and hear their ing all t h e y a agogo en cast. o He was treated l i b a n oulcast by the other ,catch up(wRh nth) 1 to spendextra timedoing news: Hejust wants lo rest and aatch up with aid E% F onfyywr mfnd l chiIdrr~. all the work,tasks,etc.that you shouldhave done friends. o Catch up with you later! o Weuegot a Qv+n+adv t outcad Q@lonly befom nour~] ignored m not earlier I m so behind with my *work, It5 lot o cutching up to do after all lhbr; trme!FEl f,east sth down (Iimry) you ~118t if YO~V eyes aocepted by other people: o mmkrso f g o i n g b l a k @ m a w e e k t o m r c h u p 2tofindout friends down, you lmk down: She cust fm eyes down mevil about things that have happened. &me and stay Qv+adv+pmp modestly whileJack wus 1QIkingabuther: ,cast sWa)l up (on sth) ( l i t e m ) 1if the sea for ofew days, so that we h u e a c h a m to catch E l only e p s ,srH, I m r sth ( b formal) casts sWsth up on the land. it carries therdt in up. .ol want t catch up with all your mm. o eater / k e ~ r ) / o ev+nlpmn+abv v+adv+n and leaves themlit there: A whuk bone zuas mst Weuegola lot of catching up to do&ralI this cater for sblsth to pmvide everythingthat sb, a b downcast (aka ,cast down h j b q w n f l a d j upon the h e h . E% wash up,wash ~ r u p (less h lime. t seealso CATCH UP O N STH group of people or a situation needs or wants: (irteruly)downcast eyes are looking down f@f-!mO Cast sWsth up i ottenused m the s Qv+adv The careers service &rs(or the needs of young +SeeaIk2 UOWNCAST at BE CAST DOWN passive in t h ~ meanmg. 2 if you cast your eyes s ,catch rb up (on sth) [AmEj to tell sb about pmpople ond dulls. o T e resort also m m for h be ,east down (by sth) 0to be sad or up, you look up: Shemsl her- up to the ceilrng things that have happened: You m mlch me up W I ntersporbs. unhappyabout sth: HeisnotmiIymstdmn andswhed l 3only eyes @ on thenew?.hter E E needs, children, Intere8tn ebe+v+adv +v+nlpron+adv * v+adv+n Q v + nlpron + adv IEjlCater for sWsth can bused inthepassive: b downcast ( a h,mat d m h j k q l l e n t ) M ,catch a m up (BrEj 4 = CATCH UP (WITH All aRegroups are wellmteredfor Ilitemry) sad or unhappy: e downmpr mp-n SBISTH) Yo16 go a M . Ill mtch you u p o She 1 b, v prep + o H e b m k ~ s l l d o w ~ E I ~ k p i thimn yo Catch at MUsb to try to get hold of sth quickly: caught the Imder up and then ouwlmk her 2 = eater t s h t h (d&ppming) to provide sth o - wealso DOWNCAST at CAST $TH DOWN i Shefrtedtomichutabmnch but muldnt m c h . CATCH UP (WITH SE~STH) 2 Thk MmP(lW dS th# that satnsties what a particular type ol person,cad OW; ,cast sth dl undo the ropes that to E E sb% hmWarm!sleeva BETO dutch at sb/sth: mosl likely 60 catch up the m r k m hmk o S e s h wants: EndfPssmedia wwmge c- a w thepub- are holding a boat m position s that It can start o grasp at sWsb mining hard lo catch her sister up. Itcs inlesest inthescandal. to m w e 2 (in knitting) to remove a r w o o f 0 P"P + betget ,,caught up In sth 1tobecome involved Cater to sblsth can be used i the passive: Tlr~ireuery ?wedwasmtered t . o n s t i t c h e s h m theneedleinawaythatmitlmakea ,catch on(WrmaP)1(to sth) to understandsth; in an unpleasant event or situation that you mn- h i s h e d edge: When the mtf rs the r@ht length, to realize the truthof s t k H e 3 ~ q u i C k 1 0 m k h not escapefrorn: Anumberof tourislsgotmught e V+P~P m t oJTEJ stkcher EB cast on, cast sth on on. o Thesiudenlssoon caught on ta the Idw thnt up in the riots. o c h i l d m caught up in crfme o (f)v*aW 4 v+actv+n + v+pmn+adu + p h m l verbs om not redly dilfrcull. o Peapleare Sorry Im Iaie -I got caught up in a i r t ! ! j a m . caveJ ~ W Y + n + edv (rare) mtchingon lo thefcrcl that hes ofmud. EEB cot- rlolence, war, w n h , traffic 2 to t com- ,cave InI(om sb/sth) if aroof. wall, etc, caws in, w,t- ath off (formal) 1 to take off a piwe of ton on ( oah)2 (wittt sb) to k o m e popurar or t pletely absorbed in an activity. your own feel- it falls down and inwards: The roof o the tunnel f clothing and throw it to one side: Thqr cast ojf fashionable: li!r a god idea, but itll never catch ings, etc: Shegot caught up in the excitementand c a d in on the urorkrrren EEiZi root, wall 2 ( o t their clothes and jum@ in the pool. Jackat. on. o Payrng by credit card hns only caught on d r u m of the auction. o Ididnl hearyou come in; sth) to finally do what sb wants you to do afIer shoos, clothes B E take stb o f (lwsformnl)2 E) f m n r l y hum, o 3-DJilms never mught on with a I was so mughf up in this book+fS3 exclternent, you have resist4 for a long time: T e m g e - h to get rid of sth bad or sth that you do not likc- msaudience. book m n t ref& to caw in to ihetr demands. o Under She tried lo cast ofj+ upbrtnging. o Its time to her v+adv + Q belget+v*adv+prep h i s f i r e questtoning she cauerl in and told him cost off those winter bluesand burst into spring! ,catch sb out 1 to Mck sb into making a mis- F,catch up on sb =CATCH UP wmr SB 2 Old age & the truth. EEi demands, pressurn +r+abv+n v+pmn+adv r v+n+adv(mm) take or doing sth wrong;to d i i r that sb does catchfng up on me. Qv+adv t c a a t 4 (especblly BrE) (AmE usually hand- not know much or is doing 5th wmng: The ikst ,catch up on sth 9 tospend e m time doing all b w d n n 1the fact of a roof+wall, etc. falling M o w n ) n [usuarly pl.] a piece of clothing that &nutdesigned 0 cukh you out. I t > to see hour the work, tasks, etc. that you should have done For down and inwards: thepop& fnsldethe tun- the orig~nal owner no longer wants to wear muchyouw learnt,o The interuhwr mqv try to earlier: Ive got a . t of work 60 catch up Oh o I b nel there luas a serious rtsk o f w i n g or a caw Shasfd up with wtrrriw herswmscost-@s. mtch you out with irick questions. o She reacled spent rhe weekend mlching up on lost sleep. E Z Zl in. 2 an instance of agreeing under pressurnto east-off d j [only before noun] that the ori- Ukea chiklcaughtout ina lie. 2 (especinlly BrE) lf dosth you donot want todo ginalownernolonger wants to wearor use:mst- a situat~on, weather etc. catches sb out, it bad off c h t h i ~ o m s t . @ f f p I a s f i c b n @ surprises them and puts them into a dimcult
    • chanceI ~ ~ P AM; t s r n ~ i S b ehangearPr n a change f o one system or rm ,chaw SMd m (AmE,i q f m n to try M n g to another T e changeowr lo the new qs- h hard to get sth or find ~ W s t h that you need orcentre around s k t h ; centre sth around chanceonlulpon s M h (formcll)to m e sb or et tern wilf take place gmdunlly. o a c h a g e w e r want: Iw been mIn~ tochase Sum down allday! sblsth IBrEnlso mntre mund sblsth, centre find sth when you do not expect to: I chwrced on para B snek s b / M out (moreformafi, track sblnrll 8th round sblsth) to be, or make sblsth, the most a n old schoolfriend m town. o He EhnrPcad upon a ,change avertround (Brm if t o m l e w down important person or thing around which most uolurneof Japanezmtry in a bookshop. @v+nlpron+& dv* v*edv+n actlvity takes plaw: The debate centres around change .elround, they m w e to where the Q v+prep other p m o n wasbefore ordo what the otherper- ,Chase M h off = CHASE SB/STH AWAYIOFF! the guestion o p o w t o The case centred around f the muples adogled children.o Her life m a change / t ~ e m a / son was dolng: a n you and Phil change round? OllT, ETC. c e n h d entirely around her family. o T e night- h Youre m tali lo stand in the front mtu 4 UWn ,chase S - out = CHASE SBhTH AWAYIOFPI lfe of the totun LS largely centred wound the ,change sblsth amund ( m p d a l l y AI@J = youget tiredof d r i u r n g w m n c h n w o w r OUT, ETC. CHANCK SHISTH ROUND 5swap amund/ow#rlmwd (informal,espp hob?.%. ,chase round(BE) =CHASE AROUND C m h sth aroundhnand ~ W 6 t h often i s ,change back 1 (Into sth) to take off your cinlIy BrE) clothes and put on what you were wearing earl- .(3v+adv ,chasesblsth up(Infbml) 1to contact sb and used in the passive. remind them to do sth they have said they would g v+prep dv* v+nlpmn+prep i e r Ill lust change brrck inlo m tracksuit. 2 y ,change s M h rountl ( m p ~ c k l l B r a (AmE y (i-o ~Wsth) return ta an earlier state or to do or that they ought to do: Ill Ehnee him andcentre on 5 h t h ; centre sth on sblsth wwlly ,changeSUM around)tomove objects, form: When you double dlc&on SELEC?: the findout whnl sgoing on. o It ishis job to chase up Ioko cenblB upon sWath, centre 8th upon such as furniture, or w p l e into different pas- clients with ouistandingdebls. a Cbuldyau chase nblsth moreforma0 to give a lot of attention or screen changes back lo the main design screen. o itions: Whoschunged t h e m o m u n d o Youre Slowly !he angry animal changed back into its up those lute replws (= remind people to r e p l y l 2 thought to one particular activitSf, idea or per- always changing ihts r w m round! I= making it to try to find sblsth that you n d ; to try to get son, etc: The discussions centred on the Aosmge normaImlm seg look different by moving the furniture, etc.) o &v+adv more information about sWsth: Werechasingup tssue oPuMic interest centred largely on rhe The Yankees keep changing theirpInyt~~r0und. two olherpmpie who w e e a t Iheprm o IIIchase teurnsshrs. o Thegmup hasmnlrwl itsatlention ,change sth back (Intoh nth) to exchange an E l r w m , furniture B swap sbhth amundl u p l p m e s t o thebnttk In th~libmry. on the need for reform. o His research is centred amount of money into the system of money overlround ( e s ~ i a l l HrE) y &v+nlpron+adv v+adv+n on theefectsof unenrpbyment. (currency)that it was in before: Crrn f chanw g v + dpmn + adv dv* v +am+ n I ~ ~ ~ t ~ EBEi Centre ath onEupon s & Isoffenused in W lhesedolkzrs k : sterling? Rinto ,change up ( l n W ath) (BrE)to mow the stick chat It$&/ (a-) the passive. Q v + nlpmn + adv * v + a&+ n (lessfreqwnt) that contmls the speed in a vehicle into a pos- Qv+prep + v+nlpmn+pmp ,changedown 1 - ( ~ t h (BrFI to move the ) ition suitable for faster speeds (a higher gem): ,chat sb up ( k $ f m f l1 ( B W to hlk in a stick that controls the speed in a vehicle into a Change up intofourth gear now fr~endlyway to sb because you are SexuaLlYchain Itsern/ m i t i o n suitable for slower speeds (a lower EE9 change down (Jntohn sth) a t t r a c t d to them: Whu was lhnt girl you were gear): Chrrnge down inm sewnd asyou approach ev+adv chaltrngup last night12 (especiallyAm& to talk,chaln sbrsth up ( o (ta) to fasten sWsth to s h t t to sb in a friendly way because you want them to else with chains to stop them escaping or being thecorer IEB chmnge up (Intolto sth) chargeI U Q : ~ ~ ; A ~ E U C C ~ ~ S I do sth for you or to give you slh: Youll h u e to stolen: Id churn your bi& up ((to ihefenoe)just in chat the boss up Rgoum n t mmednys ofl Qv+& wse. o The prisoners wexe c h a l n d up in a dark charge sb wlth ah;charge sb wlth dalng @v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n cell. ,change Into sth to put on difTerent clothes: We sth (formd) to give sb a duty, responsibility or b chat-upn ( B E ,ir#ormaO anattempt to talk in E U U Chain ~blBth~tosth)can&obeusedwith quickly changwl inlo our swinassits. 01 didnt task: A solicilor wmchafged wIfh admlnlstering a fiiendly way to sb you are sexuallyattracted to: thls meaning. brrng anything to change Into. the eslnie. He was trying someold chat-up l i m Qv+nlpron+adv dv* v+a&+n Ov+prev Th- phrasal verbs are often used in the ,change Into sth; ,chanw sbmth Into sth passlve. cheat /tri*/chalk 1t1a:kl to change, or to make sblsthchange, intosthdif- O~+nlpTOn+prep ferent: T h e m f l e hns chon@ into o hotel, o The cheat sb of sth ( a h ,&at . out8f sth) to b,chalk up 5th; ,chalk IMhem up (informal) charm /tJam;ArnEt$am/ prevent sb P o having sth, m i a l l y in an rm handsomeprince waschanged into afmg. to achieve a success, a victory a score in a game, etc, The team hns chalked up itsfif?htoin in a mu o This w k k Brotherschoiked up ~ W y w r @f business in thrs town. s + . IE3turn lnto ath,turn ablsth lnto sth v prep v + nlpron + prep ,change out of sth to take off the clothes you are ,charm sth o d of sb if you charm money or hnformation out of sb, you o b t a ~ n by using it unfair or dishonest way: He had chwted ed @x- man of f60Wll. o He rwrscheatedautof hisright- ful mherrlance. your power to please or attract people: She man- ~ v + n / p m n + p r e r v+n@mn+adv+pFBp p suceers, vlctory, wln wearing and put on difTerent ones:1 must clrnnge aged lo chnrm M o u t of him. aul o thew wef clothes b@ore I get a chi![, o She f cheal on sb to be unfaithful to your huband, A noun must always hUow up, but a pro- @v+nlprm+adv+pmp wife or partner by secretly having sex with sb noun comes between the verb and up. chn~outqf~rsuitmmnasshe~~l~hom. @ v + a&+ prep else: He uros the last io know ihul she had been @ v+adv+n r v+pron+adv chase/t~ers/ cheatinRon him,chalksth uptosth(i@rnntominkthatsth ,change over I(from nth) (to ah)to stop using ,chase amundW E a h ,chama W m u n d ) W wlC, partner,%tc. happens as a result of 8th else: We mn chalk our one system or thing and start using another: to be very b u s ~ lrushing from one place to The magazine changed o m r j h m pink paper SO Ov+pmv m n t uicfories up lo a btof luck. o When thegml another: Ive been chnsing omund all morning c h e l on to fail to do sth you have agreed or was dlsalbtved they chalkad tf up to a bad w- white zn 1917. o Wpre changing ouer to a new trying rofindagiftfir mysktm promised to de: The government hovechwted on eree deciswm mmpulerwstem DZD =witchwer(fmm ath) (to Qv+adv sth)Z(to sth)[BrE) tochange fmm watchingone lhelr cvmnmitmrmt not io mist laxes. ~~ttrlbuterthtoStti~orma~,pulsth telw~sion channel to watching another I ,chase sblsth awayfoPTroutto f m sb~sth to E 3 agreement,cornmitnmnt E down ?osth Q Y + rdpron+ adv+ prep chnrmdow toBRC1 t u ~ l the~%tbaII. o Can ure ~e run away by running after them or threatening e v + prep chanm owr?,av*, switch over (fmm sth) (to them: He chrrsed the atlackem away by firfW ,Cheat sb 0dof d =CHEAT SB OF 6TH l chalk It up to sxpwlmca (spoken, mp?- sth).turn m r (tosth) shots Inlo the ail: craily AmE) used to say that you can learn from sth bad that has happened to you @v+adv 6 v*n/prnn+adv + v*adv+n
