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  • 1. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[Fact Pattern #1]The management and employees of a large household goods moving company decided to adopt total quality management (TQM)and continuous improvement (CI). They believed that, if their company became nationally known as adhering to TQM and CI,one result would be an increase in the company’s profits and market share.[1] Gleim #: 1.1 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-12 (Refers to Fact Pattern #1) The primary reason for adopting TQM was to achieve A. Greater customer satisfaction. B. Reduced delivery time. C. Reduced delivery charges. D. Greater employee participation. Answer (A) is correct. TQM is an integrated system that anticipates, meets, and exceeds customers’ needs, wants, and expectations. Answer (B) is incorrect because reduced delivery time is one of many potential activities that need improvement. Answer (C) is incorrect because reduced delivery charges is one of many potential activities that need improvement. Answer (D) is incorrect because increased employee participation is necessary to achieve TQM, but it is not the primary purpose for establishing the program.[2] Gleim #: 1.2 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-13 (Refers to Fact Pattern #1) Quality is achieved more economically if the company focuses on A. Appraisal costs. B. Prevention costs. C. Internal failure costs. D. External failure costs. Answer (A) is incorrect because prevention is ordinarily less costly than the combined costs of appraisal, internal failure, and external failure. Answer (B) is correct. Prevention attempts to avoid defective output. Prevention costs include preventive maintenance, employee training, review of equipment design, and evaluation of suppliers. Prevention is less costly than detection and correction of defective output. Answer (C) is incorrect because prevention is ordinarily less costly than the combined costs of appraisal, internal failure, and external failure. Answer (D) is incorrect because prevention is ordinarily less costly than the combined costs of appraisal, internal failure, and external failure.[3] Gleim #: 1.3 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-28 A traditional quality control process in manufacturing consists of mass inspection of goods only at the end of a production process. A major deficiency of the traditional control process is that A. It is expensive to do the inspections at the end of the process. B. It is not possible to rework defective items. C. It is not 100% effective. D. It does not focus on improving the entire production process. Answer (A) is incorrect because other quality control processes can also be expensive. Answer (B) is incorrect because reworking defective items may be possible although costly. Answer (C) is incorrect because no quality control system will be 100% effective. Answer (D) is correct. The process used to produce the goods is not thoroughly reviewed and evaluated for efficiency and effectiveness. Preventing defects and increasing efficiency by improving the production process raises quality standards and decreases costs.[4] Gleim #: 1.4 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-24 Under a total quality management (TQM) approach Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 1 Printed for g j
  • 2. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Measurement occurs throughout the process, and errors are caught and corrected at the source. B. Quality control is performed by highly trained inspectors at the end of the production process. C. Upper management assumes the primary responsibility for the quality of the products and services. D. A large number of suppliers are used in order to obtain the lowest possible prices. Answer (A) is correct. Total quality management emphasizes quality as a basic organizational function. TQM is the continuous pursuit of quality in every aspect of organizational activities. One of the basic tenets of TQM is doing it right the first time. Thus, errors should be caught and corrected at the source. Answer (B) is incorrect because total quality management emphasizes discovering errors throughout the process, not inspection of finished goods. Answer (C) is incorrect because all members of the organization assume responsibility for quality of the products and services. Answer (D) is incorrect because the total quality management philosophy recommends limiting the number of suppliers to create a strong relationship.[5] Gleim #: 1.5 -- Source: CIA 596 III-29 Which of the following is a characteristic of total quality management (TQM)? A. Management by objectives. B. On-the-job training by other workers. C. Quality by final inspection. D. Education and self-improvement. Answer (A) is incorrect because one of the 14 points recommends elimination of numerical quotas. MBO causes aggressive pursuit of numerical quotas. Answer (B) is incorrect because informal learning from coworkers serves to entrench bad work habits. One of the 14 points stresses proper training of everyone. Answer (C) is incorrect because another of the 14 points states that quality by final inspection is unnecessary if quality is built in from the start. Answer (D) is correct. According to management theorist W. Edwards Deming’s well-known 14 points, education and self-improvement are essential. Knowledge is opportunity. Hence, continuous improvement should be everyone’s primary career objective.[6] Gleim #: 1.6 -- Source: CIA 596 III-30 In which of the following organizational structures does total quality management (TQM) work best? A. Hierarchal. B. Teams of people from the same specialty. C. Teams of people from different specialties. D. Specialists working individually. Answer (A) is incorrect because hierarchal organization stifles TQM. Answer (B) is incorrect because TQM works best with teams of people from different specialties. Answer (C) is correct. TQM advocates replacement of the traditional hierarchal structure with teams of people from different specialities. This change follows from TQM’s emphasis on empowering employees and teamwork. Employees should have proper training, necessary information, and the best tools; be fully engaged in the decision process; and receive fair compensation. If such empowered employees are assembled in teams of individuals with the required skills, TQM theorists believe they will be more effective than people performing their tasks separately in a rigid structure. Answer (D) is incorrect because teamwork is essential for TQM.[7] Gleim #: 1.7 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-23 The most important component of quality control is A. Ensuring goods and services conform to the design specifications. B. Satisfying upper management. C. Conforming with ISO-9000 specifications. D. Determining the appropriate timing of inspections. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 2 Printed for g j
  • 3. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. The intent of quality control is to ensure that goods and services conform to the design specifications. Whether the focus is on feedforward, feedback, or concurrent control, the emphasis is on ensuring product or service conformity. Answer (B) is incorrect because quality control is geared towards satisfying the customer, not upper management. Answer (C) is incorrect because ensuring the conformance with ISO-9000 specifications is a component of a compliance audit, not quality control. Answer (D) is incorrect because determining the appropriate timing of inspections is only one step towards approaching quality control. Consequently, it is not the primary component of the quality control function.[8] Gleim #: 1.8 -- Source: CMA 1296 3-22 The cost of scrap, rework, and tooling changes in a product quality cost system is categorized as a(n) A. Training cost. B. External failure cost. C. Internal failure cost. D. Prevention cost. Answer (A) is incorrect because training costs are prevention costs. Answer (B) is incorrect because the costs of external failure, such as warranty expense, product liability, and customer ill will, arise when problems are discovered after products have been shipped. Answer (C) is correct. According to SMA 4-R, internal failure costs are incurred when detection of defective products occurs before shipment. Examples of internal failure costs are scrap, rework, tooling changes, and downtime. Answer (D) is incorrect because prevention costs are incurred to avoid defective output. Examples include preventive maintenance, employee training, review of equipment design, and evaluation of suppliers.[9] Gleim #: 1.9 -- Source: CMA 1295 3-12 The four categories of costs associated with product quality costs are A. External failure, internal failure, prevention, and carrying. B. External failure, internal failure, prevention, and appraisal. C. External failure, internal failure, training, and appraisal. D. Warranty, product liability, training, and appraisal. Answer (A) is incorrect because carrying cost is not one of the elements of quality costs. Answer (B) is correct. SMA 4R lists four categories of quality costs: prevention, appraisal, internal failure, and external failure (lost opportunity). Costs of prevention include attempts to avoid defective output, including employee training, review of equipment design, preventive maintenance, and evaluation of suppliers. Appraisal costs include quality control programs, inspection, and testing. Internal failure costs are incurred when detection of defective products occurs before shipment, including scrap, rework, tooling changes, and downtime. External failure costs are incurred after the product has been shipped, including the costs associated with warranties, product liability, and customer ill will. Answer (C) is incorrect because training costs are not a category of quality costs. Answer (D) is incorrect because warranty, product liability, and training are not cost categories identified by SMA 4R.[10] Gleim #: 1.10 -- Source: CMA 1295 3-14 The cost of statistical quality control in a product quality cost system is categorized as a(n) A. Internal failure cost. B. Training cost. C. External failure cost. D. Appraisal cost. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 3 Printed for g j
  • 4. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because internal failure costs arise after poor quality has been found; statistical quality control is designed to detect quality problems. Answer (B) is incorrect because statistical quality control is not a training cost. Answer (C) is incorrect because external failure costs are incurred after the product has been shipped, including the costs associated with warranties, product liability, and customer ill will. Answer (D) is correct. SMA 4R lists four categories of quality costs: prevention, appraisal, internal failure, and external failure (lost opportunity). Appraisal costs include quality control programs, inspection, and testing. However, some authorities regard statistical quality and process control as preventive activities because they not only detect faulty work but also allow for adjustment of processes to avoid future defects.[11] Gleim #: 1.11 -- Source: CMA 697 3-28 Listed below are selected line items from the cost-of-quality report for Watson Products for last month. Category Amount Rework $ 725 Equipment maintenance 1,154 Product testing 786 Product repair 695 What is Watson’s total prevention and appraisal cost for last month? A. $786 B. $1,154 C. $1,940 D. $2,665 Answer (A) is incorrect because $786 is the appraisal cost. Answer (B) is incorrect because $1,154 is the prevention cost. Answer (C) is correct. According to SMA 4R, the costs of prevention and appraisal are conformance costs that serve as financial measures of internal performance. Prevention costs are incurred to prevent defective output. These costs include preventive maintenance, employee training, review of equipment design, and evaluation of suppliers. Appraisal costs are incurred to detect nonconforming output. They embrace such activities as statistical quality control programs, inspection, and testing. The equipment maintenance cost of $1,154 is a prevention cost. The product testing cost of $786 is an appraisal cost. Their sum is $1,940. Answer (D) is incorrect because $2,665 includes rework, an internal failure cost.[12] Gleim #: 1.12 -- Source: CMA 697 3-27 All of the following would generally be included in a cost-of-quality report except A. Warranty claims. B. Design engineering. C. Supplier evaluations. D. Lost contribution margin. Answer (A) is incorrect because the costs of warranty claims are readily measurable external failure costs captured by the accounting system. Answer (B) is incorrect because the cost of design engineering is a prevention cost that is usually included in cost-of- quality reports. Answer (C) is incorrect because the cost of supplier evaluations is a prevention cost that is usually included in cost- of-quality reports. Answer (D) is correct. A cost-of-quality report includes most costs related to quality, including the costs of external failure, internal failure, prevention, and appraisal. Lost contribution margins from poor product quality are external failure costs that normally do not appear on a cost-of-quality report because they are opportunity costs. Opportunity costs are not usually recorded by the accounting system, thereby understating the costs of poor quality. Lost contribution margins from reduced sales, market share, and sales prices are external failure costs that are also not usually included in a cost-of-quality report.[13] Gleim #: 1.13 -- Source: Publisher Conformance is how well a product and its components meet applicable standards. According to the robust quality concept, Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 4 Printed for g j
  • 5. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. A certain percentage of defective units is acceptable. B. Units are acceptable if their characteristics lie within an acceptable range of values. C. The goal is for all units to be within specifications. D. Every unit should reach a target value. Answer (A) is incorrect because the traditional view of quality treats a certain number of defective units as acceptable. Answer (B) is incorrect because the traditional view of quality deems that a unit is acceptable if it is within a range of specified values. Answer (C) is incorrect because the robust quality concept is an extension of the zero-defects approach. The goal of robust quality is in every case to reach a target value, not merely a range of acceptable values. Answer (D) is correct. Conformance is how well a product and its components meet applicable standards. The traditional view is that conforming products are those with characteristics that lie within an acceptable specified range of values that includes a target value. This view also regarded a certain percentage of defective (nonconforming) units as acceptable. The traditional view was superseded by the zero-defects approach that sought to eliminate all nonconforming output. An extension of this approach is the robust quality concept. Its goal is to reach the target value in every case. The reason is that hidden quality costs occur when output varies from the target even though the units are within specifications.[14] Gleim #: 1.14 -- Source: Publisher The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle is a quality tool devised by W.E. Deming. It is best described as A. A “management by fact” approach to continuous improvement. B. An ongoing evaluation of the practices of best-in-class organizations. C. The translation of customer requirements into design requirements. D. The responsibility of every employee, work group, department, or supplier to inspect the work. Answer (A) is correct. PDCA is a “management by fact” or scientific method approach to continuous improvement. PDCA creates a process-centered environment because it involves studying the current process, collecting and analyzing data to identify causes of problems, planning for improvement, and deciding how to measure improvement (Plan). The plan is then implemented on a small scale if possible (Do). The next step is to determine what happened (Check). If the experiment was successful, the plan is fully implemented (Act). The cycle is then repeated using what was learned from the preceding cycle. Answer (B) is incorrect because competitive benchmarking is an ongoing evaluation of the practices of best-in-class organizations. Answer (C) is incorrect because quality deployment is the translation of customer requirements into design requirements. Answer (D) is incorrect because the “quality at the source” concept emphasizes the responsibility of every employee, work group, department, or supplier to inspect the work.[15] Gleim #: 1.15 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following quality costs are nonconformance costs? A. Systems development costs. B. Costs of inspecting in-process items. C. Environmental costs. D. Costs of quality circles. Answer (A) is incorrect because systems development costs are prevention (conformance) costs. Answer (B) is incorrect because costs of inspecting in-process items are appraisal (conformance) costs. Answer (C) is correct. Nonconformance costs include internal and external failure costs. External failure costs include environmental costs, e.g., fines for violations of environmental laws and loss of customer goodwill. Answer (D) is incorrect because costs of quality circles are prevention (conformance) costs.[16] Gleim #: 1.16 -- Source: Publisher Quality costing is similar in service and manufacturing organizations. Nevertheless, the differences between these organizations have certain implications for quality management. Thus, Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 5 Printed for g j
  • 6. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Direct labor costs are usually a higher percentage of total costs in manufacturing organizations. B. External failure costs are relatively greater in service organizations. C. Quality improvements resulting in more efficient use of labor time are more likely to be accepted by employees in service organizations. D. Poor service is less likely to result in loss of customers than a faulty product. Answer (A) is incorrect because direct labor costs are usually a higher percentage of total costs in service organizations. Answer (B) is correct. External failure costs arise when problems occur after delivery. They occur because products or services are nonconforming or otherwise do not satisfy customers. External failure costs in service enterprises are even more important than in manufacturing environments. Faulty goods sometimes may be reworked or replaced to a customer’s satisfaction, but poor service tends to result in a loss of customers. Answer (C) is incorrect because service activities are usually more labor intensive than in modern manufacturing environments. Thus, more efficient labor usage is more likely to be viewed as a threat to employee job security in service organizations. Answer (D) is incorrect because the badwill resulting from poor service may be even more likely than a defective product to result in loss of customers.[17] Gleim #: 1.17 -- Source: Publisher According to the robust quality concept, A. The minimum point on the total quality cost curve occurs when conformance cost per unit equals nonconformance cost per unit. B. Improving quality requires tradeoffs among categories of quality costs. C. Beyond some point, incurrence of prevention and appraisal costs is not cost beneficial. D. Costs in all categories of quality costs may be reduced while improving quality. Answer (A) is incorrect because, according to the robust quality concept, conformance costs do not necessarily have to continue to increase to obtain additional reductions in nonconformance costs. Answer (B) is incorrect because, according to the robust quality concept, conformance costs do not necessarily have to continue to increase to obtain additional reductions in nonconformance costs. Answer (C) is incorrect because, according to the robust quality concept, conformance costs do not necessarily have to continue to increase to obtain additional reductions in nonconformance costs. Answer (D) is correct. The optimal level of quality costs traditionally has been deemed to occur where the conformance cost curve intercepts the nonconformance cost curve, which corresponds to the minimum point on the total cost curve. Thus, beyond some point, incurrence of prevention and appraisal costs is not cost beneficial. However, the modern robust quality view is that this relationship does not always hold. Improving quality and reducing costs in each category may be possible if the most efficient prevention methods are applied. For example, selection of a supplier meeting high quality standards regarding defect rates and delivery times may drive down not only failure costs but also the prevention and appraisal costs incurred when supplier performance was less reliable.[18] Gleim #: 1.18 -- Source: CMA 693 4-28 When evaluating projects, breakeven time is best described as A. Annual fixed costs ÷ monthly contribution margin. B. Project investment ÷ annual net cash inflows. C. The point at which cumulative cash inflows on a project equal total cash outflows. D. The point at which discounted cumulative cash inflows on a project equal discounted total cash outflows. Answer (A) is incorrect because it is related to breakeven point, not breakeven time. Answer (B) is incorrect because the payback period equals investment divided by annual undiscounted net cash inflows. Answer (C) is incorrect because the payback period is the period required for total undiscounted cash inflows to equal total undiscounted cash outflows. Answer (D) is correct. Breakeven time evaluates the rapidity of new product development. The usual calculation determines the period beginning with project approval that is required for the discounted cumulative cash inflows to equal the discounted cumulative cash outflows. However, it may also be calculated as the point at which discounted cumulative cash inflows on a project equal discounted total cash outflows. The concept is similar to the payback period, but it is more sophisticated because it incorporates the time value of money. It also differs from the payback method because the period covered begins at the outset of a project, not when the initial cash outflow occurs. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 6 Printed for g j
  • 7. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[19] Gleim #: 1.19 -- Source: CIA 594 III-56 Management of a company is attempting to build a reputation as a world-class manufacturer of quality products. Which of the following measures would not be used by the firm to measure quality? A. The percentage of shipments returned by customers because of poor quality. B. The number of parts shipped per day. C. The number of defective parts per million. D. The percentage of products passing quality tests the first time. Answer (A) is incorrect because the percentage of shipments returned measures quality by the number of defective units. Answer (B) is correct. The number of parts shipped per day would most likely be used as a measure of the effectiveness and efficiency of shipping procedures, not the quality of the product. This measure does not consider how many of the parts are defective. Answer (C) is incorrect because the number of defective parts per million measures quality by the number of defective units. Answer (D) is incorrect because the percentage of products passing quality tests the first time measures quality by the number of nondefective products.[20] Gleim #: 1.20 -- Source: CMA 694 3-16 In year 2, a manufacturing company instituted a total quality management (TQM) program producing the following report: Summary Cost of Quality Report (000s) Year 1 Year 2 % Change Prevention costs $ 200 $ 300 +50 Appraisal costs 210 315 +50 Internal failure costs 190 114 –40 External failure costs 1,200 621 –48 Total quality costs $1,800 $1,350 –25 On the basis of this report, which one of the following statements is most likely true? A. An increase in conformance costs resulted in a higher quality product and therefore resulted in a decrease in nonconformance costs. B. An increase in inspection costs was solely responsible for the decrease in quality costs. C. Quality costs such as scrap and rework decreased by 48%. D. Quality costs such as returns and repairs under warranty decreased by 40%. Answer (A) is correct. TQM emphasizes the supplier’s relationship with the customer, and recognizes that everyone in a process is at some time a customer or supplier of someone else, either within or outside the organization. The costs of quality include costs of conformance and costs of nonconformance. Costs of conformance include prevention costs and appraisal (inspection) costs. Nonconformance costs are composed of internal failure costs and external failure costs, such as lost opportunity. Conformance costs (prevention and appraisal) increased substantially, whereas the nonconformance costs (internal and external failure) decreased. Hence, the increase in conformance costs resulted in a higher quality product. Answer (B) is incorrect because prevention costs also increased substantially, which could also have led to higher quality products. Answer (C) is incorrect because scrap and rework are internal failure costs, which decreased by 40%. Answer (D) is incorrect because returns and repairs are external failure costs, which decreased by 48%. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 7 Printed for g j