    • .......................................................... .*...... .......-. .......away at I &lp ,, ,.....,,,......,,... Check on sbhth can be u& in the pas- ,cheek sth war ( o h ,check mrwgh 8th) to ,chew sb o d (AnaE,W?rmal)to teSlsb angrily,Check In 1 (at sth) to go to an oficial desk at a sive: The children were put t bed and then not o examine sthwritten orprinted carefully to make that they have done sth wronc Hegot c ~ o u t hotel, an airport, etc. and tell sb that you have checked on again. 4 Check sth can also be wxl sure that it is correct: Iw got to check c~ my by hi7 teach?for kink hk. arrlved:Afterchecktng in,we went outfora meal. OR SS? U!SO -B *with thesemeanings. o Y o u m r s s t c M i n a t d e s k 2 5 m l n o w ~ o ~ ~ k e - v + prep CHECK INTO STH 12 (With ~ b( ) p e - ,Check o d (esmial[yA m if fa&+ etc, check ~ uxlrkJormlling b o e h n it in. o You should friad getsomeonetochmk thetellerowrfiryou +v+adv+n a v+pmn+& r v+n+adv(hf;e- tell sb oW (for sthlfor doing sth): mprC mand sb ( f o r m l ) @v+nlpmn+adv v+arhr*n c i a l I y A m to contact sbto let them know where ~ out, they can be s h m to be correct or true: H s i g w n t ) v + prep ,chew 8th aver (alsockew on ath) (both i M r - you are or what you are doing: I h w locheck m s r o r y ~ P c h @ c k o l r r WEl stwy, reference . , c h e c k throughsth (also,cheek It, them, e c t. ma0 to think a b u t or discuss sth carefully and wish my boss euery three hours. report In d)v+adv through l e s s J m p ~ n t= CHECK STM OVR Check ) in deta~l: spent the weekend chewing o m the He (toeblsrb) ,check out; ,check out d s t h I mn ttlfor- ihrough your n m ts car&lIy o Them were23fih o oe prohlem Q v*adv maL becoming o.Mfashioned) to leave a place or l look at, and Trm sfreni h v his day c h k i n g o n E J pmbkm, Idea E F check-En n l lCTj the act of telllnganofticiatat finish an activity: Theclimb w m t d m u l t so I m t h m q h them ail +v+adv+n + v+nlpron*adv an alrport that you have arrived, showing them checked out early. o He cant just check out an us -A noun must always follow through. A , c h e w sth up 1 to bite sth until it is completely your ticket, etc: the --in desk 2 [C][U] the hke that! o Ms Caeck out of here. 2 to leave a pro~oun canrnme between the verb and through soft or destroyed: The baby c h e w the cookfeup place at an airport where you go to say you have hotel, a hosp~tal, where you have been stay- etc. or afterthroagh. and swallowed it. 2 (inflrmal) if a machine arrived, show your ticket, etc: There were long ing: Shechpckedoul thismorning. o H e k i d e d lo + v + prep v * pmn + a d v I k s j k q m 0 chews sth up, it d a m a p or destroys it: 7h ws- q m m a t the check-fn. check out of tkhospilal andgo home. W hotel, ,cheek up(especiallyBr.Ql (on sb)tamakesure setfephyerschewed tapeup agoin. the,check sb Into take sbs name when they arrive motel, hospltal EZB chock In; check Into sth that sb is doing what they should be doin& or +v+nlptwr+a#v + v+adv+n at a hotel or an a m r t , look at their ticket, etc: +w+adv r v+adv+pwp that what they have said about themselves is Write ail the names of the gwsfs in thls Book as b checkoutn ( m A [u the act or time of Im- true: They crloays check up on prospective chicken rI - they are checked in o All the pzwngem have inga hotelat theend of your stay: Checkout is10 employw, o I wont h u e you checking u p on me ,chicken out; ,chicken out of s t h ; been c k k d in. a.m. o checkout trme like that! o ld better check up to see the Irk3 am at + S B ~ U ~ C H E C K O I ! T CHECK OUT,CHECK SB OUT ,chicken out of doing sth (iqformall to E guests, pnsmngen E OK. 2 (on sth) to find out if sth is true or correct; decide not to do 6th becausc you are afraid: B I &v*nlprnn+adv + v+adv+n , c h e c k out: ,check Sb out (AmE) if you to And out what is happening: I lhink thebrrrins dnntfghthlm, everyone wrllmy thut I c h k w, c h e c k 8 t h in to leave or accept taw, cases, etc. check out ina shoplstore,orsbche~ksyouout, attenoVLxk, but Iiighone thestatiun locheck ! . p out. o She~hickenedoubofi e l l i him the truth. ~ to be put on a plane or a train: Whenwearrfuedat you find out haw much you have to pay and give o I went t the library tocheck upon afew things. o ,sr*, bonk out, -1s out oli sth, bottle out d theairpon vxch-wkdour $ags in strtaighta~vc~l sb the money: You mn ch.?ck out raftc i k eight. o as Check and check sth can a l m b used with doing sth BE luggage, baga The girl who checked me out Iwked n me F these meanings. +v+adv v+adv+prep v+nlpron +adw * v+a&+n ~fmngel~ +&?r?trhCHECK ON SBlSTH,check into sth . to arrive at a hotel, private 1 + v+adv r v+nlpron+adu @v+& chill /t$rll b checkout n the place where you pay for the b cheekup n an examination by your d W r to hospital, etc. to begln your stay there: I arrived see how healthy you are: 0 gofor a check-upo a ,chill out {Informal) to relax completely and not in Boslon and &M inta my hotel, oSRas w d s you are buying in a s u m a r k e t : There were huge queues at the checkout. o a supermar- routzne chmk-~rp get uwet or excited about anything: Chill UUL! checked rnlo a private clinicfor drug rehablIitu- Well get # m e on llme! o I spnt most of th@ twn.Ei hotel,motel,cllnlc I W b00k Into 8th E ket checkout Check O M Of Bth + M ? D hCHECK IN 1 2 to +$& U ~ F CHBCKOUT at CHECK OUT, CHECK OUT O cheerrtMr);~rnEffrrl weekendck!Ilingoul at myfriends house. OF STH Qv+adv try tofindoutmoreabout sthordiwver thetme ,cheer sb on to encourage sb, especially sb i a n b ncha~+utadj [only before noun] that helm you facts about 5th: The police are checking mto the , c h e c k stusth out I( ~ l I y A r n E j t o R n d o u t race or wmpetition, by shouting: T e m d h u torelaxor makes you feel relaxed:chill-aut music museof t h e m h . E W look Into sth if sth is true or correct or if sb is h o n e s t , t n t W , cheered the m n e n o n . o a chrll-out room (= a placea t a club, etc. where ev+prsp reliable, etc Checkhimout hyiomyougiuehim the +v+ntpmn+adv * v*adv+n you can relax when you do not want to dance) job. o Palm? haue check& out his s l o q o We wed ,cheer up; ,cheen*b&ourseW up to become,,che&k stn o f f 4 to puta mark beside items on a list to show that they are oorrect,present or have lo check out whather the comwny b wlinbie.EEi orto makesblyourself, happierormmcbexful: chime 1tm11 been dealt with: Ivecheckd ofl all f h e f u r n i t m =tory, clalm, company 2 (tnjurmnl, ~ w l a l l y A m m to look at sblsth because theylitseem inter- She seem lo haw cheered up s w Saturday. o tojoin inaconver- on the lasf. o He checked everyone5 name ofl as C h w up! o Nothing muld cheer him up. o She ,chime in(with 8th) f h g arrrued tlck atk off 2 (#pecialiy esting or attractive: Check out our new f w h w n bought somechwlafes to c M hemelf up. sationsuddenlyor Interrupt sb: Xbmlulely!shP AmE) to put a mark In a box on a document to mn&o Its wrth checkingouf that ~ I I mmur-I B brighten up: llven up. llrsn sWdh up E! ) chrmsd in eagerly o He kept Ehimirng in with his gtw an answer to a question, choose sblsth,etc: ant. o W o u i fhntgorgmusguyowrthre! e v + s d u + v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n own opin,inions. Some uorers wrote in names iwEead of checking @v*adv+n 4 v+nlpmn+adu +v+adu + v+adv+speech ,cheer sth u p to makea room,etcbrighter and o f f the candidrrtes ImW. W Check sth 1 usu- ,check sth o d (AmE) borrow sth such as a s to more cheerfbl: F l o m a l m y s ~ u aproom. ,chlmrt Inwlth stkchimewlth a t h V o m 0 alIg used with this meaning. h k or a video from a library: I checkedout t h m EEi r w m IEE) brfghten 8th up; Kvnn sth up to agree with sth;to be s m l r to sth: Hispolicies iia +v+adv+n + v+nlpmn+adv booksfromthe library. rnbook, vlden +v+adv+n v+nlpmn+adv c h t m d i n wlth lhenathnalmoodat fhefime. EZ3 Rt In wlth sth"heck on sb/sth 1to makesure that sb is safe, happ~! or that sth is progressing as it should etc. Qv+n/pmsr+a& v+adv+n chewltm~ These phrasal verb are usually used i n be. Ill jwt check on dinlaar o The doctor visited ,check sbMth wer to examine a person or an writtenEnglish. animal to make sure that they are healthy; to chew on s t h l (u(aLwchswatrth)tobitesthmn- +v+a&+prep 4 v+prep every day lo checK on myprogms+EZE p r e p a s , examine a machine, etc. to make sure it is work- tinuously, especially because you are nervous or children, patlent 2 to find out if 5th is G-ue or to test your t&h He chewed on his h t t o m lip as correct, especially sth that sb has said about ing cormtly: Thedocfor w u l d like lo c M y o u over o I g o t the carcheckedowr kjiore t e trip. h he wnsidered thequestion. 2 (it(lbrma0 = CHEW themselves: Do you always &k on future STH OVER Why dont wedreu on rtfora ruhila? ,chip aWay at sth (uwdespecfatly in the p e m p w s P o Willyou check on his address?+ see look sbfsth m r ; ekamine sblrth (more gnssivs l m to make sth smaller or weaker by ako CHECK UP form0 ev + prep e ) +v+ntpron+adv + v+adv+n
    • chlp a w a y ...........................* I-- .1 h...... . 1. 11 .........4.......11,......,........ .9 ................1*.............I. . " ,.......,,, ................... ~ ~ dean o d s I . Vigumtve) Iae gowmw xem ..- -. * -.. . -v r ,chuck sth iNup (&EE injBrmn0 to decide to be chop at 8th;,chop away at sth toaim blows stop doing s h such as a fob or a course of study: ,clam up (on sb) ( i M o r ~ l to refuse to speak t ) chippingawoy a1 peo~le8rkhls Whut nudeyou dec& to chuck in your murse?o I at sth with a sharp heavy tml: Thw chonaed at .. . A v + a r--.n* p n . t u + r -" - about sth because you are afraid, or want to keep the undergmwth with their m h e t e s . feel like chucking it all i ~ n going h c k lo n d it secret: He always chm up when uw ask o h u t,chip sth a M ~ r o f f ; ,chip d h of^ sth to + v+adv+prep Afrim hisfamily remove sth by continuously breakingoff small ,chop rrth EGl job, CW- E D Jack sfk In (M, m k . to make as a tree +v+adv plews:Sheba Rnmrtochipowu~tksEona down by sth I (BrE),glw 8 h up n t o JchipWthe m off the hm wzth u kn&. t it at the base with a sharp tool: lmm Chuck sth i d u p cannot be used in the clamp /kl-pl v+a&c+n4 v+n/pm+adv v+n/omn+-. . Th"mchoppiwdown thommof ymr: every passive Q v+adv+n v+nlpmn+adv ,clamp down; ,clamp down on sbMh,chip in(with sthl (inform0 1to join in or inter- ~ ~ ~ c u t s t h d m rupt a conversation; to add 5th to a conwrsation: ,chuck sb out, ,chuck sb out o s h Iimfor- f (informal)to become strict about sth inorder to +v+adv+n + v+nlpmn+adv prevent sth happening, especially a crime, a p m Feelfreeto chip in if IveJowom lo mentionnny- ma0 to force sb to leave a place, a job, etc: HW thvrg, o She chipped in with some internzing ,chop8th &,,chop 9th off sth to remove 6th paren& chuckdher our lohen shegotprr!gnQ?It. test, etc: The g o w r m n t Intends lo clamp down remurk 2 ( a h.ehlp Insth)to givesome money by cutting it with a sharp heavy taok The king on drug sm ugRIing. thmw sb out,t h m m out of sth;turn sb b so that a group of people can buy sth together: had his head choppedm o She choppeda bmnch E) E crack down, crack down on 8blstf1 off the tree. out (from sth),hrm sb out o sth f Has emyone chippd in for the p m n t o The &v+nfpmn+adv 4 v+adv+n + 6 v+adv + v+adv+prep mmmny har chipped in with a 8PW donution. o m cutathoff.eutsththoWsth v+ dpmn + adv* prep F c l a m p d m(on sb1sth)n sudden action that is &v+nlpm+adv + v+adv+n + v+n/pron+prep taken by a government or otherauthorityto stop k t s all chip fnfive dollars. club together ,chuck sth out (spoken, informal) 1 to r e j d a (to do sth) ,Chop sth Up to cut sth into s a l pieces with a ml acrlme, apmtest, etc. knife or a sharp tool: Shall m chop t h e Iogs up plan, a proposal, etc: The committee chucked my @v+adv2ahv+adv+n pmpoSUl0~t2 =CHUCK STH AWAY 2 ,clamp on sth; ,clamp sth om &bMh(e,chlpSth ow,chlp~ t off8 h =CHIP 8TH AWAYI h t forprewwd? o I shall ham t chop her* o up crnlfyAmEj to force sb to a w p t sth unpleasant: w v smallfor hex o Chop up the onion into smil E X ) throw ath out OFF, CHIP STH OFF STH Q u+rdpmn+adv + v+adv+n Tl~e army clumped on a curfew qfter the riots. 0 Pieces. The army clamped a cu~$ew the m ~ m c a m m on,chip OR ,chip off s h If paint or a surface t mEUtmup ,chuck sth up( B r m =CHUCK STH INMP ev+aciv+n 4 v+pmn+adv(mre) + chips off, it comes off in small pi-: The var- +, a h HACK STH UP W v + dpmn + prep nish Is ehippimg off o Most o the paint had f Qv+n/pmn+adv + v+sdv+n chippedoff thegate. Qv+adv + v+prep ,chug along (inform0 to make steady but slow claw /kla:/ cho~/tsa~t progress: Hi! How are things? "Oh,fine. jusl clawal s h t h to try tocatch 6Wsth or scratch or ,Chow down(en ah)(AmE, in&mal) to eat a lot chufigimgaiong. tear sWsth with sharp, curved nails (claws) or of fwd: We chocued dourn- on fried chkken and +v+adv with your fingernails: Themt wrrscIewin~attRa sa Iad. dwr: o She tried lo claw at h i s w .,chivvy sb alongW E ,idorma0to try tomake &v+a& churn /tJ3m:ArnEtJm/ QV+PMP sb move faster or do sth more quickly: T h chiMren ofong. teacherch~vviesthe ,churn nth out (l#&rmarl)topmducesthquickly ,claw sth back (especInlIyBE)1to work hard chrrck~t~kl in large amounts: She c h u m out t m h y m n - to get sth back that you have lost: T!teyrehying )9YH1 hurry sbisth along @ v+nlpron+adv v+a&+n m C h u c k is an i n f o r d way oP saying tic novels, o T g churn out 3 M 7 identitot lay hr A lo cia w back their shnre of the market. 2 il a gov- throw. lmim every dw. ernment claws back money it has mid tochokeItIauk: ~ m ~ t j o u k l ,chuck sth away( B ~ Einformal) 1to not make , Qv+adv+n 4 v+dpmn+adv pwpIe, it gets it back, usually by taxing them: good use of sth; to waste sth:Sheschdlng all $hum sb up (informal) to make sb feel rery Thegowrnment arechwing bock age a l l o w n m,choke 9th back to try to stop yo-If from APT I?WW away on presents fir him, o Its too upset, worried, filghtened or angry: When I in tnx. showlng a strong emotion, or saying sth that good an opporturnity lo chuck away 2 ( a h droveawayfmm the houwfor the h t tim.I was Qv+adu+n 4 v+nlpmn*adv m~ght upset sb: Hechoked hckhis tears. o A p w ,chuck 5th but)to thmw sth away because you churned up inside. b dawbaek n ( B E , busirtpss) the act of a gow- mt rose to her l r s , but shechoked lt k k no longer want orneed it: We chuck&the ool$sofi + ~ v + n l p r o n + a d v v+adv+n ernment getting back In tax the money it has @EJteam,sob(@ a m y . o DonYchuck yesterday smwout. I still paid to people; the money that i s paid back Choke sth back is not used in the passive. ,chum sth up tomwesth such asmudor w t r ae havent abw the crosst~~rd, around and damage or disturb the surface: &m + v + a d u + n 4 v+nipron+adv BYE) throw nth away and motorbikes had churned up thefield. 4sws clean /Him/,choke 8th off1 to p m n t or stop 6th: High W*nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n churned up by the a r m o @gumilve) His visit ,clean d h down(Brm to clean sth thoroughly interest mles haw chokd off investmnt. EBl chuck it d m - , churned up bitfarmemorib. by wiping or brushing it: Clwn down all !he demand, inrestrnent 2 to atop Or interrupt sth: ,d , #h l e ~ ~ f ~ l r e n t ) i a f o m b ) to rain (BrE, @ earthlgrwnd, mud, water G I wolLp Woremminting them Hswrdswere chowofi bythesuddenmms. very heavily:It waschucking itdourn outside. @v+adv+n + v+nlpmn+adu Q v +adv * n + v + nlpron + adv Qv+adw+n 4 v+n/pmn+a& )gypl pour dorm (BrE) ,clean sth &+,clean sth off sth to remove,choke up; ,choke sb up to become, or to m C h u c k it down and chuck down are claim ~ k l m l sth from the surfaceof sth by brushing, wlphg, make sb, so upset that youlthey are unable to always used withthe subject it. etc: She muZdntl betherd to clmn her make-up w 6 p e ~ T h a t s o n g ~ f l y c h o k e s m e ~ ~ o O v e i~ + a & + v + a d v ~ v + a d v + n H * t~ ,=balm sth "ckto a s k k r s t h to be returned to y o u Chimyour mwaws backfrom thecompnny. ofl o Howmn l c h n red wine off the carpet? c ~ o k e d ~ ~ f m t ~ ~ ~ t h e d 4 v,chuck~ - In (BrE, infomid) to include sth s h e sth ev+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n + v+dpron+prep Choke sb UP i usually used in the pass* s E d tax, money mtr, with what are selling offering with. @ v+nlpmn+& dv. v*adv+n ,clean a h t h od, ,clean sbbth out of sth w ~ t be or get. h out xncreasing the price. 4 you buy thefreezer @v+adv + v+nipmn+adv (rnforman to use up or take all sbs money: to and thefrr&e well chuck in a W e r : take or buy the whole supply of sth that sb has: Buyhg drrnksfor ewqwne cleaned me out o Irs b m a great yeur for s o h . Were completely
    • clean out I.... ............ ............ .......*I...........A .. ...................-... I.. 50 "," _ ...................... ................,,, _. ~ ................................................................ ......~ 51 ........... close olrt clsaned out (= weve soTd all our supply). o Tfte ,clear sb away to make sb leave aplace: dfngI k W (cluna, clung W l ) ,close down (BrE)if a radio or telwision sta- smIl w a s c M o u t c newspapers by 8.#a.m. o f Tkpolimclwmdthe demonstmlors a m . tion closes down, it stops braadcasting pro- Burgh3 had c h n e d theplace out (= had stolen @ v + nlpmn + adv + v+ adv+ n cllngto sth ,cling an to a h to beunwillingto grammes at the end of the day everythhg). stop doing, believing or thinking abut sth:l o be +v+adv ,clear off (iMorml,m l l y BrE) to go or r u n unw~llingto ridof sth: Istilicling to the ham get Qv*nlpmn+adv + v+nlprcn+arhr+prsp away: Youw mo right t be here. C h r off!a ~e o b croae4wm n [sing.] the end of broadcasting that hesaliue. o ShescItnlerngon to thewst. on television and radio until the next day ,clean sth out to clean the inside of sth thor- clewed off pr soon as he hwrd the pol& mr o I FZT pest power, tmdltion oughly Weclean the stabIesourewry@ -B Qh CLOSE-DOWN at CLOSE DOWN, CLOSE ~ v + n l p r o n + a d4 v+adv+n b clean& v n IusualIy 8ing.J (especially Bra an -.--. -,hnmm rlwrrnff .-. . , Q v+ adv , - asked ifIwrrIdphy with them, but they toldmto Q v + prep 4 v + adv + prep STH DOWN ,close down: ,close sih down if a shop, occasion when you clean a room, house, cup ,clear out; ,clear OM of 8th (idorman to cl0ekpTnk:~m~~~k:kl store, business,etc. claws d m , or sbcloaes It bard, etc, thoroughly; the activliy of cleaning a leave a place qulcltfy: Wauld it be k t & rfor you Cf ,clock sb Inton (Brm w record ,clock Frvon: down, it stops operating as a business,usually room. house, cupboard, etc, thoroughly I just cimred out and went back KO London? o 1 the time that you arrive at work, especially by permanently: Many blrstnmseshaw c M damn ,olegn up( i n f i r m 0 to be verysuocessful; to win told him to c h r out of the h o w by Monday. putting a card into a machine: to do this for sbor becawe of the recession. o The gouernment fm a lot of money or prizes: The mouie clearned up ~r ,8Yn, get out, get out of sth chwk the t ~ m ethey arrive at work: We arriued closed down most of the mines. o The hospital . hhewards cemmny. t @ v + a d u v+adv+prep andclockd onfor the nightshlft. closed down Instyear ev+adv punch In,punch sb In(AmE) IE3 shutdown,shut sth down ,clear sth out to make sth empty and clean by 10PP)clock offloul JDPP)open up, open sth up ,clean up: ,clean yourself up to wash your- removlng what you do not want: Iclerrmdouf olb Qv+adv 4 v+nlpron+adv Close and close sth are also used with this self or make yourself clean: III just clean . p u thecupbnards, before dinner: o They ccleaned themIves up and ,clock In at rth to L tt or take a particular ps m~aning: TheJacIory wasclowcf l sw: al t Z E 3 tidy sth out (BrEj Q v + a d v v + a b v + n + v+nlpmn+adv put on their k t clothes. olts time yon got Qv+adv+n + v+nlpmn+adv amount of time: to cost a particular amount of ckaned up and readyfor theevening money: Thefmtest runner c h k e d in at 3 minutes c close-duwn n K l [sing.]the stoppingof work r elear.out n [usually sing.] (i?@rral, e s p especially permanently, in an office, factory, etc +v*adv r v+pmn+adu cia!& BrE) the act o f throwing away all the 4umnds +v+adv+prep 3 ~ e e a k CLOSE-DOWN at CLOSE DOWN 0,clean up; ,Clean sth up to remove dirt, etc. things you no longer want or n e d or of getting from a place and make it clean: Jw got to c h n rid of people you no longer want: a chr-our of ,clock oftfow, clock sb offhut ( mto B plose In1(on sblath)to come nearer to and aur- up Worn my parents gel home. o Whos going ta sm to reduce the wages bi!l record the tlme that p u leave work, especially round sWsth i a frrghtening way or in order to n attack them: The enemy ES chiw in. o Thefog clean the place up after you? o HOWoften is the ,clear up if the weather c- l up, it b m e s by puttingacard intoamachhe; todothislorsb: trash and Uiterclwntd up? br~ghter rain, etc. moves away:Fora week, it and ZhnIJor~eeto cclack when you h u e . t o n was closing in on us. 2 (psplaily BrE) when the E E i mess, house,environment ,ar*, punch out, punch sb out ( A m days close in,they gradually become shorter mrndallday a n d c h m d u p i n theevening. The dnyslnights are closrng in now that Q v+ adv 4 v + adv+ n 4 v + nlpron + adv )OPP) c l w k lnhn, clock sb lnlon brlghten up @v+adv * v+nlpron+adv auturnn!foll is hem, o The evenrngs are In b elearwpn [usually s b . 1 the act of r e m o v i-" ~ n &bv+nriu v -- J u t . E ) m In ( B r B Ed dirt,etc. From aplace toclean it ,clear up: ,ofmar sth up 1 to make 8th clean ,clock On:,ClOCk sb On (BrE) =CLOCK INION, 3 See a138 CLEAN-UP at CLRAN STH UP CLOCK SB INION +v+actw and neat: I!I he$ you clwr up. 0 C h r up the ,close sth off (to swsth) to put sth across the,cleansb upto clean sb thoroughly:DadctPoned mess m here Worn you go. mess tldy ,crock out;,clOCk S b OM( B E ) =CLOCK OFPI me up after Ifell over in the mud. entranw to a mad, a room,etc. so that people up, tidy ath up Immialljr BrE) 2 if an illness, OUT, CLOCK SB OPF/OUT cannot ga in: P o l h h u e c M t ?arm off lo h ~ v + n l p r o n + a d v v+adv+n + infection, etc. clears up or sth clears it ua. it ,clock sth up(iMormal)to wln or achieve a par- disappears. The m h cleared up wry pukkiY. o t m c . o (l7guratiw) We dont want to c h M,clean sth up to remove criminals, crime or t~culm number or amount: Weve clockd up 5W any options. lmmoral b e h a v i m from a place or an organiza- The anbibiolhz shuld clear up the rnfection. milts (= weve travelled 500 m l s W p o The ie) @v+dpmn+adv * v+a&+n tion: The mayor is determined to c h n up the city rash, Infection company has clocked up m r d e r t s t h i s p r andnaakeiro WerpIaceto Izw. o Themmp~ny is Qv+adv 4 v*nlpmn+abv r v+adv+n mllea.years notch sth up *close on abMth (BE)to make the distance m gto clean up Its rmage. l n & v + adv + n * v + nlpron + adv (rare) between you and sWsth eke smaller,for example ,clear 5th up to sdve a pmbkm; to h d an in a race: I m s h w b closing on the runner E B city, Image explanation for sth: to clear w a mystery o tm oflead 0J me. @ v+adv+n v+nlpmn+adv g M weuechwdthut rnlstmk-standirqg up. clog Mas;ArnElda:gl(qg-1 IFJJ clean up y w r act to stan behavhg In a ESl eonfualon,r n m , problem, mystery Q v prep + responsible way ,clog up (with ath). ,clog sth up (wfm sth) to close onlover 8th to surround nth, covering it +v+adv+n 4 v+nlpron+adu become, or to make sth, blockd so that nothing b crsamrp n [usuallysing.]the act of remwlng or holding it tightly: His fingers closed over the crime or immoral behaviour fbm a place or an can move: The pipe hardclog& up (withmud).o money. organization Theroads were clogged up wrlb Smm. ++v+P~P ,climb down ( m r sth)(ilbfoml)to admit that EEI mads, p l p s ,svP, block up, block sth q Clog and clog ath are used with a slmllar ,close out 4Am.57 if a shop/store closes out It -B ~ e e ~CLEAN-UP ~ C L E A N CLEAN STH UP t h B UP, you are wrongor have made a m s a e to change itk: sells everything very cheaply before it stowclear ~ w rAmE &I ); your position in anargument: Thepmidenr was meaning. &v+adv v+adv+n r v+nlpron+adv operating as a business: The stom rs closing oul +for& lo climbdom and issue an apolo~y.,clearakray;,clear d h awey ( m l l y ~ r ~ E D back down ( v n h m sth); glm In (to N s t h ) ) on Monday with discounts of up lo 75%. to remove things that you have been using and Qv+adv +v+adv t closeout n an occasion when a no longer need ln order to leavea clear space: lbl b cllrnbdorm ( o w ah) n an act of admitting help you to clear away q#r ten. o to c h r m y fe ,close around shlsth (BrE a h ,,eloae shogstore sells all remaining g d s very that you are wrong or have lnade a mistake; an abouVmund sblsth) to surround sblsth, hold- cheaply before it stops operating: a c i o ~ u l s f i l e the dishes o CQn you c h y u u r baoksatuay? act o f changng your position in an argument Ing themllt tightly: HisfingemcIosedamunrIher EEEll ln British English,thk iscalled a closinfg- +v+adv + v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n wrist. o (figurutiue) The darkness of the night down sale. was c h i w a h o u l hlm Q V+PW
    • I............................................................. . come after .........................................close 8th out 1 to Drewnt lipht, sound. etc. clue MU:/ from entering a place: eve need a cwtain up there with whatever time and materials you have milable: UFguraliue) Tlae gouernrnenl s~etlosto - across - abwt 57 -into - Of lo close out the light. EM IIgM, noise FEB akut ,Clue sb tn{on/about sth)(AmE, Injbrml) to give sblsth out 2 (ArnE, informa0 to bring sth to an sb reliable information about sth: Can you clue me in on thefncls o t h e m ? f h u e cobbled logether thestpmposnls. M - - afler - off - on end. The late closed out the fhm-day debate. 