  • 8. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[21] Gleim #: 1.21 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-98 Quality cost indices are often used to measure and analyze the cost of maintaining a given level of quality. One example of a quality cost index, which uses a direct labor base, is computed as The following quality cost data were collected for May and June: May June Prevention costs $ 4,000 $ 5,000 Appraisal costs 6,000 5,000 Internal failure costs 12,000 15,000 External failure costs 14,000 11,000 Direct labor costs 90,000 100,000 Based upon these cost data, the quality cost index A. Decreased 4 points from May to June. B. Was unchanged from May to June. C. Increased 10 points from May to June. D. Decreased 10 points from May to June. Answer (A) is correct. The index for May was 40% [($4,000 + $6,000 + $12,000 + $14,000) ÷ $90,000], and the index for June was 36% [($5,000 + $5,000 + $15,000 + $11,000) ÷ $100,000]. Answer (B) is incorrect because the index decreased. Answer (C) is incorrect because the increase in prevention costs was 10% of the increase in labor costs. Answer (D) is incorrect because the decrease in appraisal costs was 10% of the increase in labor costs.[22] Gleim #: 1.22 -- Source: Publisher Tocon Company produces two components: A-1 and A-2. The unit throughput contribution margins for A-1 and A-2 are $150 and $300, respectively. Each component must proceed through two processes: Operation 1 and Operation 2. The capacity of Operation 1 is 180 machine hours, with A-1 and A-2 requiring 1 hour and 3 hours, respectively. Furthermore, Tocon can sell only 45 units of A-1 and 100 units of A-2. However, Tocon is considering expanding Operation 1’s capacity by 90 machine hours at a cost of $80 per hour. Assuming that Operation 2 has sufficient capacity to handle any additional output from Operation 1, Tocon should produce Units of A-1 Units of A-2 A. 180 0 B. 45 100 C. 45 75 D. 0 60 Answer (A) is incorrect because Tocon can sell only 45 units of A-1. Answer (B) is incorrect because Tocon can produce only 75 units of A-2 if it produces 45 units of the more profitable A-1. Answer (C) is correct. A-1’s throughput contribution margin per unit of the scarce resource (the internal binding constraint) is $150 ($150 UCM ÷ 1 machining hour). A-2’s throughput contribution margin per unit of the scarce resource is $100 ($300 UCM ÷ 3 machine hours). Consequently, Tocon should produce as much A-1 as it can sell (45 units). If Tocon adds 90 machine hours to increase the capacity of Operation 1 to 270 hours (180 + 90), it cannot produce additional units of A-1 because the external binding constraint has not been relaxed. However, it can produce additional units of A-2. Given that the UCM per machine hour of A-2 is $100 and that the cost is $80 per hour, adding capacity to Operation 1 is profitable. Thus, Tocon should use 45 machine hours to produce 45 units of A-1. The remaining 225 machine hours (270 - 45) should be used to produce 75 units (225 ÷ 3 hours) of A-2. The latter amount is within the external binding constraint. Answer (D) is incorrect because Tocon should produce as much of A-1 as it can sell. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 8 Printed for g j
  • 9. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[Fact Pattern #2]Wolk Corporation is a highly automated manufacturing The following information is considered typical of the timefirm. The vice president of finance has decided that involved to complete orders:traditional standards are inappropriate for performancemeasures in an automated environment. Labor is • Wait time:insignificant in terms of the total cost of production and - From order being placed totends to be fixed, material quality is considered more start of production 10.0 daysimportant than minimizing material cost, and customer - From start of production tosatisfaction is the number one priority. As a result, delivery completion 5.0 daysperformance measures have been chosen to evaluate • Inspection time 1.5 daysperformance. • Process time 3.0 days • Move time 2.5 days[23] Gleim #: 1.23 -- Source: CMA 693 3-17 (Refers to Fact Pattern #2) What is the manufacturing cycle efficiency for this order? A. 25.0%. B. 13.6%. C. 37.5%. D. 69.2%. Answer (A) is correct. Manufacturing cycle efficiency is defined as the quotient of the time required for value-added production divided by total manufacturing lead time. For this order, the total lead time is 12 days (5.0 + 1.5 + 3.0 + 2.5), and the manufacturing cycle efficiency is 25% (3 days of processing ÷ 12). Answer (B) is incorrect because 13.6% includes the 10 days prior to production in the denominator, a period not included in the calculation of manufacturing cycle efficiency. Answer (C) is incorrect because inspection time and move time should be included in the denominator. Answer (D) is incorrect because the calculation involves dividing the 3 days of processing time by the total of 12 days to complete production.[24] Gleim #: 1.24 -- Source: CMA 693 3-18 (Refers to Fact Pattern #2) What is the delivery cycle time for this order? A. 7 days. B. 12 days. C. 15 days. D. 22 days. Answer (A) is incorrect because 7 days excludes the wait time. Answer (B) is incorrect because 12 days ignores the 10 days of the waiting period prior to the start of production. Answer (C) is incorrect because 15 days incorporates the wait time but not the production periods. Answer (D) is correct. The delivery cycle time is defined as the entire time from receipt of the order until delivery of the order. This period equals 22 days (10.0 + 5.0 + 1.5 + 3.0 + 2.5) Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 9 Printed for g j
  • 10. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[Fact Pattern #3]This information is relevant to a theory of constraints (TOC) analysis. A manufacturer that can sell all of its output produces itssole product using three operations. Each unit sells for $120, and direct materials costing $48 per unit are added at the start of thefirst operation. Other variable costs are immaterial. The following annual cost and capacity information is available concerningthose operations: Operation 1 Operation 2 Operation 3Total capacity per year 200,000 units 150,000 units 180,000 unitsTotal output per year 150,000 units 150,000 units 150,000 unitsFixed cost of operations (not including direct materials) $1,200,000 $1,800,000 $2,250,000[25] Gleim #: 1.25 -- Source: Publisher (Refers to Fact Pattern #3) Assume that additional workers are hired for the bottleneck operation to expedite setups and materials handling. The cost of the additional workers is $50,000 per year. As a result, the annual output of the bottleneck operation will increase by 500 units. The change in operating income attributable to the increase in workers is A. $50,000 B. $36,000 C. $(14,000) D. $(20,000) Answer (A) is incorrect because $50,000 is the incremental cost. Answer (B) is incorrect because $36,000 is the incremental throughput contribution. Answer (C) is correct. Operation 2 is the bottleneck because it is functioning at its capacity. The incremental annual throughput contribution (revenues – direct materials costs) from adding workers to Operation 2 is $36,000 [500 units × ($120 unit price – $48 DM per unit)]. Because the cost of the additional workers is $50,000, the change in operating income is $(14,000). Answer (D) is incorrect because $(20,000) is based on the assumption that an additional $12 per unit of fixed costs will be applied.[26] Gleim #: 1.26 -- Source: Publisher (Refers to Fact Pattern #3) Assume that X Company offers to perform the Operation 2 function on 1,000 units at a unit price of $40, excluding direct materials cost. Which of these mutually exclusive offers is acceptable? A. X but not Y. B. Y but not X. C. X or Y. D. Neither offer should be accepted. Answer (A) is correct. X’s offer should be accepted because its cost is $40,000 (1,000 units × $40), but the increase in throughput contribution is $72,000 [1,000 units × ($120 unit price – $48 DM per unit)]. X’s offer effectively increases the capacity of the bottleneck operation. Y’s offer should be rejected because it will result in the incurrence of additional costs with no increase in throughput contribution, given that Operation 2 is already producing at its 150,000-unit capacity. Answer (B) is incorrect because Xs offer but not Ys offer is acceptable. Answer (C) is incorrect because Xs offer but not Ys offer is acceptable. Answer (D) is incorrect because Xs offer but not Ys offer is acceptable.[27] Gleim #: 1.27 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following statements regarding benchmarking is false? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 10 Printed for g j
  • 11. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Benchmarking involves continuously evaluating the practices of best-in-class organization and adapting company processes to incorporate the best of these practices. B. Benchmarking, in practice, usually involves a company’s formation of benchmarking teams. C. Benchmarking is an ongoing process that entails quantitative and qualitative measurement of the difference between the company’s performance of an activity and the performance by the best in the world or the best in the industry. D. The benchmarking organization against which a firm is comparing itself must be a direct competitor. Answer (A) is incorrect because they are true statements about benchmarking. Answer (B) is incorrect because they are true statements about benchmarking. Answer (C) is incorrect because they are true statements about benchmarking. Answer (D) is correct. Benchmarking is an ongoing process that entails quantitative and qualitative measurement of the difference between the company’s performance of an activity and the performance by a best-in-class organization. The benchmarking organization against which a firm is comparing itself need not be a direct competitor. The important consideration is that the benchmarking organization be an outstanding performer in its industry.[28] Gleim #: 1.28 -- Source: CIA 595 III-22 An example of an internal nonfinancial benchmark is A. The labor rate of comparably skilled employees at a major competitor’s plant. B. The average actual cost per pound of a specific product at the company’s most efficient plant. C. A $50,000 limit on the cost of employee training programs at each of the company’s plants. D. The percentage of customer orders delivered on time at the company’s most efficient plant. Answer (A) is incorrect because the labor rate of a competitor is a financial benchmark. Answer (B) is incorrect because the cost per pound of a product at the company’s most efficient plant is a financial benchmark. Answer (C) is incorrect because the cost of a training program is a financial benchmark. Answer (D) is correct. Benchmarking is a continuous evaluation of the practices of the best organizations in their class and the adaptation of processes to reflect the best of these practices. It entails analysis and measurement of key outputs against those of the best organizations. This procedure also involves identifying the underlying key actions and causes that contribute to the performance difference. The percentage of orders delivered on time at the company’s most efficient plant is an example of an internal nonfinancial benchmark.[29] Gleim #: 1.29 -- Source: Publisher According to ISO 9000 standards, which of the following is false in regard to registrars? A. Most employees are subject to being audited. B. Companies may have preliminary audits by registrars. C. Employees must be able to competently describe their jobs and demonstrate that they are performing properly. D. Upon satisfactory completion of an on-site visit, a registrar may issue a certificate describing the scope of the registration, which is valid for 3 years. Answer (A) is correct. During an on-site visit, the registrar has the right to audit all employees if he or she decides to do so. Each employee must have the ability to explain their jobs and show that they are capable of performing properly. Answer (B) is incorrect because some companies have preliminary audits by registrars to prepare for the official audit. Answer (C) is incorrect because employees must be able to “say what they do” and demonstrate that they “do what they say.” Answer (D) is incorrect because a registrar who is convinced that a quality system conforms to the selected standard issues a certificate describing the scope of the registration. The registration is usually valid for a 3-year period.[30] Gleim #: 1.30 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following is not true about the advantages of adopting ISO 9000 standards? A. Adoption of ISO 9000 standards may allow the company to sell products in foreign markets. B. ISO registration makes customers more comfortable with the supplier’s products and services. C. ISO 9000 allows companies to understand who internal customers and users are without sharing private information. D. ISO registration may help companies discover internal process and quality improvements. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 11 Printed for g j
  • 12. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because many foreign countries are beginning to require adoption of ISO 9000 standards as a prerequisite for a company to sell products or services in that country. Answer (B) is incorrect because many companies view ISO registration as a key to remaining competitive. ISO registration allows customers to be more comfortable with suppliers’ products and services. Answer (C) is correct. Market pressure is usually the main driving force for companies that adopt ISO 9000 standards. However, many of the companies that register uncover internal process and quality improvement as a result. ISO 9000 forces companies to share information, which leads to a better understanding of who internal customers and users are. Answer (D) is incorrect because many companies that implement ISO 9000 standards uncover internal process and quality improvements.[31] Gleim #: 1.31 -- Source: Publisher Why have many European Union countries not adopted ISO 14000 standards? A. Adhering to ISO 14000 standards will not reduce monitoring and inspection by regulatory agencies. B. Individual European Union countries’ standards are typically more strict than ISO 14000 standards. C. Regulators are permitted to use voluntary audits as a basis for punitive action. D. ISO 14000 standards will not make it easier to do business across borders. Answer (A) is incorrect because adhering to ISO 14000 standards does not guarantee less monitoring or inspection by regulatory agencies. Answer (B) is correct. Many European countries already have environmental systems in place, and many individual countries’ standards are typically more strict than the ISO 14000 standards. Answer (C) is incorrect because many countries in the European Union have adopted measures similar to the ones in the US to prevent self-incrimination during voluntary ISO audits. Answer (D) is incorrect because ISO 14000 establishes internationally recognized standards that are intended to diminish trade barriers and make it easier to do business across borders.[32] Gleim #: 1.32 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following is not required when ISO 9000 standards are adopted? A. Organization of a quality management system. B. Creation of an internal audit system. C. Consistent high quality products. D. On-site inspections by a registrar. Answer (A) is incorrect because one of the most important steps to adhering to ISO 9000 standards is to organize a QMS. A QMS explains the company’s quality control and management’s commitment to quality. Answer (B) is incorrect because internal audits assure that the company is complying with the documented QMS procedures and ISO 9000 standards. Answer (C) is correct. ISO 9000 is a set of generic standards for establishing and maintaining a quality system within a company. The standards provide no basis for judging the quality of the end product. The marketplace will make this determination on its own. The objective of ISO 9000 standards is to ensure consistent quality, even if the quality is poor. Answer (D) is incorrect because a registrar must ensure that the company’s quality control system conforms to the selected standard.[33] Gleim #: 1.33 -- Source: CIA 593 III-64 What coefficient of correlation results from the following data? X Y 1 10 2 8 3 6 4 4 5 2 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 12 Printed for g j
  • 13. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. 0 B. –1 C. +1 D. Cannot be determined from the data given. Answer (A) is incorrect because a perfect negative correlation exists. Answer (B) is correct. The coefficient of correlation (in standard notation, r) measures the strength of the linear relationship. The magnitude of r is independent of the scales of measurement of X and Y. Its range is –1.0 to 1.0. A value of –1.0 indicates a perfectly inverse linear relationship between X and Y. A value of zero indicates no linear relationship between X and Y. A value of +1.0 indicates a perfectly direct relationship between X and Y. As X increases by 1, Y consistently decreases by 2. Hence, a perfectly inverse relationship exists, and r must be equal to –1.0. Answer (C) is incorrect because an inverse, not a direct, relationship exists. Answer (D) is incorrect because a linear relationship exists between X and Y.[34] Gleim #: 1.34 -- Source: CIA 1194 II-46 In regression analysis, which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between the independent and dependent variables? A. 1.03 B. –.02 C. –.89 D. .75 Answer (A) is incorrect because 1.03 is an impossible value. Answer (B) is incorrect because –.02 is a very weak correlation coefficient. Answer (C) is correct. Because the range of values is between –1.0 and 1.0, –.89 suggests a very strong inverse relationship between the independent and dependent variables. A value of –1.0 signifies a perfect inverse relationship, and a value of 1.0 signifies a perfect direct relationship. Answer (D) is incorrect because .75 is .25 from the maximum value, whereas –.89 is .11 from the minimum value.[35] Gleim #: 1.35 -- Source: CIA 595 II-46 The internal auditor of a bank has developed a multiple regression model which has been used for a number of years to estimate the amount of interest income from commercial loans. During the current year, the auditor applies the model and discovers that the r2 value has decreased dramatically, but the model otherwise seems to be working okay. Which of the following conclusions are justified by the change? A. Changing to a cross-sectional regression analysis should cause r2 to increase. B. Regression analysis is no longer an appropriate technique to estimate interest income. C. Some new factors, not included in the model, are causing interest income to change. D. A linear regression analysis would increase the model’s reliability. Answer (A) is incorrect because cross-sectional regression analysis is inappropriate. The auditor is trying to estimate changes in a single account balance over time. Answer (B) is incorrect because regression analysis may still be the most appropriate methodology to estimate interest income, but the auditor should first understand the factors that may be causing r2 to decrease. The reason may be a systematic error in the account balance. Answer (C) is correct. The coefficient of determination (r2 ) is the amount of variation in the dependent variable (interest income) that is explained by the independent variables. In this case, less of the change in interest income is explained by the model. Thus, some other factor must be causing interest income to change. This change merits audit investigation. Answer (D) is incorrect because linear regression models are simpler models, but the auditor should be searching for a systematic error in the account balance or applying a more complex model. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 13 Printed for g j
  • 14. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[Fact Pattern #4]In preparing the annual profit plan for the coming year,Wilkens Company wants to determine the cost behavior Hours of Maintenancepattern of the maintenance costs. Wilkens has decided to use Activity Costslinear regression by employing the equation y = a + bx for January 480 $ 4,200maintenance costs. The prior year’s data regarding February 320 3,000maintenance hours and costs, and the results of the March 400 3,600regression analysis, are given below and in the opposite April 300 2,820column. May 500 4,350 June 310 2,960 July 320 3,030Average cost per hour $9.00 August 520 4,470a 684.65 September 490 4,260b 7.2884 October 470 4,050Standard error of a 49.515 November 350 3,300Standard error of b .12126 December 340 3,160Standard error of the estimate 34.469 Sum 4,800 $43,200r2 .99724 Average 400 $ 3,600[36] Gleim #: 1.36 -- Source: CMA 1290 4-27 (Refers to Fact Pattern #4) In the standard regression equation y a + bx, the letter b is best described as a(n) A. Independent variable. B. Dependent variable. C. Constant coefficient. D. Variable coefficient. Answer (A) is incorrect because x is the independent variable. Answer (B) is incorrect because the dependent variable is y. Answer (C) is incorrect because the constant coefficient is a. Answer (D) is correct. In the standard regression equation, b represents the variable coefficient. For example, in a cost determination regression, y equals total costs, b is the variable cost per unit, x is the number of units produced, and a is fixed cost.[37] Gleim #: 1.37 -- Source: CMA 1290 4-28 (Refers to Fact Pattern #4) The letter x in the standard regression equation is best described as a(n) A. Independent variable. B. Dependent variable. C. Constant coefficient. D. Coefficient of determination. Answer (A) is correct. The letter x in the standard regression equation is the independent variable. For example, in a regression to determine the total cost of production, x equals units produced. Answer (B) is incorrect because the dependent variable is y. Answer (C) is incorrect because the constant coefficient is a. Answer (D) is incorrect because r 2 is the coefficient of determination.[38] Gleim #: 1.38 -- Source: CMA 1290 4-29 (Refers to Fact Pattern #4) Based upon the data derived from the regression analysis, 420 maintenance hours in a month would mean the maintenance costs (rounded to the nearest dollar) would be budgeted at Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 14 Printed for g j
  • 15. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. $3,780 B. $3,600 C. $3,790 D. $3,746 Answer (A) is incorrect because the budgeted maintenance costs are $3,746. Answer (B) is incorrect because the budgeted maintenance costs are $3,746. Answer (C) is incorrect because the budgeted maintenance costs are $3,746. Answer (D) is correct. Substituting the given data into the regression equation results in a budgeted cost of $3,746 (rounded to the nearest dollar). y = a + bx y = 684.65 + 7.2884(420) y = $3,746[39] Gleim #: 1.39 -- Source: CMA 1290 4-30 (Refers to Fact Pattern #4) The percentage of the total variance that can be explained by the regression equation is A. 99.724% B. 69.613% C. 80.982% D. 99.862% Answer (A) is correct. The coefficient of determination (r²) measures the percentage of the total variance in cost that can be explained by the regression equation. If the coefficient of determination is .99724, 99.724% of the variance is explained by the regression equation. Thus, the values in the regression equation explain virtually the entire amount of total cost. Answer (B) is incorrect because the percentage of the total variance explained by the regression equation is 99.724%, which corresponds to the coefficient of determination (r²), or .99724. Answer (C) is incorrect because the percentage of the total variance explained by the regression equation is 99.724%, which corresponds to the coefficient of determination (r²), or .99724. Answer (D) is incorrect because the percentage of the total variance explained by the regression equation is 99.724%, which corresponds to the coefficient of determination (r²), or .99724.[40] Gleim #: 1.40 -- Source: CIA 1195 II-30 A division uses a regression in which monthly advertising expenditures are used to predict monthly product sales (both in millions of dollars). The results show a regression coefficient for the independent variable equal to 0.8. This coefficient value indicates that A. The average monthly advertising expenditure in the sample is $800,000. B. When monthly advertising is at its average level, product sales will be $800,000. C. On average, every additional dollar of advertising results in $.80 of additional sales. D. Advertising is not a good predictor of sales because the coefficient is so small. Answer (A) is incorrect because a regression coefficient is unrelated to the means of the variables. Answer (B) is incorrect because to predict a specific value of sales, the value of the independent variable is multiplied by the coefficient. The product is then added to the y-intercept value. Answer (C) is correct. The regression coefficient represents the change in the dependent variable corresponding to a unit change in the independent variable. Thus, it is the slope of the regression line. Answer (D) is incorrect because the absolute size of the coefficient bears no necessary relationship to the importance of the variable.[41] Gleim #: 1.41 -- Source: CIA 595 II-47 An internal auditor for a large automotive parts retailer wishes to perform a risk analysis and wants to use an appropriate statistical tool to help identify stores that would be out of line compared to the majority of stores. The most appropriate statistical tool to use is Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 15 Printed for g j