3 ( A m 0 if you close out a bank acwunt, you stop @ v+ nlpmn + adu +v+adv+n r v+nlpmn+adv - along - around aprl - on to - onlupon keeping money in it: Id f& to close out my mu- ings account. BEl only acwunt mClose sth b ,clued-In (onlahut sth) mij having a lot of information about sth - away - from al 58 - - wt at Out. Wt 01 is also used with this meaning. W C l u e d - u p is used in British EnglIsh with this meanlng. ,cockup;,cotk 8th up(slang,especiutly BrBrE) to spoil or ruin sth by doing it badly or by mak- - - away - in - wt$- 1 Qv+adv*n v+nlpron+adv over sth =CLOSE ONIOVER STH ing a mistake: Youvereuily cucked up this tinze. o The trawl agency curnpkkiy m k e d up the - - away with back - - w t wnh over,close round sbMh (3r.E)= CWSE AROUND C ~ U Iklns~r)l S ~ ,cluster around abMth (BrE a b , I G- arrangements. o Trust hrm to m k things up agoin! - - backto belore over to - round 58 -past snlsm,close up 1to clrwe mmpletely: Hiseyehudsw6 abwtrmund sW8th) to form a m u p around themarkel stalls. )SYHI mms UP, msss ah up; bungle a h (&for- 55 - hem -by - - lhmdgh ien and c b c d up. o The cut look a long time io sb/sth~~pDcItssleradam.und & v + prep mu0 +v+adv + v+dpmn+& - dorm - to down on - - lo logethar close up (= ta heal). DEB Open up 2 to hide your thoughts and feelings: She closed up when I men- ,cluster t o w h e r to come together In a small group: Thechitdwnclutited t o g e l k in a m r w n t eoek~p (slang,esperiully BrE) a mistake that spoils or ruins plans or arrangements; 9th - for - dorm down with 60 - under -up tioned her father apen up 3 if people or vebfcles close up, they mow nearer to each o theroom f that has been spollt because it has been badly done: Shes made a compkk cock-up of the 58 - forth - - - upagalnst up for other: m c wesheavyandmrswreclosingup behindeach other Qv+adv arrrurgensenls. - - forward from in - - upon uplo +v+adv,close up: ,cfose sth ,up to shut and lock a clutch at sthkb to t y to get hdd o sWsth sud- r f - - rn In@ wlth 61 - upon -wih up wilh denly: She clutched a#her stomach, obvtously in ,coil up; ,coil sth up to wind into a series of bullding completely for a perlad of time: Yougo on home, IIEcloseup (= shut the shop/stare). o He pain. clrdes; to make sth do this: The make coiM up closes she shop up nt 5.30, o T T h a y M the house E 9 wtch atrtMb:grnlp at sth in t h sunrhine. o He wlled the r w up neatly. o across clearIy7o These themes m m arross uery E i rope, strlng g strongly in the novel. o I could Zell she x mfrighG upand rented an amrtmenr in fhecig Q u + m OZIelwtch atstrawa totryeverymible wayto @ v+adv * v+nlpmn+sdv 4 v+adv+n end. It mme over in her voice o The feling of I F 0 open up, open 5th up Qv+adv + v+nlpron+adv + v+adv+n escape h m a dficult situation even though solidarity among thepeople m f l ymme fhrowh. theremms to belittle hopeof doing so 2 (ArnEolso ,corneoffi~ormal) advlprep] (as [+ ,-lour sth In to AU a shape, an area, etc with sth) to make a particular impression on people: clutter /klnta(r)/ colour, using pencils or pens: Why dont you wl- Shemmaswoss uwll m interviews 0 At thepress,cloud ovw1 if the sky or the weather clouds our thepicturn in? mnfereixe, he came owras cooland mMdent. wer, clouds wver the sky and the sun disap ,clutter sth up(* eth) to fillor c w e r sh with t (gv+adv pears: I t s s t u s l i n g l o c Z d o IjZEllt, the sky 2 lotsof things50 thatitlooksveryuntidy: IMsikk rn picture, drawlrig o ail these books clutterhg up my o m . f &v*nlpron+adv * v+adv+n to ,come across(wlth sth)(imrrnal) provide or if your face expression, etc. clouds over, you Clutter 6th i u S B ~ s with a similar mean- supply sth that sb asks for, especially money: start to look sad, worried or angry: His Jm cloudadouer when she walked into the rwm. lsvarl ing comb / k m ; n a E k m / A TTzeyevenfuni~y mmacross with rmmther$Z5UWD. o Westilf hope thecumpuny willmmeacross$or us. face. expreaslon,%yes +v+adv Qv+aUv+n v*ntpron+adv ,comb sth out 1touse a comb toremoveknots from your hair or to make it neat: My hairs so v*adv + b g that it takes wages lo wm6 it out. BEi hair ,come across;,come across sth to cross a nclown l k l a ~ 2 (also ,tomb slh out of sth) to remove dirt, room, a road, a nver, etc. towards the place ,coax sb Intosth; ,coax sb /Wdolng sth where the speaker IS: When youus &w your,clown around (BrE also , e l m almut) to to persuade sb to do sth by talking to them gen- knots, etc. from hair or fur with a comb: She bmhed her hairandthen cornbedout the he?@m. homumrk corn ucross to my h o w and weU lis- behave i a silly way to make other people Iaugh n tly: Can wecwxyou htosingingfirw? ten to some music. o She waued and mme across (f) v+ nlpmn+ prep knots,lEangks mew around{informan the room to tuik to me. +v+nlpron+adv v+adv+n2also 6 vtadv ,coax sb out of 8th;,coax sb mitof dOlng v+ dpmn + adv+ prep &v+adv + vtprep sth to prsuade sb not to do sth by talking ta ,come a c m s sblsth tomeet or find shlsth by them gently: Try to w h i m out o resipnine. f comem/ (cams /kerm/wms) chanw, without having planned or thought,club together (to do ah) if people club Q v+ nlpmn + adv* prep about it: Hes the most unpIeamnl man Iwewr together, they each give an amount of money so ,coax 8th out of sb: ,coax 8th from sb to ,tome aboutto happen: Its hard W tutdemtmd come acmss. o She m m m s s a pile of OM that the total can be used for a m i c u l a r pur- persuadesb todosthortogive you&hWtalking how the midenl c m abut. o a n you tell us u phomgmphP whrleshe wmchringfheadlic. gently ShecoLwedasmilefmmthe hb. horn it come a h u t thatyou d e d d to stnke? pose: T h y clubbed logethm f buy thear tmcher a a encounter sWsth Iformull present. + v + nlpron + adv + prep * v + nlpron + prep FEE) happen ev+adu @ v + prep )SYH) cNp In (wtlth ah) ,come after sblsth to chase or follow a person +v+adv cobblejkubl;~m~kmbl/ ,come across( a h,comeover) 1(atso ,come or an animal t o m to catch them: Theformer through)[+advlp repI (of an idea, an opinion or a ,cobble sth together (inform0 to put sth came Mer them, thmtming lo call thepoIice. feelmg) to be expressed clearly and understw toaether or to make sth quickly or carelessl~ Do eas~ly you think the films m g e w m Q v+prep
    • eame along 54 come............................................................................................................................................................................................................... " .................................................................................................. for 55,come d o n g I to arrive or a m somewhere; ,come back 4 to return to the place where the enjoying or having 9th: Nobody wSl m r mme 1 4 (from a h ) (BrE,@rmnl)to leave a university to s M to exlst, happen or be available:Its lucky speaker is: Come back hem at o m ! o DEd she hsy ea k t w e n them o Idont want to c m &ween her u (especially Oxford or Cambridge) af?er finishing you came a b w when you did or Id have been whenshe wascominghck?o Why dontyou mme and her mrk. your studies: When did you w m down yi.om smnded at the bus smpfir an h w o When the o ! backto m y p ~ f h r o n?ee?o ~ I Q r T mme back * v + m %ford)? FEl come up ( o t right oppwtuni?~ o r n along, k l l take if. o c fmm the friprelaxed and happy9o She w n t into ,COme by;,come by d h 1to passsbkthwith- ~v+advlOalsov+adv+n There are new desims corning nhw Wrn the kitchen ond c m back with two glmw o a f out stopping:Somekids on bikescam &,butthey m w m e (back) down to earth (wfM a up3to go somewhere withsb: Weregormtothe milk o Well c o r n back for the car Eomorrow. o banglbump)to return to the reality of weryday dadnt n o t h me. 2 ( e s p ~ i a lA~ 0 to wme to lm p u b Do you want to come aZongPo Youd htter figurntive) L ~ u e mcame back from b e i n $ Z - B l vrsit sb for a short time In a msual or informal lire after a period of great excitement or a time mmealongwithmlothep0Iurestation 3 =COME down lo mm thegame. E O return (moreformal) E o way: Thanksfor comrq b y j w t e r d a ~ Come ty when you have been living in a way that is not ON 4 4 come along! (especially Brm = coMe ON 1 2 to begin to exist or happen agaln: M -he y very practical: Hemme(back)down to earth with onyourway homejsom work. o Ifyournme & the (bv+adv h a s come h c k again. o Her confidenixis st or fin^ a bang when he discDvered that all ~ L money hod oflce tomori-uw, 11 h w it t w d y for you. EE) 2 a S,come dong; ,come along sth to mow for- lo come back slowly. ESl return E B gm m y run out Ump by; atop by, stop by sth ward or fromoneendof sth to the other, towards 3 to return to school or work after a b m k . Do Qv+adv +v+prep r komedownn [usually sing.] ( i @ r m O a situ- the speaker:I wailedforages for e bus, then three you know when Bill a coming buck t work?4 to o ation which is not as gwd, important or interest- kame popular, successful or fashionable -me by byth to manage to get sth;to receive 8th cm along logether! o The lorry luas cumin# a ing as one you have experienced previously: Its again: Punk hairs&les are coming h c k inlo by chance: Jobs are hard to corn by these days. o along the rwrlolgreutspcd. Inf5rmtion a h u t Ihe commny was not eusy i o a bit ol a armdown after herpmiolrs job. E a road fashion. o Punk hairstyh are coming back in. o Doyou lhrnk trams mill nm back75 (of a me% m corn by. o How dfdyou come by that cut on your ,come down: ,come "down 8th to move h m Qv+adv + v+pmp a hlgher place or position to a lower one, or from sage or a reply) to b given in answer to a m e s z hand?,come apartto breakorfall intopieces: T h e w - s a p , letter, etc. that you have sent or a question get sth; obtaln ath ( m f o r m i ) a d~stant place towards the speaker: Came down got just cum apart in m3 hands.o ~ u m t i v e ) that you have asked: I sent her an e m i f and a Come by sthcanbeused inthe passive,but fmm that bree!o The car u r ~ s cominjg down !he After thefirst act, the play begins to corn apart message mme bock thatshe was away. 6 (fo sb)to t h i s is not common: OldpustmrdsarefairIy eas- road lowords ~ls. Jack: wme down thestaim tua o a t f l u seam(= have a lot of problems). return to your memom often suddenly: 11:~ aN 1fymmehy at a t~m. E fall apart 9 mming boclr to me nom 7 (at sb) (wlth nth) to +V+P~P E B come up, come up sth @v+adv reply to sb quickly, strongly or angrily. Shecam ,come down 1 (from... ) (t.. )to travelhmone o. @ v+adv + v+prep,come around(es@allyAmEj =COMB ROUND h k at the spaker with some quesfiona o He place to another, especially from the north of a ,come downon sb (informal) to punish sb or,come around ,come around sth (espe came bock simighmway, telling me what he country to the south, Whenamyougoingtamme cr1tid7~sb severely: Themurtsaremmingdorun cialIyAmt3 =COME ROUND, COME ROUND STH thought o me. f down and see us? 2 d a price, a level or an laaavily on drug dealers. o h n t w m down too,-me around 5th (BrEaIso ,come round ~ t h ) v+a& + amount comes d m , it becomes lower or less hard on him -hesgoung. Come down on sb is always used with an to move or travel around a corner: The bus m m b mmebsek n 1 [wually sing.] if a person than before: Ol is coming down in price. o I W - i makes a wmeback they return to performing twn hari come down twice in the h l month. W adverb such as hardandlor a phrase with a simi- roundthe bend Iwfasf. or to public life afler a longtime, or they b m e decrease (more formal), drop; fall go up lar meaning: If it happens again, we?[ cvme EFi only comer, bend popular amin: The bnnds trying to mkeI.Fiage a -You can also use come back up with the down on youm hardthotyoufl wishyoudneuer ++V*P~? comeback. 2 if something makes a comeback it opposlte meaning if a prlce, etc. is increasing k n born. o H m m down om me like a Zon o e fwme at sb to m m towards sb as if you are becomes popular or fashionable again: Cnrboom tosards what it had been before: 011 p r m are brrcks. gorngtoatlackthem:Shmmeatmewitha knife. seem lo bemakingummeback. 3 awayof getting coming back Up (= they have been high In the Qv+adv+pmp o yigurafiue) The questhm ca at ms sofast rm payment or a reward for sth unfair or wrung that past, then they feu, but now they are rising that Ididnl have time to thinkabut t e hm ,come down to sb (from s m h )t bemssed to o has been done to you: Will I haw no comeback tf again). 3 to break and fall to the ground: Part of sb from sbwho I h d in the past: Xf~esfniemm QV+P~P the aontracifalls thmugh?4 a quick reply that is the ceiling hodcome down. rmR)cdlapse 4 (of a down to herfrom her grnn#dMcome at 8th to approach, think a b u t or try to often anerv. insulting. clever or humorous: For plane, etc.) to fall from the sky; to be brought n_suarl atory, name, tradltlon dcal with a quest~on, problem, etc. in a particu- ,in hiri:Ire, no shrgmmbnck. *he down to the ground. The pilot ~ v aforced to come s &v+adv+prep lar way: Wem nowhere. Uts try wrning ,come ,back to sthto return to a down in afild. 5 (of rain,snow, etc.) to fall: The ,come down to sth to beable tm beexplalned as at theproblemfrom a duerent angle, subject, an ~ d e aetc. andstart to talkabout it or , min roar wmingdown hnrder now.Lausllonlythe Ellproblem one simple, Important question or point: It ell think about it: JI1 wme Lack lo that mint in a raln, the *now E O fall 8 (+ advlprepl to decrde F comes down to a matterof p r i o d h i n themit. o 9 v+PreP moment. o It always seem to come k k to the that yousupport or oppose sblsth and say so pub- When it mmes doton to 11 (= themost important,come away; ,-me awa~ from s 1 t * o o money. f Ilcly: I kmw mvmmnls wouMcomedownon my fact IS), we cant Uord lo go a W h 1 it corns leave a place or a person: Come QwaH now. Theresmthinglosee. o Jammmeaumyfmmthe ,-&,,rn to , . --. # u+a&+-o - (mmformcrl) &, sisters side. o The cammrtteecam down ngainst the proposaL o Voters came down firmly in down b is a choiw betwen m or happiness. ow <b v + adv + prep nseettwfeellwangryand~pse1.2ltobecomesep ,come Wfom s h t h ~ r m O ( uaflegal case,a fawur of reform. 7 when the curtain in a theatre arated from sth: He pulled a! the d w r handle wmes down, it is the end of the performance: ,came down wlth sth to get an iuness, often prop~ssl an issue) to be p m n t e d to sWsth so or not a very serlous one. I m e dam with a h d m untll it come away in ~ L hands. o T e p h t e r S h that they can dixuss it or make a decision or a When rhecurlain camedown, wallwhebfirr the had started Socomamyfrom the wall. extrs. EE9 go up B [+advlpmp] to reach down to cold.o IthinkIm mrningdown with something, judgement about it: The caw comm &for@ the E l flu, a cold rsPa, go rlwm wRh sM catch + v + a o + v+aUv+prep court nert w k . o The bill mme befire padia- a particular pine My mothers hair comes dourn to her LunrsZ. 9 (lnfirmal) to stop havlng the sth,getsth,come away wlth sth to leave a place with a men! Iosl month. Q v+ adv + prep pleasant feelings andexcitement that sth such as particular feeling, L m m d o n or result: She m the cowr?(s), c o m m m , Judge, parllb an enjoyable exwrlence or a drug produces: ?Re %om@ s M h 3 to #me to sbs home, or to for mme away from the championship with ihm rnent medals. o Weurmeamy wfihtheimpmum that mrty was sogood Jhavent redly come down yet. the place where sblsth is in order to t k thewit ae & v+ pw , 10 Ifmm sth) (to Mh) (of aperson selling sth) to somewhew: The pdice mmfbr him this morn- ~ l m e l h i n was wrong. g ,come betwaen sb and sb: ,comebetween Qv+adv+prep 8llggeSt or agree to a lower price: I wasnt pre- ing. o Have you c u m f i r the parcel! 2 to attack sb and sth to h a m or disturb a relat~onship p o d topay.EISW,butYhwmnfual!ycamedown sblsth: Sam mmnr me wrth hiFp& between two pwple; to prevent sb &om dolng, ?o 11350. o Can you c m down aiwiher $309 u Q v + prep