  • 16. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Linear time series analysis. B. Cross-sectional regression analysis. C. Cross tabulations with chi-square analysis of significance. D. Time series multiple regression analysis to identify changes in individual stores over time. Answer (A) is incorrect because linear time series analysis is inapplicable. It is a simple model that compares data for an individual store over time. Answer (B) is correct. Time series data pertain to a given entity over a number of prior time periods. Cross-sectional data, however, pertain to different entities for a given time period or at a given time. Thus, cross-sectional regression analysis is the most appropriate statistical tool because it compares attributes of all stores’ operating statistics at one moment in time. Answer (C) is incorrect because cross tabulations have to be built on a model of expectations. Unless the model is built, the analysis is not useful. Answer (D) is incorrect because the objective is to compare stores at one moment in time. Multiple regression time series analysis compares the performance of an individual store over a period of time.[42] Gleim #: 1.42 -- Source: Publisher Violation of which assumption underlying regression analysis is prevalent in time series analysis? A. Variance of error term is constant. B. Error terms are independent. C. Distribution of error terms is normal. D. Expected value of error term equals zero. Answer (A) is incorrect because constant variance of the error term is usually met. Answer (B) is correct. Time series analysis is a regression model in which the independent variable is time. In time series analysis, the value of the next time period is frequently dependent on the value of the time period before that. Hence, the error terms are usually correlated or dependent on the prior period; i.e., they are characterized by autocorrelation (serial correlation). Answer (C) is incorrect because normal distribution of the error term is usually met. Answer (D) is incorrect because an expected value of the error term equal to zero is usually met.[43] Gleim #: 1.43 -- Source: CIA 589 III-50 The moving-average method of forecasting A. Is a cross-sectional forecasting method. B. Regresses the variable of interest on a related variable to develop a forecast. C. Derives final forecasts by adjusting the initial forecast based on the smoothing constant. D. Includes each new observation in the average as it becomes available and discards the oldest observation. Answer (A) is incorrect because cross-sectional regression analysis examines relationships among large amounts of data (e.g., many or different production methods or locations) at a particular moment in time. Answer (B) is incorrect because regression analysis relates the forecast to changes in particular variables. Answer (C) is incorrect because, under exponential smoothing, each forecast equals the sum of the last observation times the smoothing constant, plus the last forecast times one minus the constant. Answer (D) is correct. The simple moving-average method is a smoothing technique that uses the experience of the past N periods (through time period t) to forecast a value for the next period. Thus, the average includes each new observation and discards the oldest observation. The forecast formula for the next period (for time period t+1) is the sum of the last N observations divided by N.[44] Gleim #: 1.44 -- Source: CIA 594 II-38 As part of a risk analysis, an auditor wishes to forecast the percentage growth in next month’s sales for a particular plant using the past 30 months’ sales results. Significant changes in the organization affecting sales volumes were made within the last 9 months. The most effective analysis technique to use would be A. Unweighted moving average. B. Exponential smoothing. C. Queuing theory. D. Linear regression analysis. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 16 Printed for g j
  • 17. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because an unweighted average will not give more importance to more recent data. Answer (B) is correct. Under exponential smoothing, each forecast equals the sum of the last observation times the smoothing constant, plus the last forecast times one minus the constant. Thus, exponential means that greater weight is placed on the most recent data, with the weights of all data falling off exponentially as the data age. This feature is important because of the organizational changes that affected sales volume. Answer (C) is incorrect because queuing theory is used to minimize the cost of waiting lines. Answer (D) is incorrect because linear regression analysis determines the equation for the relationship among variables. It does not give more importance to more recent data.[Fact Pattern #5]Moss Point Manufacturing recently completed and sold anorder of 50 units that had costs as shown in the next Direct materials $ 1,500column. Direct labor (1,000 hours × $8.50) 8,500 Variable overhead (1,000 hours × $4.00)* 4,000The company has now been requested to prepare a bid for Fixed overhead ** 1,400150 units of the same product. $15,400 * Applied on the basis of direct labor hours ** Applied at the rate of 10% of variable cost[45] Gleim #: 1.45 -- Source: CMA 1288 5-19 (Refers to Fact Pattern #5) If an 80% learning curve is applicable, Moss Point’s total cost on this order would be estimated at A. $26,400 B. $32,000 C. $38,000 D. $41,800 Answer (A) is correct. Assuming that the cumulative average-time model applies, an 80% learning curve means that the cumulative average time per unit (and labor cost, given a constant labor rate) declines by 20% when unit output doubles in the early stages of production. The first lot size was 50 units, which was produced at a total cost of $15,400 ($1,500 for materials and $13,900 for labor and overhead). Materials costs are strictly variable and should remain proportional to production. The labor ($8,500) and variable overhead ($4,000) costs (labor-related), however, will be affected by the learning curve. The average cost per lot for labor and variable overhead after 100 units have been produced should be 80% of the costs of the first lot of 50 units. Thus, the average labor and variable overhead cost per 50-unit lot will be $10,000 (80% × $12,500). If production doubles again (to a total production of 200 units or four lots of 50 each), the cumulative average cost for labor and variable overhead will be $8,000 per lot (80% × $10,000). Given four lots of 50 each, at an average cost of $8,000 per lot, the total cost for labor and variable overhead must be $32,000. Adding $6,000 for raw materials ($1,500 per 50-unit lot) gives a total variable cost of $38,000 for 200 units. Fixed overhead is 10% of total variable cost, so total cost is $41,800. The total cost for the last 150 units is $26,400 ($41,800 – $15,400). Answer (B) is incorrect because $32,000 is the total cost for labor and variable overhead for 200 units. Answer (C) is incorrect because $38,000 is the total variable cost for 200 units. Answer (D) is incorrect because $41,800 is the total cost for 200 units.[46] Gleim #: 1.46 -- Source: CMA 1288 5-20 (Refers to Fact Pattern #5) If Moss Point had experienced a 70% learning curve, the bid for the 150 units would A. Show a 30% reduction in the total direct labor hours required with no learning curve. B. Include increased fixed overhead costs. C. Be 10% lower than the total bid at an 80% learning curve. D. Include 6.40 direct labor hours per unit at $8.50 per hour. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 17 Printed for g j
  • 18. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because, with no learning curve effect, estimated total hours would be 4,000 instead of 1,960, a change of more than 50%. Answer (B) is incorrect because fixed costs applied per lot would decline because they are based on labor hours, which are declining. Answer (C) is incorrect because, with no learning curve effect, estimated total hours would be 4,000 instead of 1,960, a change of more than 50%. Answer (D) is correct. The sum of the direct labor hours for the initial lot of 50 units was 1,000. A second lot of 50 would reduce the cumulative hours per lot to 700 (70% × 1,000). A doubling to four lots would reduce the cumulative hours per lot to 490 (70% × 700). Thus, for an output of 200 units, the total hours worked would be 1,960 (4 × 490). Subtracting the 1,000 hours required for the first 50 units from the 1,960-hour total gives 960 hours for the last 150 units. Dividing 960 hours by 150 units produces a per-unit time of 6.4 hours.[47] Gleim #: 1.47 -- Source: CMA 1293 4-24 The average labor cost per unit for the first batch produced by a new process is $120. The cumulative average labor cost after the second batch is $72 per product. Using a batch size of 100 and assuming the learning curve continues, the total labor cost of four batches will be A. $4,320 B. $10,368 C. $2,592 D. $17,280 Answer (A) is incorrect because $4,320 equals the cost of the items in the fourth batch. Answer (B) is incorrect because $10,368 is based on the assumption that the cumulative average unit labor cost is reduced by the learning curve percentage with each batch, not each doubling of output. Answer (C) is incorrect because $2,592 represents the labor cost of 100 units at the unit rate expected after another doubling of production to eight batches. Answer (D) is correct. The learning curve reflects the increased rate at which people perform tasks as they gain experience. The time required to perform a given task becomes progressively shorter. Ordinarily, the curve is expressed in a percentage of reduced time to complete a task for each doubling of cumulative production. One common assumption in a learning curve model is that the cumulative average time (and labor cost) per unit is reduced by a certain percentage each time production doubles. Given a $120 cost per unit for the first 100 units and a $72 cost per unit when cumulative production doubled to 200 units, the learning curve percentage must be 60% ($72 ÷ $120). If production is again doubled to 400 units (four batches), the average unit labor cost should be $43.20 (60% × $72). Hence, total labor cost for 400 units is estimated to be $17,280 (400 × $43.20).[48] Gleim #: 1.48 -- Source: CMA 683 5-8 A company is simulating the actions of a government agency in which 50% of the time a recall of a product is required, 40% of the time only notification of the buyer about a potential defect is required, and 10% of the time no action on its part is required. Random numbers of 1 to 100 are being used. An appropriate assignment of random numbers for the recall category would be A. 1-40 B. 40-90 C. 61-100 D. 11-60 Answer (A) is incorrect because 1-40 is an appropriate assignment of random numbers for the notification category. Answer (B) is incorrect because 40-90 includes 51 numbers. Answer (C) is incorrect because 61-100 is an appropriate assignment of random numbers for the notification category. Answer (D) is correct. Given a 50% chance of a recall, 50 different numbers should be assigned to that alternative. This answer is the only alternative with 50 numbers (11-60). Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 18 Printed for g j
  • 19. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[49] Gleim #: 1.49 -- Source: CMA 1294 4-29 Quick Response Plumbing (QRP), a wholesale distributor, supplies plumbing contractors and retailers throughout the Northeast on a next-day delivery basis. QRP has a centrally located warehouse to accept receipts of plumbing supplies. The warehouse has a single dock to accept and unload railroad freight cars during the night. It takes 5 hours to unload each freight car. QRP’s prior records indicate that the number of freight cars that arrive in the course of a night range from zero to five or more, with no indicated pattern of arrivals. If more than two freight cars arrive on the same night, some freight must be held until the next day for unloading. QRP wants to estimate the wait time when more than two freight cars arrive in the same night. The appropriate technique to analyze the arrival of freight cars is A. Integer programming. B. Linear programming. C. Monte Carlo simulation. D. Regression analysis. Answer (A) is incorrect because integer programming is a variation of linear programming that concerns problems in which some variables are not continuous. Integer programming problems are also known as discrete models because the variables take on discrete, noncontinuous values. Answer (B) is incorrect because linear programming is a technique used to maximize a revenue or profit function, or minimize a cost function, subject to constraints such as limited resources or minimum (or maximum) levels of production time. Answer (C) is correct. The Monte Carlo simulation method is often used to generate the individual values for a random variable. The performance of a quantitative model under uncertainty may be investigated by randomly selecting values for each variable in the model (based on the probability distribution of each variable) and then calculating the value of the solution. If this process is performed many times, the distribution of results from the model will be obtained. Answer (D) is incorrect because regression analysis is used to find an equation for the linear relationships among variables.[50] Gleim #: 1.50 -- Source: CMA 690 5-21 Through the use of decision models, managers thoroughly analyze many alternatives and decide on the best alternative for the company. Often the actual results achieved from a particular decision are not what was expected when the decision was made. In addition, an alternative that was not selected would have actually been the best decision for the company. The appropriate technique to analyze the alternatives by using expected inputs and altering them before a decision is made is A. Expected value analysis. B. Linear programming. C. Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT). D. Sensitivity analysis. Answer (A) is incorrect because expected value analysis is used to determine an anticipated return or cost based upon probabilities of events and their related outcomes. Answer (B) is incorrect because linear programming optimizes a function given certain constraints. Answer (C) is incorrect because PERT is a network technique used to plan and control large projects. Answer (D) is correct. Sensitivity modeling can be used to determine the outcome of a variety of decisions. A trial- and-error method may be adopted, usually in a computer model, to calculate the sensitivity of the solution (variability of outcomes) to changes in a variable.[51] Gleim #: 1.51 -- Source: CMA 1291 3-7 Which one of the following items would most likely not be incorporated into the calculation of a division’s investment base when using the residual income approach for performance measurement and evaluation? A. Fixed assets employed in division operations. B. Land being held by the division as a site for a new plant. C. Division inventories when division management exercises control over the inventory levels. D. Division accounts payable when division management exercises control over the amount of short-term credit used. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 19 Printed for g j
  • 20. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because fixed operating assets are controlled by the division manager and contribute to profits. Answer (B) is correct. An evaluation of an investment center is based upon the return on the investment base. These assets include plant and equipment, inventories, and receivables. Most likely, however, an asset, such as land, that is being held by the division as a site for a new plant would not be included in the investment base because it is not currently being used in operations. Total assets in use rather than total assets available is preferable when the investment center has been forced to carry idle assets. Answer (C) is incorrect because inventories are operating assets that contribute to profits and are controlled by the division manager. Answer (D) is incorrect because the level of accounts payable is an operating decision that should be considered in the evaluation of the division manager.[52] Gleim #: 1.52 -- Source: CMA 1296 3-27 Which denominator used in the return on investment (ROI) formula is criticized because it combines the effects of operating decisions made at one organizational level with financing decisions made at another organizational level? A. Total assets employed. B. Equity. C. Working capital plus other assets. D. Total assets available. Answer (A) is incorrect because it reflects an assumption that the subunit manager does not influence the resource base (denominator of the ROI calculation). Answer (B) is correct. ROI equals income divided by invested capital. The denominator may be defined in various ways, e.g., total assets available, assets employed, working capital plus other assets, and equity. If equity (total assets – total liabilities) is chosen, a portion of long-term liabilities must be allocated to the investment center to determine the manager’s resource base. One problem with this definition of the resource base is that, although it has the advantage of emphasizing return to owners, it reflects decisions at different levels of the entity: short-term liabilities incurred by the responsibility center (operating decisions) and long-term liabilities controlled at the corporate level (long-term financing decisions). Answer (C) is incorrect because working capital plus other assets reflects the assumption that the manager controls short-term credit. However, no corporate-level decision to allocate long-term liabilities to subunits is necessary. Answer (D) is incorrect because it reflects an assumption that the subunit manager does not influence the resource base (denominator of the ROI calculation).[53] Gleim #: 1.53 -- Source: CMA 697 3-29 Listed below is selected financial information for the Western Division of the Hinzel Company for last year. Amount Account (thousands) Average working capital $ 625 General and administrative expenses 75 Net sales 4,000 Average plant and equipment 1,775 Cost of goods sold 3,525 If Hinzel treats the Western Division as an investment center for performance measurement purposes, what is the before-tax return on investment (ROI) for last year? A. 34.78% B. 22.54% C. 19.79% D. 16.67% Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 20 Printed for g j
  • 21. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because 34.78% results from subtracting working capital from plant and equipment in calculating the net investment. Answer (B) is incorrect because 22.54% fails to include average working capital in the total for the net investment. Answer (C) is incorrect because 19.79% results from not subtracting general and administrative expenses in the calculation of before-tax profit. Answer (D) is correct. An investment center is responsible for revenues, expenses, and invested capital. Given average plant and equipment of $1,775 and average working capital of $625, the net investment is $2,400. Before-tax profit is $400 ($4,000 sales – $3,525 cost of goods sold – $75 general expenses). If before-tax ROI equals before-tax profit divided by net investment, the answer is 16.67% ($400 ÷ $2,400).[54] Gleim #: 1.54 -- Source: CMA 697 3-24 Residual income is a better measure for performance evaluation of an investment center manager than return on investment because A. The problems associated with measuring the asset base are eliminated. B. Desirable investment decisions will not be neglected by high-return divisions. C. Only the gross book value of assets needs to be calculated. D. The arguments about the implicit cost of interest are eliminated. Answer (A) is incorrect because this method uses the same asset base. Answer (B) is correct. Residual income is the excess of the amount of the ROI over a targeted amount equal to an imputed interest charge on invested capital. The advantage of using residual income rather than percentage ROI is that the former emphasizes maximizing a dollar amount instead of a percentage. Managers of divisions with a high ROI are encouraged to accept projects with returns exceeding the cost of capital even if those projects reduce the department’s ROI. Answer (C) is incorrect because this method uses the same asset base. Answer (D) is incorrect because use of the residual income method requires a knowledge of the cost of capital; thus, arguments about the implicit cost of interest may escalate with use of the residual income method.[55] Gleim #: 1.55 -- Source: CMA 697 3-30 James Webb is the general manager of the Industrial Product Division, and his performance is measured using the residual income method. Webb is reviewing the following forecasted information for his division for next year: Amount Category (thousands) Working capital $ 1,800 Revenue 30,000 Plant and equipment 17,200 If the imputed interest charge is 15% and Webb wants to achieve a residual income target of $2,000,000, what will costs have to be in order to achieve the target? A. $9,000,000 B. $10,800,000 C. $25,150,000 D. $25,690,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because this level of cost would result in a residual income greater than $2,000,000. Answer (B) is incorrect because this level of cost would result in a residual income greater than $2,000,000. Answer (C) is correct. Residual income is the excess of the amount of the ROI over a targeted amount equal to an imputed interest charge on invested capital. If a manager has $19,000,000 of invested capital ($17,200,000 of plant and equipment + $1,800,000 of working capital), a 15% imputed interest charge equals $2,850,000. Adding $2,000,000 of residual income to the imputed interest results in a target profit of $4,850,000. This profit can be achieved if costs are $25,150,000 ($30,000,000 revenue – $4,850,000 profit). Answer (D) is incorrect because $25,690,000 results from subtracting working capital from plant and equipment in determining invested capital. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 21 Printed for g j
  • 22. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[56] Gleim #: 1.56 -- Source: CMA 695 3-20 REB Service Co. is a computer service center. For the month of May, REB had the following operating statistics: Sales $450,000 Operating income 25,000 Net profit after taxes 8,000 Total assets 500,000 Shareholders’ equity 200,000 Cost of capital 6% Based on the above information, which one of the following statements is true? REB has a A. Return on investment of 4%. B. Residual income of $(5,000). C. Return on investment of 1.6%. D. Residual income of $(22,000). Answer (A) is incorrect because, although the firm’s return on equity investment was 4%, its return on all funds invested was 5% ($25,000 pretax operating income ÷ $500,000). Answer (B) is correct. Return on investment is commonly calculated by dividing pretax income by total assets available. Residual income is the excess of the return on investment over a targeted amount equal to an imputed interest charge on invested capital. The rate used is ordinarily the weighted-average cost of capital. Some companies measure managerial performance in terms of the amount of residual income rather than the percentage return on investment. Because REB has assets of $500,000 and a cost of capital of 6%, it must earn $30,000 on those assets to cover the cost of capital. Given that operating income was only $25,000, it had a negative residual income of $5,000. Answer (C) is incorrect because ROI is commonly based on before-tax income. Answer (D) is incorrect because $(22,000) equals the difference between net profit after taxes and targeted income.[57] Gleim #: 1.57 -- Source: Publisher Managerial performance may be measured in many ways. For example, an internal nonfinancial measure is A. Market share. B. Delivery performance. C. Customer satisfaction. D. Manufacturing lead time. Answer (A) is incorrect because market share is an external nonfinancial measure. Answer (B) is incorrect because delivery performance is an external nonfinancial measure. Answer (C) is incorrect because customer satisfaction is an external nonfinancial measure. Answer (D) is correct. Feedback regarding managerial performance may take the form of financial and nonfinancial measures that may be internally or externally generated. Moreover, different measures have a long-term or short-term emphasis. Examples of internal nonfinancial measures are product quality, new product development time, and manufacturing lead time (cycle time).[58] Gleim #: 1.58 -- Source: Publisher Many forms of performance feedback are based on accounting information. For example, a divisional manager may be evaluated based on return on investment (income ÷ investment). One step in the process of developing a performance measure based on accounting information is to determine the basis for stating the measure in terms of dollars. Thus, if ROI is the chosen measure, and investment is defined as total assets, comparability issues are most likely to arise when the attribute used to calculate total assets is A. Current cost. B. Current disposal price. C. Historical cost. D. Present value. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 22 Printed for g j
  • 23. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because current cost is an attempt to remedy the theoretical deficiencies of historical cost by presenting more accurate balance sheet values. Answer (B) is incorrect because current disposal price is an attempt to remedy the theoretical deficiencies of historical cost by presenting more accurate balance sheet values. Answer (C) is correct. Historical cost creates comparability issues because returns on significantly depreciated assets may be higher than those on newer assets that have been acquired using inflated dollars. Thus, otherwise similarly situated managers may report different operating results. Moreover, managers may be reluctant to replace aging assets. Answer (D) is incorrect because present value is an attempt to remedy the theoretical deficiencies of historical cost by presenting more accurate balance sheet values.[59] Gleim #: 1.59 -- Source: Publisher An organization’s managerial decision-making model for capital budgeting is based on the net present value of discounted cash flows. The same organization’s managerial performance evaluation model is based on annual divisional return on investment. Which of the following is true? A. Divisional managers are likely to maximize the measures in the decision-making model. B. Divisional managers are likely to maximize the measures in the performance evaluation model. C. The manager has an incentive to accept a project with a positive net present value that initially has a negative effect on net income. D. The use of models with different criteria promotes goal congruence. Answer (A) is incorrect because self-interest provides an incentive to maximize the measures used in performance evaluation. Answer (B) is correct. Effective management control requires performance measurement and feedback. This process affects allocation of resources to organizational subunits. It also affects decisions about managers’ compensation, advancement, and future assignments. Furthermore, evaluating their performance serves to motivate managers to optimize the measures in the performance evaluation model. However, that model may be inconsistent with the organization’s model for managerial decision making. Answer (C) is incorrect because a manager evaluated on the basis of annual ROI has an interest in maximizing short- term net income, not long-term NPV. Answer (D) is incorrect because the models should be synchronized so that the goals of the organization and the manager are congruent.[60] Gleim #: 1.60 -- Source: CIA 597 III-14 Which of the following criteria would be most useful to a sales department manager in evaluating the performance of the manager’s customer-service group? A. The customer is always right. B. Customer complaints should be processed promptly. C. Employees should maintain a positive attitude when dealing with customers. D. All customer inquiries should be answered within 7 days of receipt. Answer (A) is incorrect because customer orientation is difficult to quantify. Answer (B) is incorrect because the standard specified is vague. Answer (C) is incorrect because no measure of a positive attitude has been specified for the employee. Answer (D) is correct. A criterion that requires all customer inquiries to be answered within 7 days of receipt permits accurate measurement of performance. The quantitative and specific nature of the appraisal using this standard avoids the vagueness, subjectivity, and personal bias that may afflict other forms of personnel evaluations.[61] Gleim #: 1.61 -- Source: Publisher Using the balanced scorecard approach, an organization evaluates managerial performance based on A. A single ultimate measure of operating results, such as residual income. B. Multiple financial and nonfinancial measures. C. Multiple nonfinancial measures only. D. Multiple financial measures only. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 23 Printed for g j
  • 24. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the balanced scorecard approach uses multiple measures. Answer (B) is correct. The trend in managerial performance evaluation is the balanced scorecard approach. Multiple measures of performance permit a determination as to whether a manager is achieving certain objectives at the expense of others that may be equally or more important. These measures may be financial or nonfinancial and usually include items in four categories: profitability; customer satisfaction; innovation; and efficiency, quality, and time. Answer (C) is incorrect because the balanced scorecard approach includes financial measures. Answer (D) is incorrect because the balanced scorecard approach includes nonfinancial measures.[62] Gleim #: 1.62 -- Source: CIA 597 III-3 Focusing on customers, promoting innovation, learning new philosophies, driving out fear, and providing extensive training are all elements of a major change in organizations. These elements are aimed primarily at A. Copying leading organizations to better compete with them. B. Focusing on the total quality of products and services. C. Being efficient and effective at the same time, in order to indirectly affect profits. D. Managing costs of products and services better, in order to become the low-cost provider. Answer (A) is incorrect because competitive benchmarking is just one tool for implementing TQM. Answer (B) is correct. TQM is a comprehensive approach to quality. It treats the pursuit of quality as a basic organizational function that is as important as production or marketing. TQM is the continuous pursuit of quality in every aspect of organizational activities through a philosophy of doing it right the first time, employee training and empowerment, promotion of teamwork, improvement of processes, and attention to satisfaction of customers, both internal and external. TQM emphasizes the supplier’s relationship with the customer, identifies customer needs, and recognizes that everyone in a process is at some time a customer or supplier of someone else, either within or without the organization. Answer (C) is incorrect because TQM’s primary focus is not profitability. Answer (D) is incorrect because TQM’s primary focus is not cost reduction.[Fact Pattern #6]The management and employees of a large household goods moving company decided to adopt total quality management (TQM)and continuous improvement (CI). They believed that, if their company became nationally known as adhering to TQM and CI,one result would be an increase in the company’s profits and market share.[63] Gleim #: 1.63 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-12 (Refers to Fact Pattern #6) The primary reason for adopting TQM was to achieve A. Greater customer satisfaction. B. Reduced delivery time. C. Reduced delivery charges. D. Greater employee participation. Answer (A) is correct. TQM is an integrated system that anticipates, meets, and exceeds customers’ needs, wants, and expectations. Answer (B) is incorrect because reduced delivery time is one of many potential activities that need improvement. Answer (C) is incorrect because reduced delivery charges is one of many potential activities that need improvement. Answer (D) is incorrect because increased employee participation is necessary to achieve TQM, but it is not the primary purpose for establishing the program.[64] Gleim #: 1.64 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-13 (Refers to Fact Pattern #6) Quality is achieved more economically if the company focuses on A. Appraisal costs. B. Prevention costs. C. Internal failure costs. D. External failure costs. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 24 Printed for g j
  • 25. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because prevention is ordinarily less costly than the combined costs of appraisal, internal failure, and external failure. Answer (B) is correct. Prevention attempts to avoid defective output. Prevention costs include preventive maintenance, employee training, review of equipment design, and evaluation of suppliers. Prevention is less costly than detection and correction of defective output. Answer (C) is incorrect because prevention is ordinarily less costly than the combined costs of appraisal, internal failure, and external failure. Answer (D) is incorrect because prevention is ordinarily less costly than the combined costs of appraisal, internal failure, and external failure.[65] Gleim #: 1.65 -- Source: CIA 597 III-4 Total quality management in a manufacturing environment is best exemplified by A. Identifying and reworking production defects before sale. B. Designing the product to minimize defects. C. Performing inspections to isolate defects as early as possible. D. Making machine adjustments periodically to reduce defects. Answer (A) is incorrect because TQM emphasizes prevention, not rework. The approach of TQM is to build in and design in quality, not to “fix it in” or “inspect it in.” Answer (B) is correct. Total quality management emphasizes quality as a basic organizational function. TQM is the continuous pursuit of quality in every aspect of organizational activities. One of the basic tenets of TQM is doing it right the first time. Thus, errors should be caught and corrected at the source, and quality should be built in (designed in) from the start. Answer (C) is incorrect because TQM emphasizes prevention, not inspection. The approach of TQM is to build in and design in quality, not to “fix it in” or “inspect it in.” Answer (D) is incorrect because TQM emphasizes prevention, not adjustment. The approach of TQM is to build in and design in quality, not to “fix it in” or “inspect it in.”[66] Gleim #: 1.66 -- Source: CIA 597 III-24 One of the main reasons that implementation of a total quality management program works better through the use of teams is A. Teams are more efficient and help an organization reduce its staffing. B. Employee motivation is always higher for team members than for individual contributors. C. Teams are a natural vehicle for sharing ideas, which leads to process improvement. D. The use of teams eliminates the need for supervision, thereby allowing a company to reduce staffing. Answer (A) is incorrect because teams are often inefficient and costly. Answer (B) is incorrect because high motivation does not directly affect the process improvement that is the key to quality improvement. Answer (C) is correct. TQM promotes teamwork by modifying or eliminating traditional (and rigid) vertical hierarchies and instead forming flexible groups of specialists. Quality circles, cross-functional teams, and self- managed teams are typical formats. Teams are an excellent vehicle for encouraging the sharing of ideas and removing process improvement obstacles. Answer (D) is incorrect because the use of teams with less supervision and reduced staffing may be by-products of TQM, but they are not ultimate objectives.[67] Gleim #: 1.67 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-28 A traditional quality control process in manufacturing consists of mass inspection of goods only at the end of a production process. A major deficiency of the traditional control process is that A. It is expensive to do the inspections at the end of the process. B. It is not possible to rework defective items. C. It is not 100% effective. D. It does not focus on improving the entire production process. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 25 Printed for g j
  • 26. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because other quality control processes can also be expensive. Answer (B) is incorrect because reworking defective items may be possible although costly. Answer (C) is incorrect because no quality control system will be 100% effective. Answer (D) is correct. The process used to produce the goods is not thoroughly reviewed and evaluated for efficiency and effectiveness. Preventing defects and increasing efficiency by improving the production process raises quality standards and decreases costs.[68] Gleim #: 1.68 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-24 Under a total quality management (TQM) approach A. Measurement occurs throughout the process, and errors are caught and corrected at the source. B. Quality control is performed by highly trained inspectors at the end of the production process. C. Upper management assumes the primary responsibility for the quality of the products and services. D. A large number of suppliers are used in order to obtain the lowest possible prices. Answer (A) is correct. Total quality management emphasizes quality as a basic organizational function. TQM is the continuous pursuit of quality in every aspect of organizational activities. One of the basic tenets of TQM is doing it right the first time. Thus, errors should be caught and corrected at the source. Answer (B) is incorrect because total quality management emphasizes discovering errors throughout the process, not inspection of finished goods. Answer (C) is incorrect because all members of the organization assume responsibility for quality of the products and services. Answer (D) is incorrect because the total quality management philosophy recommends limiting the number of suppliers to create a strong relationship.[69] Gleim #: 1.69 -- Source: CIA 597 III-23 Which of the following is a key to successful total quality management? A. Training quality inspectors. B. Focusing intensely on the customer. C. Creating appropriate hierarchies to increase efficiency. D. Establishing a well-defined quality standard, then focusing on meeting it. Answer (A) is incorrect because total quality management (TQM) de-emphasizes specialized quality inspectors. Answer (B) is correct. TQM emphasizes satisfaction of customers, both internal and external. TQM considers the supplier’s relationship with the customer, identifies customer needs, and recognizes that everyone in a process is at some time a customer or supplier of someone else, either within or without the organization. Thus, TQM begins with external customer requirements, identifies internal customer-supplier relationships and requirements, and establishes requirements for external suppliers. Answer (C) is incorrect because centralization often needs to be reduced to implement a TQM process. Answer (D) is incorrect because TQM involves continuous improvement; once a standard is reached, continuous improvement requires its constant reevaluation.[70] Gleim #: 1.70 -- Source: CIA 596 III-29 Which of the following is a characteristic of total quality management (TQM)? A. Management by objectives. B. On-the-job training by other workers. C. Quality by final inspection. D. Education and self-improvement. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 26 Printed for g j
  • 27. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because one of the 14 points recommends elimination of numerical quotas. MBO causes aggressive pursuit of numerical quotas. Answer (B) is incorrect because informal learning from coworkers serves to entrench bad work habits. One of the 14 points stresses proper training of everyone. Answer (C) is incorrect because another of the 14 points states that quality by final inspection is unnecessary if quality is built in from the start. Answer (D) is correct. According to management theorist W. Edwards Deming’s well-known 14 points, education and self- improvement are essential. Knowledge is opportunity. Hence, continuous improvement should be everyone’s primary career objective.[71] Gleim #: 1.71 -- Source: CIA 596 III-30 In which of the following organizational structures does total quality management (TQM) work best? A. Hierarchal. B. Teams of people from the same specialty. C. Teams of people from different specialties. D. Specialists working individually. Answer (A) is incorrect because hierarchal organization stifles TQM. Answer (B) is incorrect because TQM works best with teams of people from different specialties. Answer (C) is correct. TQM advocates replacement of the traditional hierarchal structure with teams of people from different specialities. This change follows from TQM’s emphasis on empowering employees and teamwork. Employees should have proper training, necessary information, and the best tools; be fully engaged in the decision process; and receive fair compensation. If such empowered employees are assembled in teams of individuals with the required skills, TQM theorists believe they will be more effective than people performing their tasks separately in a rigid structure. Answer (D) is incorrect because teamwork is essential for TQM.[72] Gleim #: 1.72 -- Source: CIA 597 III-20 One of the main reasons total quality management (TQM) can be used as a strategic weapon is that A. The cumulative improvement from a company’s TQM efforts cannot readily be copied by competitors. B. Introducing new products can lure customers away from competitors. C. Reduced costs associated with better quality can support higher shareholder dividends. D. TQM provides a comprehensive planning process for a business. Answer (A) is correct. TQM is a comprehensive approach to quality. It treats the pursuit of quality as a basic organizational function that is as important as production or marketing. Because TQM affects every aspect of the organization’s activities, it permeates the organizational culture. Thus, the cumulative effect of TQM’s continuous improvement process can attract and hold customers and cannot be duplicated by competitors. Answer (B) is incorrect because new products can be quickly copied by competitors and therefore do not provide a sustained competitive advantage. Answer (C) is incorrect because TQM does not focus solely on cost reduction. Answer (D) is incorrect because TQM is only one tool of strategic management.[73] Gleim #: 1.73 -- Source: CIA 597 III-20 Faced with 3 years of steadily decreasing profits despite increased sales and a growing economy, which of the following is the healthiest course of action for a chief executive officer to take? A. Set a turnaround goal of significantly increasing profits within 2 months. Set clear short-term objectives for each operating unit that, together, should produce the turnaround. B. Reduce staff by 10% in every unit. C. Classify all job functions as either (a) adding value in the eyes of the customer (such as production and sales) or (b) not adding value in the eyes of the customer (such as accounting and human resources). Reduce staff in the non- value-adding functions by 20%. D. Implement a plan to encourage innovation at all levels. Use early retirement and reemployment programs to trim staff size. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 27 Printed for g j
  • 28. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because this response illustrates two of the characteristics of organizational decline: increased centralization of decision making and lack of long-term planning. The exclusive emphasis on short-term results is likely to be counterproductive. Answer (B) is incorrect because another characteristic of organizational decline is nonprioritized downsizing. By itself, downsizing rarely turns a company around. Answer (C) is incorrect because reducing staff disproportionately in control functions could have disastrous consequences. Answer (D) is correct. Organizational decline has been found to have the following characteristics: greater centralization, lack of long-term planning, reduced innovation, scapegoating, resistance to change, high turnover of competent leaders, low morale, nonprioritized downsizing, and conflict. Reversing these characteristics is the key to reversing organizational decline, for example, by encouraging innovation in all aspects of the organization’s activities and by redeploying personnel.[74] Gleim #: 1.74 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-60 The International Organization for Standardization has developed standards for ring networks that include fault management, configuration management, accounting management, security management, and performance monitoring. Which of the following controls is included in the performance-monitoring standards? A. Reporting the failure of network fiber-optic lines. B. Recording unauthorized access violations. C. Compiling statistics on the number of times that application software is used. D. Allocating network costs to system users of the network. Answer (A) is incorrect because the failure of network fiber-optic lines is a fault management control. Answer (B) is incorrect because recording unauthorized access violations is a security management control. Answer (C) is correct. The International Organization for Standards consists of standards organizations from more than 75 countries. Its performance-monitoring standards pertain to management’s ongoing assessment of the quality of performance over time. Recording software usage is a performance-monitoring control concerned with the extent and efficiency of network software use. Answer (D) is incorrect because allocating network costs to system users of the network is an accounting management control.[Fact Pattern #7]Listed below are costs of quality that a manufacturing company has incurred throughout its operations. The company plans toprepare a report that classifies these costs into the following four categories: preventive costs, appraisal costs, internal failurecosts, and external failure costs.Cost Items AmountDesign reviews $275,000Finished goods returned due to failure 55,000Freight on replacement finished goods 27,000Labor inspection during manufacturing 75,000Labor inspection of raw materials 32,000Manufacturing product-testing labor 63,000Manufacturing rework labor and overhead 150,000Materials used in warranty repairs 68,000Process engineering 180,000Product-liability claims 145,000Product-testing equipment 35,000Repairs to equipment due to breakdowns 22,000Scheduled equipment maintenance 90,000Scrap material 125,000Training of manufacturing workers 156,000[75] Gleim #: 1.75 -- Source: CIA 597 III-96 (Refers to Fact Pattern #7) The costs of quality that are incurred in detecting units of product that do not conform to product specifications are referred to as Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 28 Printed for g j
  • 29. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Preventive costs. B. Appraisal costs. C. Internal failure costs. D. External failure costs. Answer (A) is incorrect because prevention attempts to avoid defective output, e.g., by employee training, review of equipment design, preventive maintenance, and evaluation of suppliers. Answer (B) is correct. The categories of quality costs include conformance costs (prevention and appraisal) and nonconformance costs (internal failure and external failure). Appraisal costs embrace such activities as statistical quality control programs, inspection, and testing. Thus, the cost of detecting nonconforming products is an appraisal cost. Answer (C) is incorrect because internal failure costs are incurred when detection of defective products occurs before shipment, including scrap, rework, tooling changes, and downtime. Answer (D) is incorrect because external failure costs are incurred after the product has been shipped, including the costs associated with warranties, product liability, and loss of customer goodwill.[76] Gleim #: 1.76 -- Source: CIA 597 III-97 (Refers to Fact Pattern #7) The dollar amount of the costs of quality classified as preventive costs for the manufacturing firm would be A. $643,000 B. $701,000 C. $736,000 D. $768,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because $643,000 omits scheduled equipment maintenance and includes labor inspection of raw materials (an appraisal cost). Answer (B) is correct. Prevention attempts to avoid defective output, e.g., by employee training, review of equipment design, preventive maintenance, and evaluation of suppliers. Accordingly, the preventive costs equal $701,000 ($275,000 design reviews + $180,000 process engineering + $90,000 scheduled maintenance + $156,000 training). Answer (C) is incorrect because $736,000 includes the cost of product testing equipment (an appraisal cost). Answer (D) is incorrect because $768,000 includes the cost of product testing equipment and labor inspection of raw materials. Both costs are appraisal costs.[77] Gleim #: 1.77 -- Source: CMA 694 4-1 When using PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique), the expected time for an activity when given an optimistic time (A), a pessimistic time (B), and a most likely time (m) is calculated by which one of the following formulas? A. (b – a) ÷ 2 B. (a + b) ÷ 2 C. (a + 4m + b) ÷ 6 D. (4abm) ÷ 6 Answer (A) is incorrect because the most likely time estimate should be included in the formula. Answer (B) is incorrect because the most likely time estimate should be included in the formula. Answer (C) is correct. PERT was developed to aid managers in controlling large, complex projects. PERT analysis includes probabilistic estimates of activity completion times. Three time estimates are made: optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic. The time estimates for an activity are assumed to approximate a beta probability distribution. PERT approximates the mean of the beta distribution by dividing the sum of the optimistic time, the pessimistic time, and four times the most likely time by six. Answer (D) is incorrect because all time estimates are not weighted equally.[78] Gleim #: 1.78 -- Source: CIA 597 III-98 The process of adding resources to shorten selected activity times on the critical path in project scheduling is called A. Crashing. B. The Delphi technique. C. Material-requirements planning. D. A branch-and-bound solution. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 29 Printed for g j
  • 30. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. When making a cost-time trade-off, the first activity to be crashed (have its completion time accelerated) is one on the critical path. To select an activity on another path would not reduce the total time of completion. The activity chosen should have a completion time that can be accelerated at the lowest possible cost per unit of time saved. Answer (B) is incorrect because the Delphi technique is a qualitative forecasting approach. Answer (C) is incorrect because material-requirements planning is an inventory model. Answer (D) is incorrect because a branch-and-bound solution is an integer programming solution.[79] Gleim #: 1.79 -- Source: CMA 1288 5-24 California Building Corporation uses the critical path method to monitor construction jobs. The company is currently 2 weeks behind schedule on Job #181, which is subject to a $10,500-per-week completion penalty. Path A-B-C-F-G-H-I has a normal completion time of 20 weeks, and critical path A-D-E-F-G-H-I has a normal completion time of 22 weeks. The following activities can be crashed: Cost to Crash Cost to Crash Activities 1 Week 2 Weeks BC $ 8,000 $15,000 DE 10,000 19,600 EF 8,800 19,500 California Building desires to reduce the normal completion time of Job #181 and, at the same time, report the highest possible income for the year. California Building should crash A. Activity BC 1 week and activity EF 1 week. B. Activity BC 2 weeks. C. Activity EF 2 weeks. D. Activity DE 1 week and activity EF 1 week. Answer (A) is incorrect because BC is not on the critical path. Answer (B) is incorrect because BC is not on the critical path. Answer (C) is incorrect because the cost of crashing EF 2 weeks is $19,500, which is greater than the total cost to crash DE and EF for 1 week each. Answer (D) is correct. Activities that are to be crashed in a CPM problem should be ones that are on the critical (longest) path. Thus, activity BC should not be selected because it is not on the critical path. To finish activity BC 2 weeks early would not reduce the total time to complete the project. Therefore, the only feasible choices are DE and EF on the critical path. The total cost to crash DE and EF for 1 week each is $18,800 ($10,000 + $8,800), which is less than the cost to crash either activity for 2 weeks. Thus, DE and EF should be crashed for 1 week each because the total cost is less than the $21,000 ($10,500 × 2) 2-week delay penalty.[80] Gleim #: 1.80 -- Source: CMA 688 5-13 In a PERT network, the optimistic time for a particular activity is 9 weeks, and the pessimistic time is 21 weeks. Which one of the following is the best estimate of the standard deviation for the activity? A. 2 B. 6 C. 9 D. 12 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 30 Printed for g j