    • ,came Ywth {litemw) appear or be p r o d u d to #he b0& +M? h COMB IN, COMB IN STH, COMB a ,come Into sth T tobegin to exist, h a m , etc: amount of money mmes otT a price, the price He struck lhe rock and mlermmforth INTO STH; COME IN, COME INTO STH; COMB INTO STH Tht cherry dreesarecomfngh l o bIossom. o The becomes lower by that amount: Tm s a UKW i pm +v+adv Qv+adu band only c m Info being in 1995. o When do a i s coming ofl theprice of pelrollgasoline. b ,Whcomlng W1 [only before noun] about m o mIn handyPudut to be u& , n c s& T h she ?ww regulations come inlo foW&xt?o +v+a& v+prep to happen or appear very smn: Who i s in h x e s will come in handy when uwmove house. When did the Labourparty a m rnto ofiw?od ,came off8th T to stop using sth;to stop taking o of promoring the bands forthmming album? 2 b Income n money that YOU receive reguhlx variety offactors mme into play when chming a drug, medicme, alcohol, etc: Its time she W i d [not before nounl ready or made avallablewhen as espcc~ally w e n t for work a n employee. 2 to receive a large sum of money to mme flsleepingpi1.k 2 (of heat, a smell,the you need rt: UrIfortunateIy moneyfir the p r o j ~ t F Fnwmlngd [only W o r e noun] 1t a e l n j rvlig when sb dies: S h rampwUdIy mme inta a for- wind, etc.) to start from a prtlcular place or h a s not ken u m y forthmm~w. 3 [not before towards a place and arriving there: incoming tune when hercousin d&. E J a fortune. money thing. T e ewas a mist cumingoff the M. hr noun] (of a person) ready to give Inf~rmation Jlighrsl-ngers when they are asked: H : not veryforrREoming 2 (of the sea) mmbng towarrls 3 tobe important inaparticular situation: Igol the job because I WQS the hest. My looks didnt e + v prep e? the land 3 (of a phone call, letter or message) .come otr Itl used to tell sb that youthink or about h b hue life. that has k n sent to youor received by you: Thts c m into It, o He sook the job bemuse he liked a know that what they have said is untrue or that ,come Tornard (wWh sth) to offer to give help, phone only takes i m t n g c a l k 4 recently the work. M o w didnt come into the equalion. you disagree with it: Come o if! EngInnd wit2 n inrormatlon, etc: Police have asked wttnesses t o appointed or elected: tha incom~ng Sacklist gov- it, the cquatlon never wm! mmeforwurrb. o Were hoping lhata q w m r will ernment +S@@ak0CQME 1N;COMEIN,COME IN STH,COME ,came on 1 (also ,come along e s ~ l l BrE, y come forward wilh the emm m o w . o No one ,came in; ,come I n 8th: ,come Into nth to INTO STH: COME IN,COME lNTO STH kssfkquent) used to encourage sb to do sth,for cameforward lo claim the reward. enter a room or a building; to pass through 5th ~v+P*P example, to hurry: Comeon, uwll Be late. o Corn +v+adv m c o m e Into Ilne(wkh *blsth)tobehaveinthe on, thrngs mnt LM that Bad! 2 used to show that suchasa ho1e.a window, etc: Iknockedandheard s a y other people behave, or in the way you you do not believe what sb has said or that youcome from ... <notlrsedfnt h e p ~ I u e i e ~ ) her say &me in: o The rainkconzing in through shouId behave eome Into ywrnts ownto have to be born in or live in a pwticulas place: Where that hole. o 112 ask him lo mll you as s w n as he disagree with them: Come on! You dmt m l l y comes in (= arrives home or a t work). o The sun the opportunity to show yourltts qualities or m t me o klieua that doyouP3 (of a light, the do you mmefhrn?~h e r a m f r o m London. S abilities: After two m t h e r m r games,h e j i m l l y ev+prep was corning in at rhe windows. o When you mme electriciw, etc.) to begin working; t~ be switched in the d m ;youllfind Reception on your left. o w m into his own in the game against Germany. on: Does the heating come on automattmlly?~come from sth to start in a particular place or o This bike mtZy comes into its own on rough flue set the heow to t m on at pue. E E lights be made from a particular thing: Most o Iha f She mme into the m m crying. o 3F&CSkoCOME IN: COME IN. COMB INTO STH: #round. go of1 4 ( a h , m e along) to make wines that rue sell wmfrom France.o & I your -me of slh:come of dolng sth ( a h c o m s progress: to improve or develop in the way that COME INTO STH information come &m n rebiabl~? u m ? o l m m from sth, come f o mlng sth) to happen as a rm Iw Thats rich. mrniwfmm you! (= you are aP +v*adv r v+prep you want: Your Renth Is really coming on+o result o l 5th: He p m m W to helm but I h n t Tims w m o n well with theguirac o Hows din- lazy too) o He comes from a wenlthy family. o ,come in:,come into sth 9 to go to anoffice or think anything WIII mrne of it. o Thats W h a t m r coming along? 5 (of a n actor or a performer) W s that terriblenoise mmingfromPo 93%of the place where you work, in order to do some work: Am you mming into the offroe kvnorroru? comes of not Ilsiening to my aduice! o I had the to walkonto the stage and start toperform: When our energy comsfmmfosstS fuek feelmngof scstqfactiun thnimmespvmdoingadif- am Westlire coming on? 6 (m sport) (of a player) Q v prep @L the office+ work 2 to have a part to play in sth; to play a useful role: Ilike theplan, but whee ficuitjob mil. to join a team mstead of another player during a EEl w h e w sb Is mlghorn (spoken,iqfor- W Come of sth i s often used with a negative: do I mme in (= what is my mle)7 3 to became game: Robson c u m o n in plumof Wilkins.7 (of a ma0 a persons situat~on,attitude, ideas, etc. I ~ l hcm nogwd wuldcome o it. d f fashionable; to start to be worn or used: When telwlsion programme, etc.) to start to be shown: that make them say what they have said: Iknow m l y whereyou mcomingfmrn. dzd platrorm h i s ccuns in? o Trolleybum first 0 V+PEP What time does the n e w m m on? 8 (pspeclaIly mme in m 1923. o Punkcbthesm to tw earning ,come off1to be able to be removed: Does thrp B r m (of a season. a period of time, an illness,come from sth: come from dolng 8th = inlofashion again. lE9 go out 4 to go t a hos-o knob come oflT (inJorma0 to take place; to h p a etc.) to begin: Ptsgmfng c o k Winters wming COME OF STH,COME O F DOING STH pital to receive treatment, tests, etc. t 3 n you pen: Dd your Pip lo New York ever come OF on, o I think Ive gor a mid corning on. o Jt came i 3,come in when the sea comes in i t moves mme infor rhe X-myson Friday? (informl) if a plan, etc. mmes oT,it i s success- on lo win. W In this meaning, come an is usu- towards the land: The trde ump w m h g n fast. g n + se@also COME IN;cohrE IN, COME IN sTH, come ful or it has the result that you intend: Her alIy used in t h pmgresslve tenses 9 [+ adv] to go ~ E E 3 go out 2 to finish a race in a particular pos- INTO STH;COME INTO STH attempt to b m k t e tvorld m r d nearly came o n h to aplace: Cumeon m and makeyourself at home. Ition: WIaichhorse m m infirst?3 to arrive; to be Qv+adv * v+prep 4 [+ adv] (inform0 if somebdly comes offwell o My wifekmmingon hter received: N e m is coming in o o tmh crash in f or badly in a fight, a contest, etc, they finish the +v+adv Scotland. o Weve got more w r k mming In than ,Come In for sth to receive sth, especially sth fight in a god or a bad condition: He always ,=me on shong to speak or behave i a n lw can handle. 0 I mm all the heins that m m in unpleasant: The government hns come in for very forceful way, especially in a way that shows severe crrticism from all o T e company h comes off w m t infights. 5 WmE, idorma0 = from London o Weve gat j u t enough money COME ACROSS 2 sb you want to have a sexual relationship with coming in& month &pay the bills. 4to become mme infor a htqf stkk (= a lot of crit~cism) with them their odwrtismgcamprrign. +v+adv available: English stmwhemies uslurlly c m in u k ancomlnl d [only M o r e noun] advancing j E L (severe) crirlclnm ,come "off; ,come off sth 1 to become inJune. oNewjobammmln@Inallthelime.5if detachedor separatedhmsth: nLehandleCUm towards you.approaching you a law or a rule comes in, it is introduoed and 6 v + adv + prep off m my h a d . o A button hns come off w cocr t. ,come on; ,come on sth to bedn speaking to begrns to take effect: New legislation coming m ,come Vn wRh sb(m sth),,come In (m sb) 2 to fall from 5th: My glasses came off when I sb on t h e telephone: I had a long lalk WW my m t month will tackk lowpnp 8 to take part in a on sth if somebdy comes in wlth you, they mthLlt: then my dad mme on. o Sue come on the tripped. o She bmked shnrply and mme off her discuss~on, sometimes by interrupting sb: Id join you In a particular project, activity, bus]- linefor a chat. bike blcyele, horse 3 to mow away fmm like to come in here. o 1 wish he woutdnl k&p ness, etc: Dowu wont tammein withmaonJoes Qv+& * v+prep presentlo My brother h o d I m u I d come in with sth large or importantand go i a differentdime n coming in wilh his stupid sugges2w~s. to come 7 tion: A mmw rwd comes flon the kft. 4 to come onnrpon sblsth &mi) meet or find to to yourhome, mce, etc. inorderto repairsth, or him when he started his own busin=. o m o y u want lo mme in on the dm[? leave the stage, the sports field,etc, during a play sblsth by chance: I m m upon thism u t i f u l uape do some work: A plumbers cornink in faIwk at or a game: Twoplayers c a m ofljust before half in the attic. @v+adv+mp time. 5 to leave 5th such as a vehicle or a road: Q v + prep s~ehked~~&asshwmoflIhepiane. mme o off (the motorway) at jwMIon five. 6 if m
    • under....,,,,....., on to . , ... . .. ..come.......,.,......... ..............*.....*,....*,... ,,,..-, ,,. -,,,.. 5B.. ....-..... ............ ....................... ................................- .... . . . . . . I ..................... ,.......,,......,,,h~,...,,,,...~,,.....,, ~ ~ -me,come on to sb (ir&m@ to behave in a way 4 [+advlpmp(adJ] to finish sth in a particular ,come past: ,come past sbEsth to pass in m t him 10 #me Ihmugh r ? opmtton. 3 to ~ that clearly shows sb that you want to haveasex- state;to have a particularresult: Shemmewton Front of the speaker or the place where the start to appear &om under or behind sth: The ual relationshipw t them ih lop in the ewms. oHis reputnliorn m m out speaker is: As I walked down the mad, Charlie h b y s front M h were corning through. o The &v+adv+prep undnmoged. o T h e f m ~ l drdnt come out of the y mrnepapl on his bike. o ol?I bring the b w k round suns m i n g through the clouds at lasL= b- n [usuallys~.l (InJbmaO a remark affair uerywlL In this meaning, w m e out this evening on my w a y 60 night s & t! -Iwgol emerge (moreforman4to pass h m o n e stage of or an action that is intended to atkact sb and cmneout of stharealwaysusedeither w t ih Eo compasty~whouse. a competition to the next; to be suocessful I an,come on to sth to start talking about or dis- an adverb, an adjective or a phrase begmnlng Qv+adv * v+prep test or an exam: Chris did well 60 wme through cussing a topic: Ill mine on lo the sub]eEf of withaprepasition. ,-me round (BrE) ( a h , m e amund A d , #he gml@tng rounds of the tourmrnent (= for m m inn minm. ev+adv v+sdv+pmp example in tennis).o Most of the students cam u EEl question, @ v+adv*prep -.subJaEt ,-me pllrwnto relax and become ant of mure corddent and friendly with other people BrEj 1 (ta sth) to visit sb or a place; to come to sbs home to see them Tor a short time: &me round a n d see us sometinee. o Do you wunt to through (the m m ) withflying coburs (= were very successful). ,come oul at 9 h to add up to a m i c u l a r cost t come roundfor 111mh7+ see a h C O M E OVER 2 2 Qv+adv + v+pmp+pron,comeout 1when the sun,moon or stars wme out, Uley appear in the sky: The sun m m but in or sum: The lola! bill m m out at over u thou- (of a regular went) to arrive; to happen at the ,come to =COME ROUND the q f i e r o n . BY3 -r 2 when flowers sundpoundP. usual time: I con2 believe Chrlsrma~ mme come to sb 1if an idea cmnes to you.it sud- has come out, they open: The dm mme out In# n 1 sl +v+acb+pmp mund again! 3to mow amonga group of people denly enters your mind: The rdeo come to me in thisyear: 9 to be published or produced: Her new ,come out In sth if a person comes oat ins h t inorder togivethemsth: Themitersmmround the m u l e of the night. o It suddenly m m t her a noveIs~ust #me out. o When do theplram resuits such as spots, their skin betomes m r e d In roilh drznk, 4 ( o sth) (i?!fotmal)to agrae to sth t that she had been wrong. 2 (eswally BrE) (of mme out? appear 4 (of news, the truth, them: T&mmmadeherf~emmewtinamsh. that you were against before; to change your money. property, etc.) to pass to sb else when sb opinion about sth: Shell never c m round to our u etc.) to bewme known after a tlme when It has o been secrct: The trurhfiraallye~laolrb. Itnrme out that shed ma& the whole thing up. 5 to be W spots, rash. lumps BY3 b w k out In sth &v+adu+prep ,come out o sth 1to return to normal after a f w y of I h i n k i ~o Dont push him; hell c m round in trme. . u * dies: All my money 1~~~1conretoyou I d & v + prep when ,come to youfself (oIdfashwned) to return to shown clearly: Hts armgotue mmes out in ewry d f i c u l t tune: Themunby isslowly w i n g out @ +v+adv your normal state: It tmk her a w k i b lo w m W spemh he mh. (wtth sb) to go somewhere 6 recession. 2 to result or develop fromapmcessor ,coma round (BriT)(ArnE ,=me atwnd) (a& hersdf again. with sb for a social went: Will you come w t lo an event: At k t some good mme out of all our ,=me oBrE,AmE) to -me t mnscious again a$~ v + prep + pmn dinnerwith me @night77 if a photograph comes hard work. o The book mme out o her hnuels in f When she came round, her sister was sitling oat, the picture can be seen clearly: My photos come t sth I add up to sth;to beequal to 8th: o to Jamn. 3 to be taken away Rnm a total amount: h s ~ her bed. o He h m t yet m m round rIffer Tht bill c m 60 $50.2 to reach a particular state e u didnt mme out wv 11x11 WQWthere mmt T e money will haua lo come out of your wages. h the enaesihetic. or condition; to arrive at 6th:W h t h m m t the e o enough light. 