  • 31. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. PERT analysis includes probabilistic estimates of activity completion times. Three time estimates are made: optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic. The time estimates for an activity are assumed to approximate a beta probability distribution. In contrast to the normal distribution, this distribution has finite endpoints (the optimistic and pessimistic estimates) and is unimodal; that is, it has only one mode (the most likely time). PERT approximates the mean of the beta distribution by dividing the sum of the optimistic time, the pessimistic time, and four times the most likely time (the mode) by six. The standard deviation is approximated by dividing the difference between the pessimistic and optimistic times by six. The basis for the latter approximation is that various probability distributions have tails that lie about plus or minus three standard deviations from the mean. For example, 99.9% of observations in the normal distribution are expected to lie within this range. Accordingly, if the pessimistic and optimistic times are 21 and 9 weeks, respectively, the standard deviation is 2 weeks (12 ÷ 6). Answer (B) is incorrect because 6 is the approximate number of standard deviations between the tails of the normal distribution. Answer (C) is incorrect because 9 weeks is the pessimistic estimate. Answer (D) is incorrect because 12 weeks is the difference between the optimistic and the pessimistic estimates.[81] Gleim #: 1.81 -- Source: CMA 688 5-17 A PERT network has only two activities on its critical path. These activities have standard deviations of 6 and 8, respectively. The standard deviation of the project completion time is A. 7 B. 10 C. 14 D. 48 Answer (A) is incorrect because 7 is the average standard deviation. Answer (B) is correct. The mean time for the critical path is simply the sum of the means of the activity times. However, the standard deviation equals the square root of the sum of the variances (squares of the standard deviations) of the times for activities on the critical path. The standard deviation of the project completion time (time for the critical path) is therefore the square root of 100 (6 2 + 8 2 ), or 10. Answer (C) is incorrect because 14 is the sum of the standard deviations. Answer (D) is incorrect because 48 is the product of the standard deviations.[Fact Pattern #8]The PERT network diagram and the corresponding activity cost chart for a manufacturing project at Networks, Inc. are presentedbelow. The numbers in the diagram are the expected times (in days) to perform each activity in the project. (Refer to Figure CIA3_01_08.) Normal Crash Activity Cost Crash Time Cost AB $3,000 3.50 days $4,000 AC 5,000 4.50 5,250 AD 4,000 4.00 4,750 BE 6,000 5.00 7,000 CE 8,000 5.00 9,200 DE 6,000 6.50 6,750 BC 2,500 .50 3,500 BD 2,000 .25 2,500[82] Gleim #: 1.82 -- Source: CMA 1290 4-7 (Refers to Fact Pattern #8) The expected time of the critical path is A. 12.0 days. B. 13.0 days. C. 11.5 days. D. 11.0 days. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 31 Printed for g j
  • 32. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the expected time of the critical path is 13.0 days. Answer (B) is correct. The critical path is the longest path. The longest path in the diagram is A-D-E, which requires 13 days (5.5 + 7.5) based on expected times. Answer (C) is incorrect because the expected time of the critical path is 13.0 days. Answer (D) is incorrect because the expected time of the critical path is 13.0 days.[83] Gleim #: 1.83 -- Source: CMA 1290 4-8 (Refers to Fact Pattern #8) In order to keep costs at a minimum and decrease the completion time by 1 1/2 days, Networks, Inc. should crash activity(ies) A. AD and AB. B. DE. C. AD. D. AB and CE. Answer (A) is correct. The critical (longest) path is A-D-E, which has an expected time of 13 days (see preceding question). However, to decrease the project’s completion time by 1.5 days, paths A-B-C-E (4.5 + 1.0 + 6.5 = 12 days) and A-B-D-E (4.5 + .5 + 7.5 = 12.5 days) as well as A-D-E must also be shortened. Hence, A-D-E must be reduced by 1.5 days, A-B-C-E by .5 day, and A-B-D-E by 1.0 day. The only way to decrease A-D-E by 1.5 days is to crash activity AD (5.5 expective time – 4.0 crash time = 1.5 days). Crashing DE results in a 1.0-day saving (7.5 – 6.5) only. Crashing AB is the efficient way to reduce both A-B-C-E and A-B-D-E by the desired amount of time because it is part of both paths. The incremental cost of crashing AB is $1,000 ($4,000 crash cost – $3,000 normal cost) to shorten the completion time by 1.0 day (4.5 – 3.5). The alternatives for decreasing both A-B-C-E and A-B-D-E are more costly. Answer (B) is incorrect because crashing activity DE saves only 1.0 day (7.5 – 6.5) on the critical path and does not reduce the time needed for A-B-C-E. Answer (C) is incorrect because crashing AD does not reduce the time necessary to complete A-B-C-E or A-B-D-E. Answer (D) is incorrect because AB and CE are not on the critical path.[84] Gleim #: 1.84 -- Source: CMA 694 4-3 When making a cost-time trade-off in PERT analysis, the first activity that should be crashed is the activity A. With the largest amount of slack. B. With the lowest unit crash cost. C. On the critical path with the maximum possible time reduction. D. On the critical path with the lowest unit crash cost. Answer (A) is incorrect because eliminating an activity with slack will not reduce the total time of the project. Answer (B) is incorrect because the activity with the lowest unit crash cost may not be on the critical path. Answer (C) is incorrect because the time reduction should be related to its cost. The maximum time reduction may not be cost effective. Answer (D) is correct. When making a cost-time trade-off, the first activity to be crashed (have its completion time accelerated) is one on the critical path. To select an activity on another path would not reduce the total time of completion. The initial activity chosen should be the one with the completion time that can be accelerated at the lowest possible cost per unit of time saved.[85] Gleim #: 1.85 -- Source: CMA 695 4-12 In PERT, slack is the A. Uncertainty associated with time estimates. B. Difference between the latest starting time and earliest finishing time. C. Path that has the largest amount of time associated with it. D. Number of days an activity can be delayed without forcing a delay for the entire project. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 32 Printed for g j
  • 33. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because uncertainty is reflected in the use of probabilistic estimates of completion times. Answer (B) is incorrect because the difference between the latest starting time and earliest finishing time is irrelevant. Answer (C) is incorrect because the path with the largest amount of time associated with it is the critical path. Answer (D) is correct. PERT diagrams are free-form networks showing each activity in a large project as a line between events. The critical path is the longest path in time through the network. That path is critical in that, if any activity on the critical path takes longer than expected, the entire project will be delayed. Paths that are not critical have slack time. Slack is the number of days an activity can be delayed without forcing a delay for the entire project.[86] Gleim #: 1.86 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-96 The network below describes the interrelationships of several activities necessary to complete a project. The arrows represent the activities. The numbers between the arrows indicate the number of months to complete each activity. (Refer to Figure CIA3_01_09.) The shortest time to complete the project is A. 5 months. B. 6 months. C. 8 months. D. 14 months. Answer (A) is incorrect because the project cannot be completed in less than 8 months. Answer (B) is incorrect because the project cannot be completed in less than 8 months. Answer (C) is correct. The longest, or critical, path in the network from node (A) to node (F) is path A-C-D-F. All other paths are shorter than path A-C-D-F, so the activities along those paths can be completed before the activities along path A-C-D-F. Thus, the shortest time to complete the project is 8 months (3 + 3 + 2). Answer (D) is incorrect because no path through the network requires 14 months.[87] Gleim #: 1.87 -- Source: CIA 596 III-100 A shortest-route algorithm is used in network models to A. Identify bottlenecks in a network and hence identify the longest path. B. Minimize total travel time from one site to each of the other sites in a transportation system. C. Maximize throughput in networks with distinct entry (source node) and exit (sink node) points. D. Identify the set of connecting branches having the shortest combined length. Answer (A) is incorrect because the critical path method (CPM) is intended to identify bottlenecks in a network and hence identify the longest path. Answer (B) is correct. Network models are used to solve managerial problems pertaining to project scheduling, information systems design, and transportation systems design. Networks consisting of nodes and arcs may be created to represent in graphic form problems related to transportation, assignment, and transshipment. The shortest-route, minimal spanning tree, and maximal flow problems are other applications of network models. A shortest-route algorithm minimizes total travel time from one site to each of the other sites in a transportation system. Answer (C) is incorrect because the maximal flow algorithm maximizes throughput in networks with distinct entry (source node) and exit (sink node) points. Examples of applications are highway transportation systems and oil pipelines. Flows are limited by capacities of the arcs (e.g., highways or pipes). Answer (D) is incorrect because the minimal spanning tree algorithm identifies the set of connecting branches having the shortest combined length. A spanning tree is a group of branches (arcs) that connects each node in the network to every other node. An example problem is the determination of the shortest telecommunications linkage among users at remote sites and a central computer.[88] Gleim #: 1.88 -- Source: CIA 597 III-32 Reengineering is the thorough analysis, fundamental rethinking, and complete redesign of essential business processes. The intended result is a dramatic improvement in service, quality, speed, and cost. An internal auditor’s involvement in reengineering should include all of the following except Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 33 Printed for g j
  • 34. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Determining whether the process has senior management’s support. B. Recommending areas for consideration. C. Developing audit plans for the new system. D. Directing the implementation of the redesigned process. Answer (A) is incorrect because internal auditors may perform the functions of determining whether the process has senior managements support, recommending areas for consideration, and developing audit plans for the new system. Answer (B) is incorrect because internal auditors may perform the functions of determining whether the process has senior managements support, recommending areas for consideration, and developing audit plans for the new system. Answer (C) is incorrect because internal auditors may perform the functions of determining whether the process has senior managements support, recommending areas for consideration, and developing audit plans for the new system. Answer (D) is correct. Internal auditors should not become directly involved in the implementation of the redesign process. This involvement would impair their independence and objectivity. Staff assignments of internal auditors should be rotated periodically whenever it is practicable to do so.[89] Gleim #: 1.89 -- Source: CIA 1195 I-66 Monitoring is an important component of internal control. Which of the following items would not be an example of monitoring? A. Management regularly compares divisional performance with budgets for the division. B. Data processing management regularly generates exception reports for unusual transactions or volumes of transactions and follows up with investigation as to causes. C. Data processing management regularly reconciles batch control totals for items processed with batch controls for items submitted. D. Management has asked internal auditing to perform regular audits of the controls over cash processing. Answer (A) is incorrect because budgetary comparison is a typical example of a monitoring control. Answer (B) is incorrect because investigation of exceptions is a monitoring control used by lower-level management to determine when their operations may be out of control. Answer (C) is correct. Monitoring assesses the quality of internal control over time. Management considers whether internal control is properly designed and operating as intended and modifies it to reflect changing conditions. Monitoring may be in the form of separate, periodic evaluations or of ongoing monitoring. Ongoing monitoring occurs as part of routine operations. It includes management and supervisory review, comparisons, reconciliations, and other actions by personnel as part of their regular activities. However, reconciling batch control totals is a processing control. Answer (D) is incorrect because internal auditing is a form of monitoring. It serves to evaluate managements other controls.[90] Gleim #: 1.90 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following is a short-term approach to managing bottlenecks or binding constraints in production and distribution processes? A. Theory of constraints. B. Reengineering. C. Rationalization. D. Micromotion study. Answer (A) is correct. The theory of constraints (TOC) is a short-term approach to managing bottlenecks (binding constraints) in production and distribution processes. Its basic principle is that short-term profit maximization requires maximizing the contribution margin of the binding constraint (the throughput contribution). Answer (B) is incorrect because reengineering an approach to business process analysis that entails process innovation and core process redesign. Instead of improving existing procedures, it finds new ways of doing things. Answer (C) is incorrect because rationalization is yet another approach to business process analysis. It is the streamlining of procedures to make automation more efficient. Answer (D) is incorrect because a micromotion study is a method used for work management, and it requires videotaping the performance of a job.[91] Gleim #: 1.91 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following statements is not true regarding ISO 9000 standards? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 34 Printed for g j
  • 35. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Compliance with the standards is voluntary. B. The ISO 9000 standards are revised every 5 years to account for technological and market developments. C. The objective of ISO 9000 standards is to ensure high quality products and services. D. ISO 9000 is a set of generic standards for establishing and maintaining a quality system within a company. Answer (A) is incorrect because compliance is voluntary but many companies are adopting the standards for competitive reasons or out of fear that the standards will become a requirement in foreign markets. Answer (B) is incorrect because the ISO rules specify that standards are periodically revised every 5 years in light of technological and market developments. Answer (C) is correct. The objective of ISO 9000 standards is to ensure consistent quality even if the quality is poor. The market will determine the quality of the end result. Answer (D) is incorrect because ISO 9000 standards are generic in nature and only ensure consistent quality in the product being produced.[92] Gleim #: 1.92 -- Source: Publisher What is the main benefit for most companies who adopt ISO 14000 standards? A. Reduced monitoring and inspection by regulatory agencies. B. Companies are required to adopt ISO 14000 standards to operate in the European Union. C. The Environmental Protection Agency cannot use voluntary ISO audits as a basis for imposing penalties. D. Companies learn how well their environmental management system operates relative to those of other companies. Answer (A) is incorrect because not all companies are regulated by government agencies. Also, there is no guarantee that compliance with ISO 14000 standards will reduce monitoring and inspection by agencies. Answer (B) is incorrect because ISO 14000 standards are not currently required by the European Union. Answer (C) is incorrect because this is a benefit to some companies but not others. Not all companies are subject to the EPA’s audits. Answer (D) is correct. The main benefit of instituting ISO 14000 standards is internal; companies learn how well their environmental management system operates relative to those of other companies. This is accomplished through the sharing of information required by ISO standards.[93] Gleim #: 1.93 -- Source: Publisher What ensures that a company is complying with the documented Quality Management System procedures and ISO 9000 standards? A. The internal audit. B. The registrar. C. On-site inspections by an external auditor. D. Management commitment. Answer (A) is correct. An important requirement of the ISO 9000 standards is the internal audit system. Internal audits assure that the company is complying with the documented QMS procedures and ISO 9000 standards. Answer (B) is incorrect because the registrar evaluates whether the quality control system conforms to the selected standard. Answer (C) is incorrect because the registrar is the external auditor who performs the on-site inspection. The registrar observes the quality control system and evaluates the conformity to the selected standard. Answer (D) is incorrect because the internal audit is responsible for ensuring compliance with the QMS and ISO 9000 standards. However, management commitment plays an important role in determining the amount of resources dedicated to quality.[94] Gleim #: 1.94 -- Source: CIA 591 III-44 The following data on variables x and y was collected from June to October: June July August September October x 24 31 19 15 22 y 104 76 124 140 112 The correlation coefficient between variables x and y is nearest to Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 35 Printed for g j
  • 36. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. 1.00 B. -1.00 C. 0.50 D. 0.00 Answer (A) is incorrect because a positive correlation coefficient implies that one variable increases (decreases) as the other increases (decreases). The data clearly do not support this conclusion. Answer (B) is correct. A correlation coefficient of -1.00 implies a perfect inverse correlation; that is, the observations fall exactly along a straight line and the value of one variable increases (decreases) as the other decreases (increases). In the example to the left, the equation of the straight line is y = 200 – 4x or x = 50 – 1y 4 Answer (C) is incorrect because a positive correlation coefficient implies that one variable increases (decreases) as the other increases (decreases). The data clearly do not support this conclusion. Answer (D) is incorrect because a correlation coefficient of zero implies that the two variables are unrelated. The data clearly indicate that the two variables move in opposite directions.[95] Gleim #: 1.95 -- Source: CIA 595 III-97 A company is formulating its plans for the coming year, including the preparation of its cash budget. Historically, 30% of the company’s sales are cash sales. The remaining 70% are credit sales with the following collection pattern. Collections on Account Percentage In the month of sale 40% In the month following the sale 58% Uncollectible 2% Sales for the first five months of the coming year are forecast as follows. January $3,500,000 February 3,800,000 March 3,600,000 April 4,000,000 May 4,200,000 For the month of April, the total cash receipts from sales and collections on account would be A. $3,729,968 B. $3,781,600 C. $4,025,200 D. $4,408,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because $3,729,968 results from improperly calculating the collections of April and March credit sales. The 2% uncollectible amount should not be removed from the credit sales before the collection percentage is applied. Answer (B) is correct. The cash receipts for April equal April’s cash sales (30% × $4,000,000 = $1,200,000), 40% of April’s credit sales, and 58% of March’s credit sales. Consequently, total cash receipts equal $3,781,600 [$1,200,000 + (40% × 70% × $4,000,000) + (58% × 70% × $3,600,000)]. Answer (C) is incorrect because $4,025,200 includes the collection of May credit sales rather than March credit sales. Answer (D) is incorrect because $4,408,000 improperly calculates the collections of March credit sales. The calculation treats the entire sales figure for March as credit sales.[96] Gleim #: 1.96 -- Source: CIA 597 I-32 Auditors must always be alert for the possibility of fraud. Assume the controls over each risk listed below are marginal. Which of the following possible frauds or misuses of organization assets should be considered the area of greatest risk? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 36 Printed for g j
  • 37. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. The president is using company travel and entertainment funds for activities that might be considered questionable. B. Purchases of supplies are made from fictitious vendors. C. Grants are made to organizations that might be associated with the president or are not for purposes dictated in the organization’s charter. D. The payroll clerk has added ghost employees. Answer (A) is incorrect because administrative expense is 2% ($10 ÷ $500) of current revenue. Answer (B) is incorrect because purchases of supplies from fictitious vendors involve risk exposures that are far less than those arising from inappropriate grants. Answer (C) is correct. Grants represent 83.6% ($418 ÷ $500) of current revenue. Consequently, fraudulent grants constitute a much greater risk exposure than any of the other items listed. Answer (D) is incorrect because the payroll clerk’s addition of ghost employees involve risk exposures that are far less than those arising from inappropriate grants.[97] Gleim #: 1.97 -- Source: CIA 597 III-100 The following information applies to a project: Immediate Activity Time (days) Predecessor A 5 None B 3 None C 4 A D 2 B E 6 C, D The earliest completion time for the project is A. 11 days. B. 14 days. C. 15 days. D. 20 days. Answer (A) is incorrect because 11 days is the shortest, not the longest, time to completion. Answer (B) is incorrect because 14 days is not the completion time of a path to completion. Answer (C) is correct. The two paths through the network are ACE (5 + 4 + 6 = 15 days) and BDE (3 + 2 + 6 = 11 days). The critical or longest path is A-C-E. Hence, the earliest completion time is 15 days. Answer (D) is incorrect because 20 days is the sum of all of the activity times.[98] Gleim #: 1.98 -- Source: CIA 1191 III-33 The data below were gathered on two different machine centers and two products. Product Hours per Unit A B Hours Available Machine Center 1 2.5 4 60 Machine Center 2 6 3 70 Contribution per unit $4 $5 Which item below would be part of a linear programming formulation of this problem? A. Maximize: Contribution > 4A + 5B. B. Subject to: A < 0. C. Subject to: 2.5A + 4B < 60. D. Subject to: 4A + 5B < 130. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 37 Printed for g j
  • 38. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the objective function is to maximize the total contribution margin (4A + 5B). This amount is not expressed as an inequality. Answer (B) is incorrect because this equation (A < 0) is nonsensical. Answer (C) is correct. The linear programming solution is subject to constraints on the availability of machine hours in both centers. For example, products A and B require 2.5 and 4 hours per unit, respectively, in Machine Center 1, but only 60 hours are available. Hence, the optimal production of A and B to the following constraint: 2.5A + 4B < 60 Answer (D) is incorrect because the hours available in the two machine centers cannot be added together. Also, the left side of the equation states the objective function, not a constraint.[99] Gleim #: 1.99 -- Source: CIA 594 II-40 Various tools are employed to control large scale projects. They include all of the following except: A. PERT. B. CPM. C. Statistical process control. D. Gantt charts. Answer (A) is incorrect because PERT breaks down a project into a set of events, arranges the events into a strict priority network, and establishes a completion time for each event. Answer (B) is incorrect because CPM is used to control large scale projects. Essentially a subset of PERT, CPM uses a deterministic rather than a probabilistic estimate of the time required for task completion. Answer (C) is correct. Statistical process (quality) control is not used to control large scale projects. Statistical quality control is a method of determining whether the shipment or production run of units lies within acceptable limits. It is also used to determine whether production processes are out of control. Answer (D) is incorrect because Gantt charts compare scheduled production with actual production. Its control function lies in its ability to identify variations and thus formulate corrective actions.[100] Gleim #: 1.100 -- Source: CIA 594 III-61 Which of the following terms is not used in project management? A. Dummy activity. B. Latest finish. C. Optimistic time. D. Lumpy demand. Answer (A) is incorrect because a dummy activity is one that consumes no time but establishes precedence among activities. It is used specifically in project management. Answer (B) is incorrect because the latest finish is the latest that an activity can finish without causing delay in the completion of the project. Answer (C) is incorrect because optimistic time is the time for completing a project if all goes well. Answer (D) is correct. Project management concerns managing teams assigned to special projects. Lumpy demand refers to periodic demand for a product or service that increases in large, lumpy increments.[101] Gleim #: 1.101 -- Source: CIA 592 III-69 Activity scheduling information for the installation of a new computer system is given below. Immediate Duration Activity Predecessor (Days) A - 4 B - 3 C A 9 D A 6 E B, D 5 For this project, the critical path is Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 38 Printed for g j