8 when words Emne w t they are +v+adv+prep + S W Q ~ P A S S OUT spoken: I o m my mouth 10 amlogire, bud the ,-me out with sth (i@rman to say sth,espe + v+adv sameconcIusion.o Idont know what the ulorlds mming lo (= I think things are getting very bad words uxlukint mme out. o He trred lo pay hero cially sth surpr~sing not polite: ImnZ laflew ,come round: ,come round 8th (Bra ( a h compliment but it m m out all wmw. 9 I* prep1 or and unpleasant), o All her dmms hnoI come lo the things he comes out with! o When I uskd her ,come around, ,come amund sth AmE, BO 1 r nothing. this, that, mthlng -In this to state publ~clp that you do or do not support why she WQS shejclu mmeo~lt a h d of with (of a letter or a document) to be passed from one sth: Members o the commit#?e have come out in f meaning come to ilth is often used u lth this or MnS?W. person to another. The card mrne round for that The doctors wzlI opemte @ Isecessaq but it opposition #othepmpxnl. 10 come. out and do ev+adv+pmp eveqone to sign. 2 to travel to where the speaker 5th to be bmve enough to say or do sth that other may noswme to that. ,come W r l (to -t )o moveacmssamm, a is by a longer route than usual, especially QY + P ~ ~ P people m g t Bnd it hard to say or do: H a s she ih m u n d the outside or 5th: Them d roas bsacked road, an ocean,etc. towards where the speaker when It cornea to sthlto dolngnth when it is m i w l l y comeout and udmit&d ilyet?oOnly om so we had to comeround by thefreIdsIds membmof sing mme out and mioI1Ant the work- IS:C mouer and meet my hmhnd. o When are n a case, matter or question of sthlof doing sth: @v+adv + v+prep m n if comes ta mkmng, h h much berter than I ing wnditwns loere unwrtisfactoty 11 (BrE) to you coming ouer t Ewland amh?olots $I o stop work and go on strike: The miners h u e peoplean? mingoverfrom Amariafor the &- $oms round sth ( B r a =COME AROUND STH am? corns our on s r k .I 2 to say openly that you tie ding,2(tosth)tovisitsbforashort time,usually ,come thmugh1 (to sth) ( W o r m 0 uwd espe- ,comebgdher i twommmpeDple or things f are a homosexual (= a pemn who is sexually at their home: H r son only wmes ouer tu see her e ciaIly to ask sb lo enter a room or a building, or come together, thgr form one group or one attracted to people o the same sex) 13 when a f m i o n a l Q o Ollr n m neighhum cam ouer O move from one room toanother: Combhmugh to plece: Several Ioml groups mme together b a h t young girl came ont in the past, she was form- our h w dasl nrghl. 3 [+ ad]] (RrE, informal)to o my o m . 0 MI: Dole mn see you nour Will you the proposed housing dewlopmi. o During the ally inlmduoedmtas~~iety suddenly stan feeling sth. to come owr mme throragh? 2 (of news, a message, a docu- h t t h e days of rehearsals, eveqthing am A"+& . ". fmny/drzqr,Iaint o lmmeover allshy whenewrI m h e ~ =COME ACROSS 15 =COME ACROSS^ 4 ment, etc.) to be receivedbytelephone, radio, etc. or In an &cia1 way:fvegobm internationalmll togmet +v+adv,come od, ,so- tout o sth 1 to leaw a f ev+* cuming through Jor you. o Were going to buy a ,come under sth 4 be included w t i a par- place or a - from inside a place: C b m & I ! ihn knowyoureinthere!~I?Ispmktoherassoonas ,-me M sbEsth (of a feelin&a mod, etc.) to new nu when tfm i n s u m m m o corn w t~cular group or collection of things: Severaldlf s h e m m e s o u t o f t k ~ n g . 2 i anobjectmmes f afFeEtsblsth:lmsony-Idontknow whatcum through. o Hes still aw fling for hrs dimm to @rent types of schools c m under the W i n g of u out of sth, it i removed from the place where it s ouer ma(= I dont know what made me behave in mme through. 3 (with sth) to provide or do sth privcrte schaok. E L I hsadlng, banner, cat- is fixed orbcomes separated Prom 8th: H r tooth e that way), o A m r k n b b chnwe has #me over that pwple expect or that you have gromiwl: egory 2 to bemanaged, controlledorowned by a mme out when she bit intu the apple. o ,411 the t h e g r o u p ~ h e ~ Theinsurancew m p n y has fin all^ m m through particuar group or organization: The prisons pages have mme out of this book o This m w Q V+PW with the mow3 4 =COME ACROSS 1 now come under rnntrnlgovernmnt cunlrol. E E l wont come out of the wall. 3 i a mark or dirt ,corn "aver f ~bEsth leave one group of to v+adv wntml, authority, wlng 3 if you come under comes out,it i removed from sth by washing or s people in order to jom a c o m ~ i n g group; to ,come "through; ,come through 5th I to attack, criticism, etc. sb attacks criticizes, etc. cleaning: The bhdstuirn mnt m m out of change from one opinion to another: %me of enter and cross amom,anareaof l a n d a town, a you. Thegouernmnt has come under attack ouer my s h i n 0 St m a very e x w i v e s k i r t , but mas# #heirmbershawmmeomrP ours&. country, etc.; to pass through sth: o Put slh o w the new brll. o Shes mme under interm pressure the w h u r mme out Lohen I ulashed it. +v+adv+prep the h i e W stcp the min coming through. 2 to get to cchange lam m z d . lB3 sttack, pressure, flre, b t t e r afker a serlws illness: to avoid serious scrutiny, critlclsm injury or damage: Hes very I12 but his doctors G v+prev
    • BO 81 Up ," , ~ ....-. * l. *l < .......................... -......................,,......,,.....,,,,...,. ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,... .....,,,...<*................................................................................................ ~ c O ~ M C ~,come up4 (to ...) (fmm ...)to travel !hm one makeasituation verysucmduk !!Re&mnsnem wmewlth sth to be included with or aspart of be COrIfined to sth 1 if apersonor an animal place to anothec usually h r n a smaller place to ph+wmmeuptmmpsandmmdthreegwLF.o sth:A new c a r c o r n with thejoh is confined tn a place, they are kept in a smallor a larger one,or from the south of a country to the north: TheyuemmupFomTk& o W thought e Thai wm a MMUS r Youve m m up trumpsogain. m l e V + PBP c l o d space and not allowed to go out: The chil- dren m e confined to their m mfar the emiw. r o ~WgoupuprOLondon~ora~kendinihebigaty.t .upand!comlngadf lonly before noun1 (iw- commune/kaWwn;RirPIE~ r m - I o The soldiers w n c e r n d were con##!& lo bur- 2 (to sblsth) to ga towards a person in order to mall maklng g m l progress and likely to besuo racks(= had to stay in the bamcks, as a punish- tdktothemhokiguymmeuplommthe cessful in the future: an u p n d a m i n g n g y w n g oornmune wlth sth (formnf) if yon commune ment),2 ~fa person 1s confined t o bed, etc., they s t m a n d a ~ ~ m f o r m n e q :Thegmuphder o actor with sth such as nature, you spend time think- have to stay in bed,etc. because they m illlsick mme up to the m p t i o n desR l o o k ~ w nnsiow. 3 t upeomlmg adj [only before nounl (espaially ing deeply about it and sofeel c l m to it or mnjured:She wasconJTned l o bed with theflu. (of plants) to appear above the ground: T h e p s t A D about to happen soon: the hemming m EEl nature o He lvas #@Red to u w?zeeIchoirafter the Mr snowdrops are just mming up. IEB appear 4 psdentral ektlon Q V+PP mcuiens. when the sun or m w n comes up, ~trises in the ,emme up;, m e up sth to mow from a lower +be+v+prep sky. We saf and watched the s m mming up complain /kamplem{ place or position to a Mgher one, or upstah in a behind the h i i k I E only the sun, the m m n E i building, especially with the speaker or towards complain o 8th to say that you feel ill or are f confront pacan8~.mtl E53 rise EB9 go dom 5 to rise to the surface the place where the speaker Is: Who wants 0 suffer~ngfrom a pin: Sevmt childmn mm- confront sb wlth 5th to make sb face or deal of water or another Irquld:lmme upgaspingfor come up t ihe top o the hill with me? o M upan- o f y plainedof sew- s2omachpainx with an unpleasant or difficult person or situ- air: o R u b b h were mmrng up to thesllr/ace. 6 to menl is on the fhirdjloor:Are you cumin^: upPo I E l paln, headache,symptoms ation:Hewflontedherwzthochorcektmher happen, espxially when you do not expect it: Sowhlnz: urgent has mine ug;I h u e to ga o mn h w r s o m e W y wming w the staim e v + prep career or their reloli0ndtip EEi d . s t e l m E 9 come down, commdarm i h l +v+nlpn+prep Opportunrtta like this dunt come LIPevery dcUl Q v+ adv 4 v + prep condemn/kann~emj ,sr*, cmp up 7 (always wed m tfwprngrastw be confmnted wlth sth m have sth in front of lerrses) (of an event or a time) o be going to hap- t ,come up againsl sbtsth if you m e up condamn sb b sth Itosay what sbs punish- you that you have to deal w t or react to: Most ih against sWsth. you have to face sblsth dimcult: ment will be: to be m&tlPd lo dmihlhalrf people when confronW wwtth a horse wflllpai if. pen very swn: Our m s are coming up mn. o m We- to mme u p a g ~ i w t lot of opposition to a Indour 2 to farce sb to accept a difRcult or @tw+v+prep Coming up n rs the news. 8 to be talked about m t h s c h w . o Youll come up uguinst the migncng unvleasant situation: They were cundemmd 0 a or d~scussed:Thesubject didnt mme up in wn- m t i o n Inrrnight. o M o t y s n a m e h p swmiw chnmpion in the he round, lifeof hardship. BEQ sb (to sthl ~0flJufe pknnd3alr)l Qv+adv+prep Condemn sb to sth is nsually used in the up name, q w t i o n , subjecl9 to b dealt ,conjure sWMh up to make sWsth appear aud- with by a court of law. H e r cose comes u nexi ,come upfor sth 1tommetothetimewhensth p passive. as f denly or unexpectedly# i by magic: She cun- month. 10 if y u name, number or ticket or must be done: Hekwmhgupforretimmntmn. &v+nlpmn+pmp jured uu a ahree-cvursemeal in half an hour! comes up m a betting game, it IS chosenand you o She mmes up for reelection wet yeal: o W ? m v + a & + n + v+pron+adv r v+n+advlless are one of the winners: Mjr numbers m m u p and d m your wndract m m up for r w u i ? m Conefiaun; AmE kwnl fmueno I won a million pounds? 11 (spoken, informi) renewer 2 to become available for a particular ,cone 5th off to close a r m d or part of a m a d purpose: Thathousepu Iike hasmme upfor saie. ,conJuresth up 1 tomakea picture, amemom (usualIy wed in the progressiw t e r n s ) to b with specid mloured plastic objects that have a erc. appear in your mknd: word bltrhday m- m d y soon; to be coming swn: X cup of lea ESTi sale, awtlon round base and a point at the top (trafflc cones): Qv+adv*prep jures up images of p m h and parties. o The p k . h m i n g up! 12 (of ~nformation)to P s of the r o d wus mned ofl while repnirs al song conjured upmemorits of rwrmsummmewn- appear on a computer screen or a board, for ,come up on sth (A- to be h o s t a particu- done. ings. ESTi Image, pleture, dskns, rnemorler example in anairport:Herflight hnsjWmmew lar time or age: Its comtng up on your W i e tm . Cone 8th ofYis usually used in the passive. l v ,evoke sth ( m r e f o r m a2 to ask a spir~t a a. ~ of an the atrim&board 13 I+ adJladvJ B r a(of a n ( Qv+adv+prep e v + a # v + n v+ntprm+adv dead person to appear,by using amagic ceremony object or a substance) to appear in a particular ,come up to sth I to appmach a particular @v+adv+n + v+prcln+adv* v+n+adv(less way at the end of a period of tune or when 6th place. an age or a period of the: Ywm coming fwuen0 has been done to it: When the luooi is m ~ h e dit . - up&aburivtwdnora ~ I l s f u F t m m i n g u p t o h ~ conflde In sb to tell sb a secret or a piece of wmes up h u t V u f y sofl andfluffjr o Iuegruen it pus # w e b . 2 to reach an amptable level or conk h ~ k~ ; ~ k a akaakl m k, a go& clwn and ifscome up like new. 14(of information that you wouldnt tell other people: standard: Thepmformamx didnt come up lo our Can I c o n w in you? o Do you haus nfriend that lights m a cinema, a theatre, ctc.) to become mpxiatlons,o You may b y o u r j o b r f you dont ,conk out (ii@rmal or humorous) 1 if a vehicle brighter alter the Almhnovie, plm etc. has fin- you can confide in? or a machine ms mt, it stops working: Our l r come up t swatch. o standad, expect- @ mdmr,trlend g ished:TIPe lightsmme up to lormlapplause.15 (to 8th) (BrE,form0 to befin your studies at auni- atlom In this meanhng come up to sth is usualiy used in the negative. + v + prep cur mnked oui 5 m~le~Jsom home. 2 ~f a wrson conks out, they fall asleep becausethey arevery tired: She was so trmd she came home and conked versity (especially Oxford or Cambridge): She Q v+adv+prep . - - up (to Oxford) in 1m.IEE3 ccome down confine /kan~am/ aut at eight acIock. 3 (aid-fashioned, 5 r E ) (of a ,come up wbh Sth 1 to think u an Idea, anf person) to collapse or become unconscious 4 ( h m nth) 1&{tasth)toreachas farasa particu- eonflne sbmth to sth; con?ltwyoumlf to lar point or level: Thelaatercameuplo my chin. o answer to a question or a solution to a problem: (Amm to die: The okfguy l o o h as if hesgoing to Shamme up with ogreatideaforinmmingmIes. sth to keep sblsthlyourself inside the Iimjtsof a My sister hardly c o r n up to my s h o u h t o Hirl particular activ~tJI subjed, area, etc: T h w r k mnkoutnny minute. Mea, aI - . suggostlon, explanatlm2 to @v+& scnW cameup over hiseyes. D much sth will not be confined to rhe G h g o w a m . o I will find or producc sth that sb needs: I you want m f @v+& co@m mysewto h k i w at the penbdfmm 19IW buy my m you must come up with the monej o c connect /kahekt/ be coming up mam (h@rmaIE (of a s t - iu lo 1916 at~on)to be developing in a sucomful way: He always comes up w i t h the goods (= does what heis- todo)onthednq: llmlt sth to Ibllth,nMFt uWfithlywr- con,ned ath "up(@ a: con,nen3 up(to rth) Everythings corning up roses! rxwne up In tha world to bearme more important m society or + v +adv + prep self (to sth) Confine ~Wsthlyoumelf to 8th is oflen tojoln s l h to a supply of electricitx gas, water, etc. or to another p~eceof equipment; to be more sucwssful inyour career:Sks m f l y me come upon sblsth =COME ONICIPON GBISISTH used m t h e passive. up in iherwrldsinceshe b school. come upEturn Q v + nlpmn + prep up trumpsto do more than people expect and so