  • 39. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. A-C. B. B-E. C. A-D-E. D. B-D-C. Answer (A) is incorrect because the path length of A-C is 13. Answer (B) is incorrect because the path length of B-E is 8. Answer (C) is correct. The critical path is the longest path because it defines the minimum duration of the project. A-D-E (4 + 6 + 5 = 15) is the critical path. Answer (D) is incorrect because B-D-C is not a path. The predecessor of C is A.[102] Gleim #: 1.102 -- Source: CIA 1191 III-37 In a critical path analysis, if slack time in an activity exists, the activity A. Is not essential to the overall project. B. Is a backup activity to replace a main activity should it fail. C. Could be delayed without delaying the overall project. D. Involves essentially no time to complete. Answer (A) is incorrect because an activity with slack may nevertheless be essential to the overall project. Answer (B) is incorrect because it is not a backup activity. Answer (C) is correct. Slack is the free time associated with each activity. In other words, paths that are not critical have slack time. Slack represents unused resources that can be diverted to the critical path. Answer (D) is incorrect because time is involved in a slack activity.[103] Gleim #: 1.103 -- Source: CIA 1193 III-67 A company has several departments that conduct technical studies and prepare reports for clients. Recently, there have been long delays in having these reports copied at the company’s centralized copy center because of the dramatic increase in business. Management is considering decentralizing copy services to reduce the turnaround and provide clients with timely reports. An appropriate technique for minimizing turnaround time and the cost of providing copy services is A. Queuing theory. B. Linear programming. C. Regression analysis. D. Game theory. Answer (A) is correct. Two basic costs are involved in queuing (waiting-line) models: (1) the cost of providing service (including facility costs and operating costs), and (2) the cost of idle resources waiting in line. The latter may be a direct cost if paid employees are waiting, or an opportunity cost in the case of waiting customers. The objective of queuing theory is to minimize the total cost of the system, including both service and waiting costs, for a given rate of arrivals. This minimization occurs at the point at which cost of waiting is balanced by the cost of providing service. This company wishes to reduce the total of waiting costs (turnaround time) and the cost of copy services. Answer (B) is incorrect because linear programming is a mathematical technique for optimizing a given objective function subject to constraints. Answer (C) is incorrect because regression analysis is a statistical procedure for estimating the relation between variables. Answer (D) is incorrect because game theory is a mathematical approach to decision-making in which each decision- maker takes into account the courses of action of competitors. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 39 Printed for g j
  • 40. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[Fact Pattern #9]A bank has two drive-in lanes to serve customers, one attached to the bank itself, the second on an island. One teller serves bothstations. The bank is interested in determining the average waiting times of customers and has developed a model based onrandom numbers. The two key factors are the time between successive car arrivals and the time customers wait in line.Assume that the analysis with cars just arriving at both service windows, both requiring 3 minutes of service time. Car 1 is at theattached window and car 2 at the island window. A car will always go to the window attached to the bank unless that window hasmore cars waiting than the island window. The lone teller will always serve the car that arrived first. If two cars arrivesimultaneously, the one at the attached window will be served before the one at the island.Based on a known probability distribution, the bank assigns random numbers to arrival and service times: Time Random between Random # arrivals: # Service time1 1 minute 1, 2 1 minute2, 3 2 minutes 3 2 minutes4, 5, 6 3 minutes 4, 5, 6 3 minutes7, 8 4 minutes 7, 8, 9 4 minutesThe bank then selects random numbers for the next two cars as Random Numbers Selected Arrival ServiceCar 3 #3 #7Car 4 #7 #8[104] Gleim #: 1.104 -- Source: CIA 1192 III-95 (Refers to Fact Pattern #9) The problem just described is best approached by use of which quantitative method? A. Integrated autoregressive-moving average (ARIMA) modeling. B. Exponential smoothing, multiple parameters. C. Queuing theory. D. Linear programming. Answer (A) is incorrect because ARIMA modeling is a times-series technique. Answer (B) is incorrect because exponential smoothing is a time-series model. Answer (C) is correct. Two basic costs are involved in queuing (waiting-line) models, (1) the cost of providing service (including facility costs and operating costs), and (2) the cost of idle resources waiting in line. The latter may be a direct cost if paid employees are waiting, or an opportunity cost in the case of waiting customers. The objective of the queuing theory is to minimize the total cost of the system, including both service and waiting costs, for a given rate of arrivals. This minimization occurs at the point where the cost of waiting is balanced by the cost of providing service. Answer (D) is incorrect because linear programming optimizes outputs given scarce resources.[105] Gleim #: 1.105 -- Source: CIA 1192 III-96 (Refers to Fact Pattern #9) The technique used in analyzing the problem is best described as A. Simulation theory. B. Integrated autoregressive-moving average (ARIMA) modeling. C. Linear programming. D. Differential calculus. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 40 Printed for g j
  • 41. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. Simulation is a technique for experimenting with logical/mathematical models using a computer. Despite the power of mathematics, many problems cannot be solved by known analytical methods because of the behavior of the variables and the complexity of their interactions. However, the performance of a quantitative model under uncertainty may be investigated by randomly selecting values for each of the variables in the model (based on the probability distribution of each variable) and then calculating the value of the solution. If this process is performed a large number of times, the distribution of results from the model will be obtained. Answer (B) is incorrect because ARIMA modeling is a time-series technique. Answer (C) is incorrect because linear programming optimizes outputs given scarce resources. Answer (D) is incorrect because differential calculus is used to establish optimization points.[106] Gleim #: 1.106 -- Source: CIA 1192 III-97 (Refers to Fact Pattern #9) The process of making sure that the model measures what it is supposed to measure is called A. Statistical inference. B. Hypothesis testing. C. Confidence coefficient analysis. D. Validation. Answer (A) is incorrect because statistical inference refers to estimation or hypothesis testing. Answer (B) is incorrect because hypothesis testing relates to the testing of specific null hypotheses. Answer (C) is incorrect because confidence coefficients are an integral part of statistical estimation and hypothesis testing. Answer (D) is correct. Validation is a step in the simulation procedure. Some assurance is needed that the results of the experiment will be realistic. This assurance requires validation of the model -- often using historical data. If the model gives results equivalent to what actually happened, the model is historically valid. There is still some risk, however, that changes could make the model invalid for the future.[107] Gleim #: 1.107 -- Source: CIA 1193 III-71 The marketing department of your company is deciding on the price to charge for a key product. In setting this price, marketing needs to consider the price that a major competitor will charge for a similar product because the competitor’s price will affect the demand for your company’s product. Similarly, in setting its price, the competitor will consider what your company will charge. An appropriate mathematical technique for analyzing such a decision is A. Game theory. B. Probability theory. C. Linear programming. D. Sensitivity analysis. Answer (A) is correct. Game (or decision) theory is a mathematical approach to decision making when confronted with an enemy or competitor. Games are classified according to the number of players and the algebraic sum of the payoffs. In a two-person game, if the payoff is given by the loser to the winner, the algebraic sum is zero and the game is called a zero-sum game. If it is possible for both players to profit, however, the game is a positive-sum game. Mathematical models have been developed to select optimal strategies for certain simple games. Answer (B) is incorrect because probability theory is a mathematical technique used to express quantitatively the likelihood of occurrence of an event. Answer (C) is incorrect because linear programming is a mathematical technique for optimizing a given objective subject to certain constraints. Answer (D) is incorrect because sensitivity analysis is a method for studying the effects of changes in one or more variables on the results of a decision model.[108] Gleim #: 1.108 -- Source: CIA 592 III-64 Because of the large number of factors that could affect the demand for its new product, interactions among these factors, and the probabilities associated with different values of these factors, the marketing department would like to develop a computerized model for projecting demand for this product. By using a random-number procedure to generate values for the different factors, it will be able to estimate the distribution of demand for this new product. This method of estimating the distribution of demand for the new product is called Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 41 Printed for g j
  • 42. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Monte Carlo simulation. B. Linear programming. C. Correlation analysis. D. Differential analysis. Answer (A) is correct. Simulation is a technique in which a probabilistic process is first modeled. The inputs to the model are then varied a large number of times to estimate the distribution of possible outcomes from the model of the variable of interest. Simulations that use a random-number procedure to generate values for the inputs are referred to as Monte Carlo simulations. Answer (B) is incorrect because linear programming is a mathematical technique for maximizing or minimizing a given objective subject to certain constraints. Answer (C) is incorrect because correlation analysis is a statistical procedure for studying the relations among variables. Answer (D) is incorrect because differential analysis is a method used for decision-making that compares differences in costs (and revenues) of two or more possibilities.[109] Gleim #: 1.109 -- Source: CIA 1190 III-41 An account executive has just designed a Monte Carlo model to estimate the costs of a particular type of project. Validating the model could include all except A. Checking for errors in the computer programming. B. Checking that assumed probability distributions are reasonable. C. Comparing test results with previously validated models. D. Applying the model. Answer (A) is incorrect because it is part of the validation process. Answer (B) is incorrect because it is part of the validation process. Answer (C) is incorrect because it is part of the validation process. Answer (D) is correct. The Monte Carlo technique is used in a simulation to generate the individual values for a random value. An essential step in the simulation procedure is to validate the mathematical model used. This process involves not only searching for errors but also verifying the assumptions. It also should provide some assurance that the results of the experiment will be realistic. This assurance is often obtained using historical data. If the model gives results equivalent to what actually happened, the model is historically valid. There is still some risk, however, that changes could make the model invalid for the future. The model should not be implemented until this validation process is complete.[110] Gleim #: 1.110 -- Source: CIA 593 III-65 A large fishing operation has information on the interval, time, and probabilities of shrimp schools staying beneath their fishing boats. In order to use this information to predict when and where to send their boats, which of the following techniques should be used? A. Simulation. B. Least squares. C. Queuing theory. D. Exponential smoothing. Answer (A) is correct. Simulation (Monte Carlo simulation) is a technique for experimenting with logical/mathematical models using a computer. Despite the power of mathematics, many problems cannot be solved by known analytical methods because of the behavior of the variables and the complexity of their interactions. However, the performance of a quantitative model under uncertainty may be investigated by randomly selecting values for each variable in the model (based on its probability distribution) and then calculating the value of the solution. If this process is performed many times, the distribution of results from the model will be obtained. Answer (B) is incorrect because least squares is a prediction and estimation technique using a single dependent and single or multiple independent variables. Answer (C) is incorrect because queuing theory is a waiting-line technique used to balance desirable service levels against the cost of providing more service. Answer (D) is incorrect because exponential smoothing is a forecasting technique using arbitrary weights.[111] Gleim #: 1.111 -- Source: CIA 594 III-60 Which of the following is not true about simulation models? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 42 Printed for g j
  • 43. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. They are deterministic in nature. B. The may involve sampling. C. They mathematically estimate what actual performance would be. D. They emulate stochastic systems. Answer (A) is correct. Simulation is a technique for experimenting with logical/mathematical models using a computer. The simulation procedure has five steps: define the objectives, formulate the model, validate the model, design the experiment, and conduct the simulation and evaluate the results. A simulation uses the laws of probability to generate values for random variables. Thus, simulation models are probabilistic, not deterministic. Answer (B) is incorrect because simulation modeling samples the operation of a system. Answer (C) is incorrect because simulation models mathematically estimate what performance would be under various conditions. Answer (D) is incorrect because simulation models are by definition stochastic or probabilistic models.[112] Gleim #: 1.112 -- Source: CIA 593 III-66 A cost-volume-profit model developed in a dynamic environment determined that the estimated parameters used may vary between limits. Subsequent testing of the model with respect to all possible values of the estimated parameters is termed A. A sensitivity analysis. B. Statistical estimation. C. Statistical hypothesis testing. D. A time-series study. Answer (A) is correct. After a problem has been formulated into any mathematical model, it may be subjected to sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis is a method for studying the effects of changes in one or more variables on the results of a decision model. Answer (B) is incorrect because statistical estimation involves the estimation of parameters. Answer (C) is incorrect because statistical hypothesis testing calculates the conditional probability that both the hypothesis is true and the sample results have occurred. Answer (D) is incorrect because a time-series study involves forecasting data over time.[113] Gleim #: 1.113 -- Source: CIA 1194 III-58 An investment company is attempting to allocate its available funds between two investment alternatives, stocks and bonds, which differ in terms of expected return and risk. The company would like to minimize its risk while earning an expected return of at least 10% and investing no more than 70% in either of the investment alternatives. An appropriate technique for allocating its funds between stocks and bonds is A. Linear programming. B. Capital budgeting. C. Differential analysis. D. Queuing theory. Answer (A) is correct. Linear programming is a mathematical technique for planning resource allocation that optimizes a given objective function that is subject to certain constraints. In this case, the maximum investment is constrained by a 70% limit on either investment choice. Answer (B) is incorrect because capital budgeting is used to analyze and evaluate long-term capital investments. Answer (C) is incorrect because differential analysis is used for decision making when differences in costs (revenues) for two or more options are compared. Answer (D) is incorrect because queuing theory is used to minimize the sum of the costs of waiting lines and servicing waiting lines when items arrive randomly at a service point and are serviced sequentially.[114] Gleim #: 1.114 -- Source: CIA 1194 III-61 A company is deciding whether to purchase an automated machine to manufacture one of its products. Expected net cash flows from this decision depend on several factors, interactions among those factors, and the probabilities associated with different levels of those factors. The method that the company should use to evaluate the distribution of net cash flows from this decision and changes in net cash flows resulting from changes in levels of various factors is Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 43 Printed for g j
  • 44. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Simulation and sensitivity analysis. B. Linear programming. C. Correlation analysis. D. Differential analysis. Answer (A) is correct. Simulation is a technique used to describe the behavior of a real-world system over time. This technique usually employs a computer program to perform the simulation computations. Sensitivity analysis examines how outcomes change as the model parameters change. Answer (B) is incorrect because linear programming is a mathematical technique for optimizing a given objective function subject to certain constraints. Answer (C) is incorrect because correlation analysis is a statistical procedure for studying the relation between variables. Answer (D) is incorrect because differential analysis is used for decision making that compares differences in costs (revenues) of two or more options.[115] Gleim #: 1.115 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-8 In forecasting purchases of inventory for a firm, all of the following are useful except A. Knowledge of the behavior of business cycles. B. Internal allocations of costs to different segments of the firm. C. Information on the seasonal variations in demand. D. Econometric modeling. Answer (A) is incorrect because, in time series analysis, the cyclical fluctuation in business activity is usually incorporated as an index number in the forecasting model. Answer (B) is correct. Internal allocations of costs relate to costs already incurred, that is, to sunk costs. Sunk costs are not relevant to decision making, for example, to forecasting future purchases. Answer (C) is incorrect because, in time series analysis, the seasonal variation is usually incorporated as an index number in the forecasting model. Answer (D) is incorrect because an econometric model is an application of statistical methods to economic problems. Such a model is used as a forecasting tool.[116] Gleim #: 1.116 -- Source: CMA 689 5-24 The primary difference between PERT and CPM is that A. CPM uses probabilities on the activity times and PERT does not. B. PERT considers activity costs and CPM does not. C. PERT can assign probabilities to activity times and CPM does not. D. CPM considers activity costs and PERT does not. Answer (A) is incorrect because CPM specifies the activity times (uses deterministic estimates). Answer (B) is incorrect because CPM but not PERT uses activity costs and considers crash times. Answer (C) is incorrect because a less significant difference between PERT and CPM is that PERT uses probabilistic estimates of completion times. CPM times are deterministic. The 1:4:1 method is typically used in PERT. Under this method, the most optimistic and pessimistic estimates are weighted equally, but the most likely estimate is weighted four times more heavily than the others. Answer (D) is correct. Both PERT and CPM are network analysis techniques. But CPM was developed independently of PERT and is widely used in the construction industry. CPM may be thought of as a subset of PERT. Like PERT, it is a network technique, but, unlike PERT, it uses deterministic time and cost estimates. Its advantages include cost estimates plus the concept of "crash" efforts and costs. Activity times are estimated for normal effort and crash effort. Crash time is the time to complete an activity assuming that all available resources were devoted to the task (overtime, extra crew, etc.). Activity costs are also estimated for normal and crash efforts. These estimates allow the project manager to estimate the costs of completing the project if some of the activities are completed on a crash basis. The network diagram is constructed in the same manner as PERT diagrams. Once the diagram is constructed, the critical paths are found for normal and crash times. More than one critical path may exist for each diagram.[117] Gleim #: 1.117 -- Source: CMA 689 5-25 A Gantt chart Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 44 Printed for g j
  • 45. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Shows the critical path for a project. B. Is used for determining an optimal product mix. C. Shows only the activities along the critical path of a network. D. Does not necessarily show the critical path through a network. Answer (A) is incorrect because the critical path is not shown. Answer (B) is incorrect because linear programming is used to determine an optimal product mix. Answer (C) is incorrect because a Gantt chart shows the activities to be completed but not their relationships (sequencing). Answer (D) is correct. A Gantt or bar chart is sometimes used in conjunction with PERT or CPM to show the progress of a special project. Time is shown on the horizontal axis, the length of a bar equals the length of an activity, and shading indicates the degree of completion. However, the Gantt chart is not as sophisticated as PERT or CPM in that it does not reflect the relationships among the activities or define a critical path.[118] Gleim #: 1.118 -- Source: CMA 697 4-26 A regression equation A. Estimates the dependent variables. B. Encompasses factors outside the relevant range. C. Is based on objective and constraint functions. D. Estimates the independent variable. Answer (A) is correct. Regression analysis is used to find an equation for the linear relationship among variables. The behavior of the dependent variable is explained in terms of one or more independent variables. Regression analysis is often used to estimate a dependent variable (such as cost) given a known independent variable (such as production). Answer (B) is incorrect because regression results are limited to observations within the relevant range. Answer (C) is incorrect because regression analysis does not use constraint functions. Answer (D) is incorrect because the dependent variable is estimated using regression analysis.[119] Gleim #: 1.119 -- Source: CMA 1285 5-27 The correlation coefficient that indicates the weakest linear association between two variables is A. -0.73 B. -0.11 C. 0.12 D. 0.35 Answer (A) is incorrect because -0.73 signifies a strong negative correlation. Answer (B) is correct. The correlation coefficient can vary from -1 to +1. A -1 relationship indicates a perfect negative correlation, and a +1 relationship indicates a perfect positive correlation. A zero correlation coefficient would indicate no association between the variables. Thus, the correlation coefficient that is nearest to zero would indicate the weakest linear association. Of the options given in the question, the correlation coefficient that is nearest to zero is -0.11. Answer (C) is incorrect because 0.12 is a slightly stronger correlation. Answer (D) is incorrect because 0.35 is a considerably stronger correlation.[120] Gleim #: 1.120 -- Source: CMA 1289 5-14 Correlation is a term frequently used in conjunction with regression analysis and is measured by the value of the coefficient of correlation, r. The best explanation of the value r is that it A. Is always positive. B. Interprets variances in terms of the independent variable. C. Ranges in size from negative infinity to positive infinity. D. Is a measure of the relative relationship between two variables. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 45 Printed for g j