    • ......................................... ..,........... I ~ ~ crank upCOSY (AmEcory) Ikauei;dmEkomil ,count down ( osth), ,count sth down to be t ,count s b t h up to add together the number of crack m k { (cosies, eosylng, m i d , wsled) c waiting for an important or exciting day#event, t h l n or p o p e in a gmup: Count up #henumber ~ ,crack d m : ,crack dawn an sbtsth t o m etc. and be comtmg the number of days, min- of timyoraw been abroad., m y up t sb (tnforml, e q m h l l y A m to try o harder to prevent people breaking a rule, using to become friendly with sb,especially in order to utes,etc. therearebeforeit: The who& world was E E l number a galn an advantage for yourseK Shes only counting &wn to the m w millennium. o Im W Count sblsth is wed with the same mean- sth harmful, committingdo:crime, etc. and deal severely with t h w who Police am cwcklng counting down thedays until my trip. ing. cowing up lo him bemusesheneedr hishdp, down hard on d r u dwIm.o Thgouexnment is ~ EZ3 evdtik up to sb{BrE,l f sfrwwnt) +v+abv v+adv+n * v+nlpron+adv(mre) 6 v+abr+n v+dpmn+adv b cwnMorm (to ath) n 1 the act of counting cracking down on misleadingfood labelling. Qv+adv+pmp count upon sbtsth:eount upon dolng 8th; Bclamp down,clarnp down on sblrth backwards to zero, for example before a space- count on sbisth doing sth = COUNT ON @v+adv v+adv+prep cotton /btn;AmEkam/ craft is sent into space 2 the period immed~ately S B ~ S T H COUNT ON DOING STH, COUNT ON S ~ S T H , b cmckdown (on sWsth) n were action that is before sth important happens DOING STH taken to prevent m p l e m r n i t t i n g a crime,,cotton on (to sth) (Informl) to come to under- ,Count sb In to include sb ln a group or a n activ- stand or realize sth without being told directly: opposingthe government, etc: apoIicecmckdown She mlfons on quickly.o It t w k him a whik ity i youre going to Iha theatm?you can count f couple pknpil on m r c r i m me in. lo cotton on to what I was trying to say. deal sb In ( h f l r r r m R raPP, wunt sb aut couple sbMh wlth shusth to link one pwson, ,crack on (wffh sth)( B E , inj%rmal)t work hard. o ZEW catch on (to 8th) Q v + nlprm + adv thing or s~tuation i h another: The Inrgenum- wt and do sth quickly: Wd better crack on with the +v+adv ber of new graduates, coupled with high painting Wore it getsdork. ,oounl off ( m people count off, they say A if m e m p l o y m t , means that there isfirce competi- Bget on (with Blh)cotton to sbtsth (OM-fashioned, AmE, w o r - loudly in order the numbers they have been tion forjobs. (g v+adv man to begin to like or approve of sblsth: IdiXn-i glven: He mndeewryonemwal Cauple sblsth arlth sbhth i usually wed $rack up (informal) to bearme physically or s much miton to the idm alfirst. Cotton to sb 1 oflen wed in negative sen- + v+adv in the passlve. mentally ill bemuse you are under pressure: tences. s count on s h t h ; count on dolng sth; + v + nlpron + prep ShescmEkingupunderthestmin. count on sbisth dolng sth (also eount +v+adv 0V + P ~ upon rblsth, count upon dolng ath, count t erackup n (informal, e s p d d f v A m a upon sblsth doing sth moreformal) to rely on sb todosth; toexpect sthto happenandmakeplans ,Corer sth wet Iwlth Ith) to c w e r sth com- period of mental illness caused by pre88ure,cough "ppcough sth up(irbfom0l(mw- in an appropriate way: You can munf on me! o pletely, especially to hide or protect it: Put the ,crack up; ,creek sb up (infoml) to start bulbs In a bowl and w w r them over with mil. o laughing a lot; to make sb laugh a lot: - M y ciaIly RrO to pay for sth or give sb money unw ill- ? m sure hell heb us. Wont counl on 1s. o She Ingly: You o m me f20. C m on, wugh up!o v M n t counled on going swimming when she The shopping m l l is covered over with an m r - crocked up when he fefl ouer o Shes sofwrny - mousglms rmj! she cracks ?up!, ? ?I Dont rough up the money mtlf thejubsfinIsheoI. packed. o Jm counting on your support, o I m Cover 6th (with sth) is used more often )av*) crease up, c - sb up (BrE) IEE) pay up2(BrE)toadmitsthorgivesbinfor- coun!lng on you to support me. mationunwillingly: Comeon, coughup: whereve BE3 bank on sblsth, bnnkon dolng sth, bank with thismeaning. Crack sb up is not used in the passive. you been? own up (to sthno dolng 8 h ;wn- t) an sWsth ddng sth; reckon on sblsth, reekon +v+nlpron+adv v+adv+n .Qv+adv v+nlpron+adv fess (to sthlto doing slh) (tnoreformd) ,cover up;,cover pummtf up (with sth)to be ,crackedup to k rth (infwmnl)to be as on dolng sth,reckon on sblsM dolng ath put on more clothes: Make sure you m w r up good, clwet exciting, etc. as people think or say @ v+adv 4 v+adv+n v+nlpmn+adv UEjB These phrasal verbs can be used In the pas- S ~ V Y ~ can w counted upon to conrribulegood S P ! before going out m the sun. o Cover yourself up o sbtsth is: Stardom is notoll rtscraclred up lo k,,cough sth up to Toroe sth out of the throat or Shesnotasgmdasshes#up tobe. lungs by coughing: Hes been coughing up b M . id~as. Itsmkl, EE blood Q v + prep v + prep+nlpron4 to inf @v+adv. v+pmn+adv 6 v+adv+n v+nlpmn+adv ,counl sb out: ,count sb out d sth (@for- wet up (for sb/sth), ,owsr 8th up to try cram / b m / ~-mm-) rttu0 to not inctude sb In a group or an abivlty: hard to stoppeople finding oulabouta mistake,a ,cram Into 8th: ,cram s h t h In; ,oram You m y enjoy those gmws, brat you can munf me crime, etc.; to hide the truth about sth: Hes s b l s t h Intlnto sth to go into a placeor space out. aIwop c o w i n g up for he^ o The governments that 1 s t small foreveryoneleverything: to push ~,count against sb to be a disadvantage to sb: attempts t o w w r up thesim&I failedled or force sblsth Into a place or space that is too Im sure that being latefor the interview munted E B deal sb out,deal sb out of sth )OPP) wunf ab In @ E l scandal, rnlatake, truth FEE) conceal *HI small: Six of us cram& inlo Robs Mini, o l ugrsinst me. only hadthreedaysin New Yo&, butlcmmmed i )8YN) wlgh eplnst sb (fb-rrmO 6 v + nlpron + adv * v + nlpron + adv+ pmp (rnomJormC), hMs sth n .Count sth out to count coins, etc. one by one Q v + a d v v+adv+n 4 v+prorn+adv r v*n+adv as much s i g h w i n g as I could o He m m m d all A v+nrrm v . F - F and put them somewhere: He munted out the (lessfwwnt) the sweets into his mouth. o You wnl crom eight,count among sbMh: ,count stusth b corer-up n [usually sing.] an act of hiding a children in& thecur! exact m o m (on ttwmunm). among sth to be conside&, or to consider mistake, a crime, etc: The oppositionaauwd the e v + p r e p * v+nlpmn+sdv e v+adv+n * EZEl money,change, notedcolns sblsth, to be part of the group mentioned: She governmentof a muer-up v* nlpmn + pt6-p muntsumong thelop ten marathon runners in the +v+adv+n v+nlpmn+adv ,count toWards sth ( a h ,wunl towerd 8th ,cover sblsth up to put sth aver sbMh in order country. o The h n d count John Lennon among to hide or protect themlit: You mn cover up ugly thew illflllems.. 0 1 no W e r munfed myself e s m i n l l y Anal3 to be included as part of sth you hope to obtain or ach~eve: MarksJrom thIs lest g r w wlth mcdm boxes. o There was something ,crank sthout~lnfoml,esp~cin~ArnC)topm amow hisfria& on the table cowred up wilh a cbih. munl lowrdsyourfinalgmde. o Thesesales will duw sth quickly and in large amounts: Theghnt Count g ~ s * among s ~ s t hs morp fm i e v + a d v + n + v+nlpmn+adv quent than count among &b/$th: g y p t,um ~ not count toward meeting the ha . em t mncmnkoul about 63rrarsan hour counted among the most mwerf~~l wunvrps In the EEiQ Count t o w d s l k o w a r d s t h can be used chum sth out; turn 8 h out t world. the passive: These payments may be counted &v+adv+n * v+nlpmn+adv Q v + prep * v + nlpmn + prep t o w i d s your pension. ,crank sth up (informno T to make a machine ( ~ v + P ~ P start working orwork M e r l l s t i m B m k up theaircooditioni~. to make music,etc. louder: 2
    • crash ..... 66........,,,.."...- ~.......~......~..m............-.... -..... .................... ...~........r...~~.....~........m............~ ~ .................- themlit or theylit are no longer involved: Ows ,crowd In (on ab) i high b u U d ~ mountains, f . *Fa3 muse, music up when theIth TiW mnked rnturn the plrty rnlumo up c r e d l t A with 8;credit B t A 1to believe o flany items mw already got, o Jane w n 2 & coming,so~wnaar;sherofthelist. etc. m d i ,they seem to surround you and n threaten you or have a strong erect on you: The (morelbrmal) that sWsth is responsiblefor sth or for doing sth, +v+nlpmn+sdv 4 r+adv+n d W rth (moreformal) a high l u a l C F d lo m r I in (on her).o @urn- uo espec~ally good: Bath is credited wrth per- sth ev+nlpmn+adu v+adv+n v + n l p m n * m tiw)H tried lo restst thefmm that werewowding ecrash 11 - forming thefirst solo on a p h o S h e d i t s her ,cross sth outfthmgh to remm words from in on him gmd looks and InieIIigem lo herfutksside of +v+abu+prsp,crash around (also ,emah a M m u n d mpe. a text hy d r a w ~ n ~ Ull?~~gh usually $ line tYlem, thefamily. 2 2 consider thatsblsth hasaparticu- becaugc they are wrong: I cmwd his name out ,Crowd 3 - OM0S h = CROWD S t B IN, ~ crnlly B r a (iqformal)to move around makin$:a lar g o d quality or characteristic: I had c d l f e d and wmle mine r~1~6ead.Youve spell it wrong 4 CROWD SBlSTIl INTO/ONTO STH lot of noise: I hmrd her mashing about in the o him with more m. Numemus haollh W t s Crossit out ondm WUZR bathmm are credit& lo thisnatuwloli. ,crowd sblsth out; ,crowd sbrsth Tout d EEl word, name lE9 &I& 8th ( m o m ~ m a l ) sth if a number of people or thinp cmwd out (bv+adu Credit A with B is often used in the pa^+ @v+n/pmn+adv + v+adv+n sive. 4 You can also use the pattern credit sbisth other people or things,they are present in such,crash dormto fall with a wry loud nab Pa?i- ,cross wer 1 ( a h, - over rth) (@@dally large numbers that there is no mom for anyone sewem hud a lucky esmpe whm a huge t m as s t h , especially in the passive: The c h e e t d i s generally credit4 as the world sf~shtanimal. BrE) to go h m one side of sth,for example a or anything else: Touristsm muding the regu- crushsd down om% a bus. o John3 h o d c m a @ v + dpmn + prep roadlstreet,a room, etc. to the t et e Lets rross ho rh lar customers out of the bok oVigumttw) Small m h f n g d m n on the hble (= he hit the table shops are mrreosingly k i n g mwded out by the over lo the otherside. o Sheoossadouer the mad. hard with his hand). o @gumtiw) All m y roed, brldgm2 ( I Weth)to m m h m o n e big supmmarkets. d m m s c m ElPshing down around m8 (= I u style or type of music,cultwe, politim, etc. to EE@ squ- s b / m out, sq-s sblsth out complebelyfailed in what I wanted to do). ,creep in; ,creep into 8th to start happening another; to wmb~ne parts of different styles or of sth =Crash down is usually followed by a or effecting sblsth gradually: I thought Id types: Theyre e blues h n d who hnue smmz&d +v+nlpmn+arhr v+adv+n * phrase beglrmrng with a prepition. H d , but then doubts slarterl io cteep in, o A in c m I n g ouer i . l z oKz. v + Npmn * adv+ prep &v+adv,crash out ( i m m l , hint qf samzsm mpt mio hls v o h . o Mare and el v+a& hr* v+prep ,crowd round: , e m round abmth (EW BrE) to go to more @reign wards are creeping inlo the h- 2v+adv ctnlIy BrE) (AmBusually, c d amund,,WOW sleep because you are very tired: I uxrs so ti& I gmge. em- n a mmmfulmmbinatlon of dif- amund ablsth) to gather in large numbers crushed out tnon mmchail: Qv+adv+v*prep ferent styles or types of music or cul- a suo around sblsth h p k lwre #loding omund .ta IBB Rake wl (BrE) ,creep ~rsbMhifafaelhgcreepsoveryou, m s l l change b m one style or type to another: see w h t mas g o i w on. o Faw crou&d round 6 v+adv or an expression creeps over your face, it grad- a fresh and lexciting m k & e e c m r oa him lo &for hisuulograph.,Crash ad of 8th (h sport) to l m a game vesy ually affectsyou: Afeeling of tiredness h a a n to m w r artist & v + a d u + v+prep badly and so not be able to continue to take part creepoverher o Asly smfkcrepr over her lip, , o m s s h through=moss STHO U T ~ ~ H R O U G H t in a competition. Englnnd crashed out of the B?3steal over sblsth crumple~IWAWW World Cup Q v+prev crouchm ~ t ,crumple sth up to crush sth. espedally a piece W T h i s phrasal verb Is used espedally in ,creep up l if a price, anamount ptc. -ps up, newspapers. emueh over sbMth to bend aver sWsth so grm of paper, into a ball: She munpM his W r up ~trises very mdually HouseprLm are smrrtng are near therrult: She crmch&dover the injaved lullhoutewn lookingat ft. @v+edv+prep to c m p up. 2 (on sb) to mow nearer to sWsth checkin$ his ~uounds. m, mmpsr,Crash round(-2yBrE) =CRASH A R O U ~ slowly and quietly wrthoul being seen or heard: Wnf m p up on me like thni! o JacR crept up e V + P ~ P +v+nlpron+adr 4 v+adv+ncrawl ~rs.11 behindme. ,sr*, -1 up (on sb)crawl wfth sbl& (usually t&d in t h e p r o g ? ~ +v+adv ,crowd around; , e d amund sb,sth cry for sth to ask for or d m d 5th In a o f- srw tenses) to be full of moving people, animals, ,Creepk ~ p 8b 1if anevent,adate,etc ci-eepa ( e ~ m b l f y A m F=CROWD ROUND,CROWU ROUND ) or urgent way: Thefmliesof the vuictimsumrry- Insects, etc. in an unpleasant way: The plum Is up on you, it arrives before you are really ready for it: The examsjwtseemd io creep up on me. 2 SB/STH i n g f i r justim o Lirrlen! That sounds Iik# m m cmwlmg with mpsl m poll-, irn& if a feeIin& etc. cmps up on you, it starts to ,crowd In; ,cmwd Into 8th to move In large aodV v i n g != d i n g M o r help affect you More you realize it: Anomio mn numbers into a small place: As s w n as h doors k3G help, mercy @v+we~ creep up on younggirls when they h s t p It.~ ~ OpeneoI people h g a n .to crowd in 0 w all e e v + prep +v+adv+pmp cmwdad into the I#. o @guratiue) Memories she ,cry off;,cry off sth: ,cry off ddw sth would mlher f o m mme mdhg I o @g- n (BE) dwide not to do 8th gnu have promised to, c r e a m s W h offto take away the best people nmtiue)Dottbtscroded indomy mind. or agreed to do: Wedamnged Dgo together but or things in a group or a amount of money, n usu- E B plle in, plle Into sM Luis craw at the last moment. o W b didyou ally for your own advantage: The bestpupiils are ,crop up ( W o r m d l to appe91,happen, etc. when &v+adv + v+prep cty OR frair~mg t nighi? h creamed of into special classes.o The mmpanys it is not e m e d :Imnl make it tonight -some E B pull cut, pull out o ath,pull oul d dolng Y f things #p& up. o Her rrcune keeps cropping ,crowd s m h In; ,crowd rbmth intofonto direnorsareverrrnrng of fhepro$rs. 8th to put a large number of people or things ath Q)v+a&+n + v+nlpmn+adv up everywhere. + s e @ n I s oOFF,~ OFF STH,BEG OFF WIND ~ ~ BEG corns UP into a small space: I doubt iS we can m d anyu + v+adv marepeople i -lheploce i s p c k t d a l m z d j t o We n wem ell crowded inio a smfl a m behrnd the STH Qv+aduav+pmp,crease up;,eream sb up( B E , tqformak)to Cross / h m ; A m E h x / goal ,cry out to make a Iwd sound without words start laughing;to make sb start laughtng: We &I1 E E crmm Wath In, cmn rbhth IMnksth: Z) because you are hurt,afhid, surprised, etc:She m a d up whm we m w her hrri!oHkprc- ,cross M h m ,cross s h t h off nth to pack lbhth In, p c k sWsth into sth criedout irtlwithpaim gmmm olways cremes me up. remove sbs name or an item from a list by draw- Qv+nlpron+a& v+adu+n + v + n l p m n + m +v+am BE)crack up,cmk sb up ing a line through k because you have dealt with t Q v+adv * v+rdpmn+adv