  • 46. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the coefficient is negative if the relationship between the variables is inverse. Answer (B) is incorrect because the coefficient relates the two variables to each other. Answer (C) is incorrect because the size of the coefficient varies between -1.0 and +1.0. Answer (D) is correct. The coefficient of correlation (r) measures the strength of the linear relationship between the dependent and independent variables. The magnitude of r is independent of the scales of measurement of x and y. The coefficient lies between -1.0 and +1.0. A value of zero indicates no linear relationship between the x and y variables. A value of +1.0 indicates a perfectly direct relationship, and a value of -1.0 indicates a perfectly inverse relationship.[121] Gleim #: 1.121 -- Source: CMA 1293 4-25 The four components of time series data are secular trend, cyclical variation, seasonality, and random variation. The seasonality in the data can be removed by A. Multiplying the data by a seasonality factor. B. Ignoring it. C. Taking the weighted average over four time periods. D. Subtracting a seasonality factor from the data. Answer (A) is incorrect because adding a seasonality factor to, or subtracting it from, a forecast based on trend analysis is a means of adjusting for seasonality. Answer (B) is incorrect because seasonality factors cannot be ignored; they are reflected in the data and must be considered for a model to be accurate. Answer (C) is correct. Time series analysis relies on past experience. Changes in the value of a variable may have several possible components including secular trends, cyclical variation, seasonality, and random variation. Seasonal variations are common in many businesses. A variety of methods exist for including seasonal variations in a forecasting model, but most methods use a seasonal index. Alternatively, seasonal variations can be removed from data by using a weighted average of several time periods instead of data from individual periods. Answer (D) is incorrect because the seasonality adjustment for a single season’s data may be an increase or a decrease.[122] Gleim #: 1.122 -- Source: CMA 696 4-20 A widely used approach that managers use to recognize uncertainty about individual items and to obtain an immediate financial estimate of the consequences of possible prediction errors is A. Expected value analysis. B. Learning curve analysis. C. Sensitivity analysis. D. Regression analysis. Answer (A) is incorrect because expected value is the probabilistically weighted average of the outcomes of an action. Answer (B) is incorrect because learning curve analysis quantifies how labor costs decline as employees learn their jobs through repetition. Answer (C) is correct. Sensitivity analysis determines how a result varies with changes in a given variable or parameter in a mathematical decision model. For example, in a present value analysis, a manager might first calculate the net present value or internal rate of return assuming that a new asset has a 10-year life. The NPV or IRR can then be recalculated using a 5-year life to determine how sensitive the result is to the change in the assumption. Answer (D) is incorrect because regression, or least squares, analysis determines the average change in the dependent variable given a unit change in one or more independent variables. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 46 Printed for g j
  • 47. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[Fact Pattern #10]An international nonprofit organization finances medical research. The majority of its revenue and support comes from fund-raising activities, investments, and specific grants from an initial sponsoring corporation. The organization has been in operationover 15 years and has a small internal auditing department. The organization has just finished a major fund-raising drive thatraised $500 million for the current fiscal period.The following are selected data from recent financial statements (dollar figures in millions): Current Past Year YearRevenue $500 $425Investments (average balances) 210 185Medical research grants made 418 325Investment income 16 20Administrative expense 10 8[123] Gleim #: 1.123 -- Source: CIA 597 I-31 (Refers to Fact Pattern #10) The auditor wishes to determine if the change in investment income during the current year was due to (a) changes in investment strategy, (b) changes in portfolio mix, or (c) other factors. Which of the following analytical review procedures should the auditor use? A. Simple linear regression that compares investment income changes over the past 5 years to determine the nature of the changes. B. Ratio analysis that compares changes in the investment portfolio on a monthly basis. C. Trend analysis that compares the changes in investment income as a percentage of total assets and of investment assets over the past 5 years. D. Multiple regression analysis that includes independent variables related to the nature of the investment portfolio and market conditions. Answer (A) is incorrect because simple linear regression is based on just one independent variable. Answer (B) is incorrect because ratio analysis measure changes but do not explain them. Answer (C) is incorrect because trend analysis measure changes but do not explain them. Answer (D) is correct. Regression analysis develops an equation to explain the behavior of a dependent variable (for example, investment income) in terms of one or more independent variables (for example, market risk and the risks of particular investments). Multiple regression analysis is the best approach because it allows the auditor to regress the change in investment income on more than one independent variable.[124] Gleim #: 1.124 -- Source: CIA R98 III-35 (Refers to Fact Pattern #10) Which of the following will allow a manufacturer with limited resources to maximize profits? A. The Delphi technique. B. Exponential smoothing. C. Regression analysis. D. Linear programming. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 47 Printed for g j
  • 48. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the Delphi technique is an approach in which the manager solicits opinions on a problem from experts, summarizes the opinions, and feeds the summaries back to the experts (without revealing any of the participants to each other). The process is reiterated until the opinions converge on an optimal solution. Answer (B) is incorrect because under exponential smoothing, each forecast equals the sum of the last observation times the smoothing constant, plus the last forecast times one minus the constant. Thus, exponential means that greater weight is placed on the most recent data, with the weights of all data falling off exponentially as the data age. Answer (C) is incorrect because regression analysis is used to fit a linear trend line to a dependent variable based on one or more independent variables. Answer (D) is correct. Linear programming is a technique used to optimize an objective function, that is, to maximize a revenue or profit function or to minimize a cost function, subject to constraints, e.g., limited (scarce) resources or minimum/maximum levels of production, performance, etc. In business, linear programming is used for planning resource allocations. Managers are often faced with problems of selecting the most profitable or least costly way to use available resources.[125] Gleim #: 1.125 -- Source: CIA R98 III-36 Which of the following is not an appropriate time series forecasting technique? A. Least squares. B. Exponential smoothing. C. The Delphi technique. D. Moving averages. Answer (A) is incorrect because regression (least squares) analysis extends correlation to find an equation for the linear relationship among variables. The behavior of the dependent variable is explained in terms of one or more independent variables. Thus, regression analysis determines functional relationships among quantitative variables. Answer (B) is incorrect because, under exponential smoothing, each forecast equals the sum of the last observation times the smoothing constant, plus the last forecast times one minus the constant. Thus, exponential means that greater weight is placed on the most recent data, with the weights of all data falling off exponentially as the data age. Answer (C) is correct. The Delphi technique is an approach in which the manager solicits opinions on a problem from experts, summarizes the opinions, and feeds the summaries back to the experts (without revealing any of the participants to each other). The process is reiterated until the opinions converge on an optimal solution. Thus, the Delphi technique is a qualitative, not a quantitative, method. Answer (D) is incorrect because a moving average is the simplest form of smoothing. Each forecast is based on a fixed number of prior observations.[126] Gleim #: 1.126 -- Source: CIA 1184 III-12 Which of the following observations concerning quality control is more accurate? A. Process quality control is used when examining the quality of goods or services which already exist. B. Process quality control is used to prevent defects, whereas product quality control is used primarily to identify defects after the fact. C. Product quality control is designed to balance the marketability of higher quality against the cost of attaining higher quality. D. Product quality control is more important than process quality control. Answer (A) is incorrect because it describes product (not process) quality control. Answer (B) is correct. Process analysis studies the means of producing a product with a view to lowering costs and increasing efficiency while producing items of appropriate quality. The effect of process analysis is to act as a pre- control to prevent defects. Product quality control involves inspection during production to eliminate defective items. Answer (C) is incorrect because it is applicable to process (not product) quality control. Answer (D) is incorrect because process quality control and product quality control are both important elements in a quality control program.[127] Gleim #: 1.127 -- Source: CIA 594 III-53 Which statement best describes Total Quality Management (TQM)? A. TQM emphasizes reducing the cost of inspection. B. TQM emphasizes participation by all employees in the decision-making process. C. TQM emphasizes encouraging cross-functional teamwork. D. TQM emphasizes doing each job right the first time. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 48 Printed for g j
  • 49. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because TQM has a broader emphasis. It focuses on improving quality, reducing cycle time, providing increased customer satisfaction, and achieving the lowest overall business cost. Reducing the cost of inspection helps achieve the lowest overall business cost. Answer (B) is incorrect because this statement describes participative management. Answer (C) is incorrect because TQM has a broader emphasis. It focuses on improving quality, reducing cycle time, providing increased customer satisfaction, and achieving the lowest overall business cost. Encouraging cross-functional teamwork helps achieve the lowest overall business cost. Answer (D) is correct. TQM establishes quality as an organizational objective and views it as a major component of the organization’s service to its customers. It emphasizes employee training and commitment, product/service design and production, and customer service. Ordinarily, the quality of a product or service is as important to customers as cost and timeliness. Superior product quality is not attained merely through more inspection, better statistical quality control, and cross-functional teamwork. Manufacturers must make fundamental changes in the way they produce products and do each job right the first time.[128] Gleim #: 1.128 -- Source: CIA 1191 III-11 The operations manager of a company notified the treasurer of that organization 60 days in advance that a new, expensive piece of machinery was going to be purchased. This notification allowed the treasurer to make an orderly liquidation of some of the company’s investment portfolio on favorable terms. What type of control was involved? A. Feedback. B. Strategic. C. Budgetary. D. Feedforward. Answer (A) is incorrect because feedback controls apply to decision making based on evaluations of past performance. Answer (B) is incorrect because strategic controls are broad-based and affect an organization over a long period. They apply to such long-term variables as quality and R&D. Answer (C) is incorrect because control of budgeted expenditures is not mentioned in the example. Answer (D) is correct. Feedforward control provides for the active anticipation of problems so that they can be avoided or resolved in a timely manner. Another example is the quality control inspection of raw materials and work- in-process to avoid defective finished goods.[129] Gleim #: 1.129 -- Source: CIA 592 III-17 As part of a Total Quality Control program, a firm not only inspects finished goods but also monitors product returns and customer complaints. Which type of control best describes these efforts? A. Feedback control. B. Feedforward control. C. Production control. D. Inventory control. Answer (A) is correct. A feedback control measures actual performance, something that has already occurred, to ensure that a desired future state is attained. It is used to evaluate the past to improve future performance. Inspecting finished goods, monitoring product returns, and evaluating complaints are post-action controls intended to eliminate deviations in future cycles of the process under control. Answer (B) is incorrect because feedforward controls anticipate problems before they occur. Answer (C) is incorrect because customer complaints are not part of production control. Answer (D) is incorrect because TQC, which is often associated with JIT systems but is applicable to other environments, is a philosophy emphasizing that each member of the organization is a quality control inspector. It de- emphasizes the role of separate quality control departments by making each employee responsible for his/her work. Hence, TQC is not limited to inventory control.[130] Gleim #: 1.130 -- Source: CIA 1191 III-10 To be successful, large companies must develop means to keep the organization focused in the proper direction. Organizational control systems help keep companies focused. These control systems consist of which three basic components? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 49 Printed for g j
  • 50. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Budgeting, financial ratio analysis, and cash management. B. Objectives, standards, and an evaluation-reward system. C. Role analysis, team building, and survey feedback. D. Setting goals, empowering employees, and job enrichment. Answer (A) is incorrect because budgeting, financial ratio analysis, and cash management are means of financial control. Answer (B) is correct. An organizational control system must be based on a statement of what is to be achieved and when (objectives). The accomplishment of objectives depends on the establishment of standards that serve as feedforward controls. Adherence to performance standards signifies that an organization is on course to attain its objectives. A well- developed evaluation-reward system that is clearly communicated to employees should motivate them to improved performance. Answer (C) is incorrect because role analysis, team building, and survey feedback are used in developmental efforts to correct organizational deficiencies. Answer (D) is incorrect because goal setting, empowerment, and job enrichment are all motivational strategies.[131] Gleim #: 1.131 -- Source: CIA 588 III-12 Performance appraisal systems might use any of three different approaches: (1) who did the job, (2) how the job was done, or (3) what was accomplished. Which approach is used by a system that places the focus on how the job was done? A. Behavior-oriented. B. Goal-oriented. C. Trait-oriented. D. Employee-oriented. Answer (A) is correct. Behavior-oriented performance evaluation rewards the behavior that is desired by management. Behavior control involves examining work processes rather than work output. Answer (B) is incorrect because the goal-oriented approach measures how well the employee attained the objectives or goals set by management. Answer (C) is incorrect because a trait-oriented approach tends to reward what the supervisor thinks of the employee rather than the job the employee did. Answer (D) is incorrect because an employee-oriented approach would focus on who did the job.[132] Gleim #: 1.132 -- Source: CIA 592 III-7 Identify the management technique in which employees assist in setting goals, making decisions, solving problems, and designing and implementing organizational changes. A. Total quality control. B. Job enlargement. C. Kanban. D. Participative management. Answer (A) is incorrect because TQC is a quality control program in which everyone sees quality control as his/her job. Answer (B) is incorrect because job enlargement refers to increasing the number of tasks one must perform. Answer (C) is incorrect because kanban is a manual inventory technique used in just-in-time inventory control systems. Answer (D) is correct. According to Marshall Soshkin ["Participative Management is an Ethical Imperative," Organizational Dynamics 12 (Spring 1984): 4-22] employees may participate in goal setting, decision making, problem solving, and designing and implementing change. Subject to various individual (values and attitudes), organizational (e.g., job design and company culture), and environmental (such as technological change and competition) contingencies, workers who participate in the aforementioned ways should experience greater autonomy and find their tasks more meaningful. In turn, this experience should lead to satisfaction, challenge, security, and acceptance and commitment. Ultimate results are innovation and improved performance and productivity.[133] Gleim #: 1.133 -- Source: Publisher Is PERT analysis a control tool or a planning tool? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 50 Printed for g j
  • 51. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Planning ControlA. Yes NoB. Yes YesC. No YesD. No No Answer (A) is incorrect because PERT is a control tool as well as a planning tool. Answer (B) is correct. PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) is applied in the management of complex projects. It analyzes the project in terms of its component activities and determines their sequencing and timing. Thus, it systematically combines planning with control. Answer (C) is incorrect because PERT is a planning tool. Answer (D) is incorrect because PERT is a planning tool.[134] Gleim #: 1.134 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-60 ISO 9000 standards for ring networks include fault management, configuration management, accounting management, security management, and performance monitoring. Which of the following controls is included in the performance- monitoring standards? A. Reporting the failure of network fiber-optic lines. B. Recording unauthorized access violations. C. Compiling statistics on the number of times that application software is used. D. Allocating network costs to system users of the network. Answer (A) is incorrect because the failure of network fiber-optic lines is a fault management control. Answer (B) is incorrect because recording unauthorized access violations is a security management control. Answer (C) is correct. The ISO 9000 performance-monitoring standards pertain to management’s ongoing assessment of the quality of performance over time. Recording software usage is a performance-monitoring control concerned with the extent and efficiency of network software use. Answer (D) is incorrect because allocating network costs to system users of the network is an accounting management control.[135] Gleim #: 1.135 -- Source: CIA 596 III-32 If a company is customer-centered, its customers are defined as A. Only people external to the company who have purchased something from the company. B. Only people internal to the company who directly use its product. C. Anyone external to the company and those internal who rely on its product to get their job done. D. Everybody external to the company who is currently doing, or may in the future do, business with the company. Answer (A) is incorrect because customers are internal as well as external. Answer (B) is incorrect because customers are internal as well as external. Answer (C) is correct. One of the tenets of TQM is customer orientation, whether the customer is internal or external. An internal customer is a member of the organization who relies on another member’s work to accomplish his/her task. Answer (D) is incorrect because customers are internal as well as external.[136] Gleim #: 1.136 -- Source: CIA 596 III-20 Which one of the following is not a characteristic of an innovative manufacturing company? A. Emphasis on continuous improvement. B. Responsiveness to the changing manufacturing environment. C. Emphasis on existing products. D. Improved customer satisfaction through product quality. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 51 Printed for g j
  • 52. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because continuous improvement is important for achieving and maintaining high levels of performance. Answer (B) is incorrect because more and more manufacturers are automating to achieve high quality, deliver customized products on time, minimize inventory, and increase flexibility. Answer (C) is correct. Innovative companies are customer driven. Because customers demand ever better quality and competitors are attempting to provide that quality, continuous improvement (called kaizen by the Japanese) is essential for such companies. Thus, the flow of innovative products and services must be continuous. Simply emphasizing existing products is not an effective strategy for most organizations. Answer (D) is incorrect because customer satisfaction is the highest priority according to modern management practice.[137] Gleim #: 1.137 -- Source: CIA 593 III-11 A leader who is able to gain compliance from a group based solely on personal attraction is said to have A. Reward power. B. Coercive power. C. Referent power. D. Legitimate power. Answer (A) is incorrect because reward power is based on a person’s ability to grant benefits. Answer (B) is incorrect because coercive power is rooted in the fear or threat of punishment. Answer (C) is correct. Referent power is based on identification of subordinates with a superior. Thus, personal magnetism (charisma) may be a basis for influencing others to comply with a manager’s directives. Answer (D) is incorrect because legitimate power is based on a person’s superior position.[138] Gleim #: 1.138 -- Source: CIA 594 III-57 Which of the following is an example of an efficiency measure? A. The rate of absenteeism. B. The goal of becoming a leading manufacturer. C. The number of insurance claims processed per day. D. The goal of increasing market share. Answer (A) is incorrect because the rate of absenteeism does not compare input and output. Answer (B) is incorrect because the goal of becoming a leading manufacturer concerns effectiveness, not efficiency. Answer (C) is correct. An organizational structure is efficient if it facilitates the accomplishment of organizational objectives with minimum resources and fewest unsought consequences. An efficient organizational structure maximizes output for a given amount of input. Thus, an efficiency measure compares input to output. Insurance claims processed per day relates output (claims processed) to input (a day’s work). Answer (D) is incorrect because the goal of increasing market share concerns effectiveness, not efficiency.[139] Gleim #: 1.139 -- Source: Publisher Goal congruence is A. The desire and the commitment to achieve a specific goal. B. The sharing of goals by supervisors and subordinates. C. The extent to which individuals have the authority to make decisions. D. The extent of the attempt to accomplish a specific goal. Answer (A) is incorrect because motivation is the desire and the commitment to achieve a specific goal. Answer (B) is correct. Goal congruence is agreement on the goals of the organization and/or the segment by both supervisors and subordinates. Performance is assumed to be optimized when there is an understanding that personal and segmental goals be consistent with those of the organization. Answer (C) is incorrect because autonomy is the extent to which individuals have the authority to make decisions. Answer (D) is incorrect because managerial effort is the extent of the attempt to accomplish a specific goal.[140] Gleim #: 1.140 -- Source: Publisher A budget is often the result of a management-by-objectives (MBO) program. A characteristic of MBO is Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 52 Printed for g j