    • ,cry "out sth to shout 5th loudly: Re s u d d d y CUT* M:s; AmEkxm1 ,cut down MI) to reduce the amount or ,cut sb in (on am) (tr&md) to include sb in a (on 1 mled out. Stop at om! o She wuki hear a yoice quantity of sth: R&lng c u b dOwn on we oi . deal and give them a share of the proAts: Do you cryingo u her name. be cursed with sth to have or suEer Bnm 5th bad: He was c u r d with pmr heulthfrom, chiW f uespentEwmucha l d y thismonth -Ilthave think w a n cart Harris fnon thedwl? a)v+adv+speech + v+edv+n lo cut down r! bit C= spend less money). 2 to mn- v + nlpmn + adv hoad o r u e a l w s been cursed with bad luck. for ,clyTngout loud! Is&en, ir$ormaBused to show that you m surprised or angry about + be+v+pmp sume, use or buy less of 5th: TAe doclors told me ,cut Into sth 1 tomakearnark,an opening m a to cut down on fatty foods. o I h u m ? sloppad wound m sthwithakniie or& sharpobject:Make sth: For ayrngouf Iolrd! Whntdtdyou do thatfor? smoking, buiIwcutdown lofiveadas: . o pml guidelines Mn you cut inlo the ?m r,cryOMagalnsl sth to protest strongly about + S e e ~ l k d C U T STH DOWN 1; CUT BACK W.o The mp? was cutting fnto her wrists (= sth: m p l e haue been crying out agoinsi this ,curteln ath off (fmm 8th) to ~epmak of a part ev+adv because it was very tight). EZi cake,mmat, e t ~ ahlrseforyaars. room with a curtain or curtains:A comer of the ,cut sb down@ i ) t U sb: H w s m , e &A e am 2 to interrupt 9th: His isn cut into her thoughis. ti? & v +adv + prep rwmrwscurloinadofl down bypnewmnloatan early age. E!El thoughts 3 to begin to use part or too much b adcry (againsWaUmr sth) ra [C] a public @v+dpmn+adv + v+adv+n Cut sb down is often used i the passive In n of sbs time, 9th that belongs to sb else, etc: My reaction of strong protest against sth: There fs this meaning. mrh-3 cuamng inlo myfree I m at I mml.o k sure to h a n m s i v e o u m y a g a l n s C t h e p r o ~ l s . c f~kntl(cutt~ng, cut) U cut, Qv+dpmn+adv v+&*n The rndependent stations are cutting inta our,cry out tor sth (usuallyused in thepmgmsiw ,Cut sblsth down (AmE, & f i i l ) to make sb audience. E E tlnm mcmach M u p n sth tenses) to clearly need sth very quickly: The fwl or look stupid, especially in h t of other (moreformcrD m u p ~cryingoutfornewmemba. Thewhole o people: He always cuLs her d o m in fmnd of his ev+vrep sy$tmwas crying~u&@re mdimlmu~w. friendsh o Shes aiwa~vscutting downm li&&k. ,cut sb off 1to rekw to let sb hawe any of your y + v + a&+ prep put ab down money or property after youdie: Hecut hlssonm +v+nlpron+adv b v+adv+n without aperwx EIJ Mn, daughter EE)dlaln-cuddle -- cut sb dOIYnte aimtoshowsbthat they are hedl s b ( m r e f o r m a ~ + s e e s s h c u ~OUT, CUT SR,cuddle up (tdagurna m ) ,,cuddle up ,cut across 8th I (ah,cut mmugham) b, totake not as important a s they think they are ss OUT OF STH 2 to end a relationship w t sb ih together If children,pets, etc. cuddle up, they a short route (a short cut) across a place instead b culdown IAmQ (BrE put4own) n (in@rnwO because you do not want to see or talk to them sit or lie close to each other or sb else, because of going around it: Wlbgelthem quicker If we a remark orcrltictsm that is intended tomakesb any more: Hlsfnmily h u e cut him ofl since he they need warmth or comfort, want to show or cut m s s #he@&. 2 to affect or be true for feelor look stupid &Id them what hed done. 3 to interrupt a tele- afFection: Jack cuddkil up 50 his mothel:o The p p l e in different groups that usually remain put sih down 1 t reduce the amount or gum- o phone conversation by bmklng the connection: cu bscuddk up togetherfor wurrmth. separate: Opposition lo the proposal cuts m s s tity of 9th: M w s m wen fntrd&ta cW down Opemtoc Iwjust been cut fl Cut sb o f is f w r t y bornrips.@ ! boundary, dlvlslen 3 to ! I the numbw of road&n#s inwlulng children. usually used in the passive In this meaning. I E 9 anuggln up (totagalnst sblath) @ vtadv * v+adv+adv interrupt and stop sth: The sound of the fire o The miicy a i m at cutlfng down exhulrst emis- 4 l,lv+ntpron+a* v+adv+n(lessfmquent) akarm cutacross h ~ ~ a t t e mlo e*phin. pi sions. number, wsw, amount B K redweY) 3v+nlpmn+adv,cuddk up ta s k t h IBrE, fr&md, mre) to +V+P~P be CUI off In y w r prlme to dle s u d W try to be friendly to sb in order to gain an advan- sth (moref o r m 0 W Cut sth can also be used when ynu are still young,strong and ~uc~essflll tage lor yourself: Just bf&r@ the eMIon thay ,cut sth away ( h m sth)to remove 5th by cut- w ~ t h meaning.Cut sth, not cut 13th thls down is starredcuddling up to thrgouemment. tlng with a knkn or a sharp tool: W a m y m y usel for lPduc~ng cost or the prlce of sth: Pet- ,cut sbrsth off 1 (also ,cut Fu-W off) (fmm the dead branches. m0gasprrceshnve beencuE. -tseeabcuT DOWN; sbtsth) to separate sWsthlyourself physically or F 3 cosy up to sb B3 Q v + a d v + n r v+n!pmn+edu CUT STH BACK 12to makea tree, etc.fdl down by soclaUyfrom otherpeople orthing?.:Hisd&aess &v+adv+prsp ,cut back (on sth) 1 to reduce 8th such as the cutting it at the base: Eumy time we cut a tree cut him Mfmm hisfamily andfriends. o She rut amount sb spends or produces: The rslaesslon down, ure p h t o new one. B E l hee I 9chop E herself oflfmm music ofzer her murriuge. o Why means that everyome Is cutting hck o Weve had sth d m : fell s t t ~ ((morefurma0 3 to redurn the h he C&f off all contact wlEh h rfamily? o The m ~eulmlnate In s h (aIsulculmlnatmwHh a h b t t to cut back on stuff t saw mnqr 2 (especially a length of sth. P k c u t y o w a r t l c l e down lo 1 DW farm gels mmpletely cut ofl in the wlntez o Vig- frequent) (formal)to end with a particular result dmE) to eat, dr~nk use less of a particular or words, shorten sth (moref o m n W Cut umtlw)Politicmm are cut flj?um the reality of or conclusion, or at a particular point: The n ew thing, usually for your health: I smoke too much. sth can also be used with t h ~meanlng. s powrly. lsolate sb/sthlywmetl (fmm turtiomcukmi~t&hcan~~gmnt~ptabC& Imusbcut back. o Thedoclorslold melocut back Qv+adv+n * v+nipron+adv sblsth) bEm Cut ~Wsthlyourself off is often aI1sides. on red w t . ,cut In d (on sblsthF to interrupt sblsth: Listento used in the passive in this meaning: 1heEhfIdwn @V+P~P 4 S&?akO CUT STH BACK 1; CUT DOWN me! s f u cut In impatknt$ Interrupt were cut off 8 the tide. 2 to interrupt sb when Qv+adv ( s b l l t h ) + w a h ~ u ~ STH 22(on sWsth)(of INTO they are speaking: He cut me o r m mtd-senlence.curl lk3-1;AmEkxrll r cutback (la m)n[usually p1.Ja reduction i n a vehicleor a driver) to move suddenly in front of o My expbnntion luas abruptly cut f l 3 to stop,curl up; ,curled up 1 to lie down or sit be sth: cutbacksinpubIkspe~ing anotherwhfcle in admgerousway, leaving little the supply of gas, water or electricity to sb"s down with your back curved and your lolea and ,cut sth back1to reduce sth a lot, especially to $paw between the two vehicles: The lorry cur in home:T h e w cvmpuny ihrenlened tocut them ofl arms close to your body: I hue curling up in an save money or improve the envimnment or your Ion me)sradde* andlhad m bmkesRarpIy. 3(of U they dkfnlpqv the bill. o The lutriersupply Rad nrmchair with a gOOd h k . o The cut was c& health*Governmentfunding Is k i n g back. o an engine, a motor or a piece of equipment) to been cutofld ( A m 0 =CUT sslsm UP A sporls cor up asleep under the bush. 2 if the edges of pages, We haue agreed lo cut back CFC e m ~ l o l lby the s start working automaticalb especially after cut m ofl as I turned inlo t h h 5 to prevent ~e leaves, etc. curi up they bend towards the mid- end of the centup? E C pmductlon, spending, ki another source of power has failed:f l r h p o w f f sb &om reaching or leaving a place; to stop sb: dle:T h e m e s hadal[carled up at fhemrws. pllutlon IG9 pare sth down (to sth), pnm sth fails, Ihe genemtor will cut in. E ) E kick in 4 T?y tocut him ofl at the trqfEc lighis. Qv+adv b e + v + m ( A M , irlfbrmab to push in front of people who ~v+nlpmn+adv*v+adv+n back (to 8th) Cut s h back is offen used m t have been waiting In a line: Someone trred 6o cut b cut& n an act o stopping sth f,curl sth up: ,curl yourself +upto h d the passive in t h ~ meaning. 2 to reduce the size s in in front of us. o She saw somefriends in l h 4 see also CUT-OFFa t c u ~ OW; CUT-OW at STH sthlpurself intoa tightcurvedshape: ShecuM of a plant, a bush, etc by cutting parts off:That andcutin with them. push In(BrEl CUT STH O F F , CUT STH OFF STH b~rlegs underher on Iheso/a. o Henvledhim- rose bush needscutting back a Iot.EB3 bush, tree up SPYup undPr lhemver~ went tosleep and FEE) prune nth ~v+advlalsov+adv+qeech 9 v + nlpron + adv e v + a d v + n 4 v+pron+adv v+n+adv(less fwwnt)
    • ,cul sth off :toblock or get h the way of sth,etc:d k *w*str 3 (flyornmf) to block Ught or m, ernof3omUy upset: Shes still very cut up abut The polioe cut off all their amp?mules o The sound: That tm infront o the window cuts out f thedivom. Cut sb up isusually uwd in the new hotel cuts off o w ulew of t h e m the lighl. llgM nolse rmFO block ah wt 4 m i v e in this meaning. E i rwta,aid, wpplbs Zl (imrman used to tell sb to stop doing or Baying 4 I v+nlpmn+adv + v+edv+n v+&dv+n + v+nlpmn+adr sth that is annoying you: Im sick of you t w 2 v+ nlpron + adv b ~~4nagointorallmitwhenywstopsth:a orguur~-jlrsl cut it w t ! o Nowmtouttkjokts ,cut sb!nth up(Brm @mF,wf .blah off) a (of c u t ~ fm oid o Whot Is the m t f l datefor mgb f andpay ablention!FEi It, (hat 5 to make sth by cutting: T h g mnnn~ed cut out a m t h through ta vehicle or a driver) to suddenly drive in ftont of tratwn? another vehicle in a dangerous way: Did you see -t seeaLFo CUT-OFF at CUT SBISTH OFF:CUT-OPFat thejungle. how hecutme up? CUT STH OFF,CUT STH OFF 8TH &v+n/prm+adv + v+&+n PZEj -we sblsth up 0,cut sth , ,cut sth off8th to remove sth by ,cut sth od, & ,outsth out d 8th Ita remwe &v+nlpmn+adv + v+adv+n cuttingit with a knife ora sharp tool:Xeculofla sth you want h m sth larger by cuttIng to cut the shape of s t h h m a piece of fabric,paper, etc: ,cut sth upto divide sth into mallpieces with a metre of clothfrwn the roll. o Mint9 you olonfcut knife or a sharp tool: Whosgoing to cut up the yourfingem off!o Shes had ail her hair cut 08 Simply cut oul and return the @upon. o She cut vegelabks? o~lhephloislooh~forfhef~m,cutabiroflthe article out of the n e w w m o 5% children BE)chop sth up theitp. 0 ~~fyrumtiue)Fiws~condshasbeencut enjoy cutting shrrpes out o mlourerb paper E 3 off f Z4 Qv+nlpmn+adv r v+a&+n the w r l d m r d . artlcle, plctwm 2 to remove sth bad from sth by chopsthetf,chopsUloWsth cutting I cut out the bad parts of the apple. 3 ev+nlpron+adv * v+adv+n + v + r d p n ~ + w p ( i n f i r m i )to leave sth out of a piece of writmg, t cut& n [pl.]tmuse&pmts that have been etc: You cancutout the unimportnnt W i h . IE3 made shorter by cutting off part of the l e p omk 5th t cvl-df udj [only before noun] cut-off lmu- +v+nlpmn+edv v+adv+n $ergpantshave been made shorter by cutting OR v+nlprm+adv+prep part of the legs E d h a m ywr Wwk cut out ( l b r y w ~ ~ I ) t o P +see also CUT-OFFat CUT S B ~ T H OFF: CUT-OFF at face a difficult task or situation:Youllhawyour CUT STH OFF work cut out lo baat him. b offevl n (es~ially BrE) a piece of wood, b cubout n a shape cut out of pper, wood,etc: rr pawr, etc. that remains after the maw piece haa mrdhardcutouf been c u t +SW~!SOCUT-OUT~~CW OW,Cut pumetf d ( f r a nsb/ah) =CUT SB OFF 1 be ,cut out for sth; be ,ed out t dohe o,cut outif an endne or a motor c b mat, it sud- u d h (imrmanto hawthequalities andabilfties denly stopsworking: Oneof rhenlmqWsersgines needed ror 5th: Idont think I m cut out for mun- cut our. Irylfe. o Heslwlcutorrtt6 hapolitician. Qv+adv f E X i l This phrasal verb is usually used in negn- t cut-out n (qwddbB j a safety device that E tiv? Pentences. stops an el-ic current f o flowing thmugh rm 6 be+v+adv+prep + be+v+adu+tolnf 8th: A m t ~ u t s l o pthe h e l e b i l i n g d r ~ s ,out through sth 1 =CUT ACROSS S T H Thepath ~ -,see a h CUT-OUTat CUT STH OUT,CUT STB OUT cuts through ihe urwd o It should be q u W if OF STH wcuathmqh town. x topass throughsthby cut-,cut out; ,cut out of sth (A@ (of a vehicleI ting: iW!I thrs saw cut through metalfo Ifigum- or a driver)to move suddenly sideway8 out of a ti