  • 53. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Development of a single measure of employee performance. B. Statement of objectives in general terms. C. Establishment of objectives through both top-down and bottom-up processes. D. A flexible time frame for achievement of objectives. Answer (A) is incorrect because multiple measures are preferable. Answer (B) is incorrect because objectives should be specific. Answer (C) is correct. Budgets and standards are often the result of a formal management-by-objectives program. MBO is a top-down process because the organization’s objectives are successively restated into objectives for each lower level. However, it is also a bottom-up process because of the participation of subordinates. Answer (D) is incorrect because a specific time period is established.[141] Gleim #: 1.141 -- Source: Publisher The primary variable affecting active participation in and commitment to the budgeting and control system is A. Management efforts to achieve the budget rather than optimize results. B. Rigid adherence to the budget without recognizing changing conditions. C. Top management involvement in support of the budget. D. The opportunity budgeting gives to managers for departmental growth. Answer (A) is incorrect because “managing to a budget” can result in suboptimal achievement. Answer (B) is incorrect because rigid adherence to the budget could prevent a manager from taking an appropriate action and thus miss a profitable opportunity. Answer (C) is correct. Top management involvement in support of the budget/control system is absolutely vital for the continued success of the operation. The attitude of top management will affect the implementation of the budget and control system because lower level management will recognize and reflect top management’s attitude. Answer (D) is incorrect because budgeting is not directly related to departmental growth. A budget should promote overall company strategies, missions, objectives, and policies.[142] Gleim #: 1.142 -- Source: Publisher The major disadvantage of a budget produced by means of a top-down process is A. Impairment of goal congruence. B. Lack of involvement by upper-level management. C. Inconsistency with strategic plans. D. Absence of a significant motivational effect. Answer (A) is correct. Budgets provide a means for coordinating the plans of all organizational subunits. Thus, budgets are a way to promote goal congruence. Although budgets should be consistent with the strategic plans of top management, they should also be based on input from lower-level managers since the latter have detailed knowledge of operating activities. Successful budgets are therefore a compromise. In a top-down process, however, budgets are imposed on subordinates without their participation. This lack of participation may impair the coordination of the goals of subunits with those of the organization (goal congruence) since lower-level managers will tend not to have understanding of and support for the top-down budget. Answer (B) is incorrect because, in a top-down process, upper-level management imposes a budget on those below, so consistency with strategic plans is unlikely to be impaired. Answer (C) is incorrect because, in a top-down process, upper-level management imposes a budget on those below, so consistency with strategic plans is unlikely to be impaired. Answer (D) is incorrect because the motivational effect is likely to be very negative.[143] Gleim #: 1.143 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-26 An effective management by objectives (MBO) program can increase organizational effectiveness. Which of the following contributes to an effective MBO program? A. Emphasis on “should do” rather than “must do” objectives. B. Objectives that are quantified, clearly measurable, and state target dates for completion. C. Managers who hold their subordinates strictly accountable for achieving their objectives precisely as they have been written. D. All of the answers are correct. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 53 Printed for g j
  • 54. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because “must do” objectives should be given priority over “should do” objectives. Answer (B) is correct. Management by objectives is a behavioral, communications-oriented, responsibility approach to employee self-direction. Objectives should be set mutually by management and employees. They should be measurable and capable of being accomplished by the end of the period. The organization must also remain flexible to accommodate unforeseen changes. Answer (C) is incorrect because the organization must be able to remain flexible to accommodate unforeseen changes during the period. Answer (D) is incorrect because “must do” objectives should be emphasized, and the organization should remain flexible to accommodate unforeseen changes during the period.[144] Gleim #: 1.144 -- Source: Publisher An advantage of participatory budgeting is that it A. Minimizes the cost of developing budgets. B. Reduces the effect on the budgetary process of employee biases. C. Yields information known to management but not to employees. D. Encourages acceptance of the budget by employees. Answer (A) is incorrect because disadvantages of participatory budgeting and standard setting include the cost in terms of time and money. Answer (B) is incorrect because the quality of participation is affected by the goals, values, beliefs, and expectations of those involved. Answer (C) is incorrect because an advantage of participatory budgeting is that it yields information known to employees but not to management. Answer (D) is correct. Participatory budgeting (grass-roots budgeting) and standard setting use input from lower- level and middle-level employees. Participation encourages employees to have a sense of ownership of the output of the process. The result is an acceptance of, and commitment to, the goals expressed in the budget.[145] Gleim #: 1.145 -- Source: CMA 1293 3-17 The budgeting process that uses management by objectives and input from the individual manager is an example of the application of A. Flexible budgeting. B. Human resource management. C. Responsibility accounting. D. Capital budgeting. Answer (A) is incorrect because flexible budgeting is the process of preparing a series of multiple budgets for varying levels of production or sales. Answer (B) is incorrect because human resource management is the process of managing personnel. Answer (C) is correct. Managerial performance should ideally be evaluated only on the basis of those factors controllable by the manager. Managers may control revenues, costs, or investments in resources. A well-designed responsibility accounting system establishes responsibility centers within the organization. However, controllability is not an absolute basis for establishment of responsibility. More than one manager may be able to influence a cost, and responsibility may be assigned on the basis of knowledge about the incurrence of a cost rather than the ability to control it. Management by objectives (MBO) is a related concept. It is a behavioral, communications-oriented, responsibility approach to employee self-direction. Under MBO, a manager and his/her subordinates agree upon objectives and the means of attaining them. The plans that result are reflected in responsibility accounting and in the budgeting process. Answer (D) is incorrect because capital budgeting is a means of evaluating long-term investments.[146] Gleim #: 1.146 -- Source: CIA 1190 IV-21 When comparing the residual income of several investment centers, the validity of comparisons may be destroyed by A. Peculiarities of each investment center. B. Differences in the relative amount of income. C. Consistent use of an imputed interest rate. D. Common amounts of invested capital for each investment center. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 54 Printed for g j
  • 55. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. Residual income is income of an investment center, minus an imputed interest charge for invested capital. The theory is that earning an income greater than residual income indicates that expansion is desirable. However, comparisons of investment centers based on residual income may be misleading because of differences in products, markets, costs, and local conditions. Answer (B) is incorrect because comparisons are valid if adjustments are made for relative investment bases. Answer (C) is incorrect because use of the same imputed interest rate provides a consistent objective against which each investment can be measured. Answer (D) is incorrect because common amounts of invested capital would eliminate a major factor causing differences in residual income.[147] Gleim #: 1.147 -- Source: CIA 1191 IV-17 The receipt of raw materials used in the manufacture of products and the shipping of finished goods to customers is under the control of the warehouse supervisor. The warehouse supervisor’s time is spent approximately 60% on receiving activities and 40% on shipping activities. Separate staffs for the receiving and shipping operations are employed. The labor-related costs for the warehousing function are as follows: Warehouse supervisor’s salary $ 40,000 Receiving clerks’ wages 75,000 Shipping clerks’ wages 55,000 Employee benefit costs (30% of wage and salary costs) 51,000 $221,000 The company employs a responsibility accounting system for performance reporting purposes. The costs are classified on the report as period or product costs. The total labor-related costs that would be listed on the responsibility accounting performance report as product costs under the control of the warehouse supervisor for the warehousing function would be A. $97,500. B. $128,700. C. $130,000. D. $221,000. Answer (A) is correct. The responsibility accounting report should list only the costs over which the warehousing supervisor exercises control. The supervisor’s salary should therefore be excluded because it is controlled by the warehouse supervisor’s superior. Moreover, only the product costs are to be considered. These exclude the shipping clerks’ wages and fringe benefits because they are period costs (shipping is a selling expense). Thus, the only product cost under the control of the warehouse supervisor is the receiving clerks’ wages ($75,000) and the related fringe benefits (.3 × $75,000 = $22,500), or a total of $97,500. Answer (B) is incorrect because the product costs controlled by the supervisor total $97,500. Answer (C) is incorrect because the product costs controlled by the supervisor total $97,500. Answer (D) is incorrect because the product costs controlled by the supervisor total $97,500.[148] Gleim #: 1.148 -- Source: CIA 595 III-95 Making segment disclosures is an advantage to a company because it A. Facilitates evaluation of company management by providing data on particular segments. B. Eliminates the interdependence of segments. C. Masks the effect of intersegment transfers. D. Provides competitors with comparative information on the company’s performance. Answer (A) is correct. Segment reporting is an aspect of responsibility accounting. It facilitates evaluation of company management and of the quality of the economic investment in particular segments. Answer (B) is incorrect because interdependence of segments is not affected by reporting methods. Answer (C) is incorrect because masking the effects of intersegment transfers is a disadvantage of segment reporting. Answer (D) is incorrect because providing information to competitors is a disadvantage of segment reporting. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 55 Printed for g j
  • 56. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[149] Gleim #: 1.149 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-67 Return on investment (ROI) is a very popular measure employed to evaluate the performance of corporate segments because it incorporates all of the major ingredients of profitability (revenue, cost, investment) into a single measure. Under which one of the following combination of actions regarding a segment’s revenues, costs, and investment would a segment’s ROI always increase? Revenues Costs Investment A. Increase Decrease Increase B. Decrease Decrease Decrease C. Increase Increase Increase D. Increase Decrease Decrease Answer (A) is incorrect because ROI is not certain to increase if investment increases. Answer (B) is incorrect because ROI is not certain to increase if revenue, costs, and investment decrease. Answer (C) is incorrect because ROI is not certain to increase if costs and investment increase. Answer (D) is correct. An increase in revenue and a decrease in costs will increase the ROI numerator. A decrease in investment will decrease the denominator. The ROI must increase in this situation.[150] Gleim #: 1.150 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-79 Residual income is a performance evaluation that is used in conjunction with return on investment (ROI) or instead of ROI. In many cases, residual income is preferred over ROI because A. Residual income is a measure over time while ROI represents the results for a single time period. B. Residual income concentrates on maximizing absolute dollars of income rather than a percentage return as with ROI. C. The imputed interest rate used in calculating residual income is more easily derived than the target rate that is compared to the calculated ROI. D. Average investment is employed with residual income while year-end investment is employed with ROI. Answer (A) is incorrect because both measures represent the results for a single period. Answer (B) is correct. Residual income equals earnings in excess of a minimum desired return. Thus, it is measured in dollars. If performance is evaluated using ROI, a manager may reject a project that exceeds the minimum return if the project will decrease overall ROI. For example, given a target rate of 20%, a project with an ROI of 22% might be rejected if the current ROI is 25%. Answer (C) is incorrect because the target rate for ROI is the same as the imputed interest rate used in the residual income calculation. Answer (D) is incorrect because the same investment base should be employed in both methods.[151] Gleim #: 1.151 -- Source: CMA 1294 3-20 Fairmount Inc. uses an accounting system that charges costs to the manager who has been delegated the authority to make the decisions incurring the costs. For example, if the sales manager accepts a rush order that will result in higher-than- normal manufacturing costs, these additional costs are charged to the sales manager because the authority to accept or decline the rush order was given to the sales manager. This type of accounting system is known as A. Responsibility accounting. B. Functional accounting. C. Reciprocal allocation. D. Transfer price accounting. Answer (A) is correct. Responsibility accounting holds managers responsible only for factors under their control. For this purpose, operations are organized into responsibility centers. Costs are classified as controllable and noncontrollable, which implies that some revenues and costs can be changed through effective management. If a manager has authority to incur costs, a responsibility accounting system will charge them to the manager’s responsibility center. Answer (B) is incorrect because functional accounting allocates costs to functions regardless of responsibility. Answer (C) is incorrect because reciprocal allocation is a means of allocating service department costs. Answer (D) is incorrect because transfer price accounting is a means of charging one department for products acquired from another department in the same organization. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 56 Printed for g j
  • 57. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[152] Gleim #: 1.152 -- Source: CIA 596 II-1 A company, which has many branch stores, has decided to benchmark one of its stores for the purpose of analyzing the accuracy and reliability of branch store financial reporting. Which one of the following is the most likely measure to be included in a financial benchmark? A. High turnover of employees. B. High level of employee participation in setting budgets. C. High amount of bad debt write-offs. D. High number of suppliers. Answer (A) is incorrect because turnover of employees is not a financial benchmark. Answer (B) is incorrect because employee participation in setting budgets is not a financial benchmark. Answer (C) is correct. A high level of bad debt write-offs could indicate fraud, which would compromise the accuracy and reliability of financial reports. Bad debt write-offs may result from recording fictitious sales. Answer (D) is incorrect because the number of suppliers is not a financial benchmark.[153] Gleim #: 1.153 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-23 The most important component of quality control is A. Ensuring goods and services conform to the design specifications. B. Satisfying upper management. C. Conforming with ISO-9000 specifications. D. Determining the appropriate timing of inspections. Answer (A) is correct. The intent of quality control is to ensure that goods and services conform to the design specifications. Whether the focus is on feedforward, feedback, or concurrent control, the emphasis is on ensuring product or service conformity. Answer (B) is incorrect because quality control is geared towards satisfying the customer, not upper management. Answer (C) is incorrect because ensuring the conformance with ISO-9000 specifications is a component of a compliance audit, not quality control. Answer (D) is incorrect because determining the appropriate timing of inspections is only one step towards approaching quality control. Consequently, it is not the primary component of the quality control function.[154] Gleim #: 1.154 -- Source: CIA 596 III-23 Which statement best describes the emphasis of total quality management (TQM)? A. Reducing the cost of inspection. B. Implementing better statistical quality control techniques. C. Doing each job right the first time. D. Encouraging cross-functional teamwork. Answer (A) is incorrect because reducing the cost of inspection is a detail of the TQM emphasis. Answer (B) is incorrect because implementing better statistical quality control techniques is a detail of the TQM emphasis. Answer (C) is correct. The basic principles of TQM include doing each job right the first time, being customer oriented, committing the company culture to continuous improvement, and building teamwork and employee empowerment. Answer (D) is incorrect because encouraging cross-functional teamwork is a detail of the TQM emphasis. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 57 Printed for g j
  • 58. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[155] Gleim #: 1.155 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-92 Quality cost indices are often used to measure and analyze the cost of maintaining or improving the level of quality. Such indices are computed by dividing the total cost of quality over a given period by some measure of activity during that period (for example, sales dollars). The following cost data are available for a company for the month of March. The companys quality cost index is calculated using total cost of quality divided by sales dollars. Sales $400,000 Direct materials cost 100,000 Direct labor cost 80,000 Testing and inspection cost 6,400 Scrap and rework cost 16,800 Quality planning cost 2,800 Cost of customer complaints and returns 4,000 The quality cost index for March is A. 7.5% B. 6.5% C. 22.0% D. 5.9% Answer (A) is correct. he total cost of quality equals the sum of prevention costs (quality planning), appraisal costs (testing and inspection), internal failure costs (scrap and rework), and external failure costs (customer complaints and returns), or $30,000 ($2,800 + $6,400 + $16,800 + $4,000). The quality cost index equals the total costs of quality, divided by sales, times 100%. Thus, the quality cost index for March is 7.5% [($30,000 ÷ $400,000) × 100%]. Answer (B) is incorrect because 6.5% does not include the $4,000 cost of customer complaints. Answer (C) is incorrect because 22.0% equals the sum of direct labor and testing and inspection costs, divided by sales. Answer (D) is incorrect because 5.9% does not include testing and inspection cost in quality costs.[156] Gleim #: 1.156 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-23 The most important component of quality control is A. Ensuring goods and services conform to the design specifications. B. Satisfying upper management. C. Conforming with ISO-9000 specifications. D. Determining the appropriate timing of inspections. Answer (A) is correct. The intent of quality control is to ensure that goods and services conform to the design specifications. Whether the focus is on feedforward, feedback, or concurrent control, the emphasis is on ensuring product or service conformity. Answer (B) is incorrect because quality control is geared towards satisfying the customer, not upper management. Answer (C) is incorrect because ensuring the conformance with ISO-9000 specifications is a component of a compliance audit, not quality control. Answer (D) is incorrect because determining the appropriate timing of inspections is only one step towards approaching quality control. Consequently, it is not the primary component of the quality control function.[157] Gleim #: 1.157 -- Source: CMA 693 3-13 Product-quality-related costs are part of a total quality control program. A product-quality-related cost incurred in detecting individual products that do not conform to specifications is an example of a(n) A. Prevention cost. B. Appraisal cost. C. External failure cost. D. Opportunity cost. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 58 Printed for g j
  • 59. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because prevention costs are incurred in an attempt to avoid defective output. Answer (B) is correct. Quality-related costs can be subdivided into four categories: external failure costs, internal failure costs, prevention costs, and appraisal costs. Appraisal costs embrace such activities as statistical quality control programs, inspection, and testing. Thus, the cost of detecting nonconforming individual products is an appraisal cost. Answer (C) is incorrect because external failure costs arise when quality problems occur after shipment. Answer (D) is incorrect because opportunity costs are not specifically associated with product quality. Opportunity cost is the maximum benefit forgone by using a scarce resource for a given purpose; it is the benefit provided by the next best use of that resource.[158] Gleim #: 1.158 -- Source: CMA 694 3-16 In 2004, a manufacturer instituted a total quality management (TQM) program producing the following report (in currency units): Summary Cost of Quality Report (000s) 2003 2004 % Change Prevention costs 200 300 +50 Appraisal costs 210 315 +50 Internal failure costs 190 114 -40 External failure costs 1,200 621 -48 Total quality costs 1,800 1,350 -25 On the basis of this report, which one of the following statements is most likely true? A. An increase in conformance costs resulted in a higher quality product and therefore resulted in a decrease in nonconformance costs. B. An increase in inspection costs was solely responsible for the decrease in quality costs. C. Quality costs such as scrap and rework decreased by 48%. D. Quality costs such as returns and repairs under warranty decreased by 40%. Answer (A) is correct. TQM emphasizes the supplier’s relationship with the customer and recognizes that everyone in a process is at some time a customer or supplier of someone else, either within or outside the organization. The costs of quality include costs of conformance and costs of nonconformance. Costs of conformance include prevention costs and appraisal (inspection) costs. Nonconformance costs are composed of internal failure costs and external failure costs, such as lost opportunity. Conformance costs (prevention and appraisal) increased substantially, whereas the nonconformance costs (internal and external failure) decreased. Hence, the increase in conformance costs resulted in a higher quality product. Answer (B) is incorrect because prevention costs also increased substantially, which could also have led to higher quality products. Answer (C) is incorrect because scrap and rework are internal failure costs, which decreased by 40%. Answer (D) is incorrect because returns and repairs are external failure costs, which decreased by 48%.[159] Gleim #: 1.159 -- Source: CIA 1184 III-11 Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between planning and controlling? A. Planning looks to the future; controlling is concerned with the past. B. Planning and controlling are completely independent of each other. C. Planning prevent problems; controlling is initiated by problems which have occurred. D. Controlling cannot operate effectively without the tools provided by planning. Answer (A) is incorrect because a control system looks to the future when it provides for corrective action and review and revision of standards. Answer (B) is incorrect because planning and controlling overlap. Answer (C) is incorrect because comprehensive planning includes creation of controls. Answer (D) is correct. Control is the process of making certain that plans are achieving the desired objectives. A control system operates through establishing standards of performance, measuring actual performance, analysis and comparison of performance with standards, taking corrective action, and reviewing and revising standards. Planning provides needed tools for the control process by establishing standards, e.g., budgets. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 59 Printed for g j
  • 60. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[160] Gleim #: 1.160 -- Source: CIA 593 III-63 A firm must decide the mix of production of Product X and Product Y. There are only two resources used in the two products, resources A and B. Data related to the two products is given in the following table: Products X Y Resource A 3 7 Resource B 2 1 Unit Profit $8 $6 What is the appropriate objective function to maximize profit? A. 3X + 7Y B. 2X + Y C. 8X + 6Y D. 5X + 8Y Answer (A) is incorrect because 3X + 7Y is a constraint. Answer (B) is incorrect because 2X + Y is a constraint. Answer (C) is correct. The objective function is the function to be optimized. This firm wishes to maximize profits on the sales of two products (X and Y). Based on profits per unit ($8 and $6, respectively), the objective function is 8X + 6Y. Answer (D) is incorrect because 5X + 8Y is the sum of the constraints.[161] Gleim #: 1.161 -- Source: CIA R98 III-32 An appropriate technique for planning and controlling manufacturing inventories, such as raw materials, components, and subassemblies whose demand depends on the level of production is A. Materials requirements planning. B. Regression analysis. C. Capital budgeting. D. Linear programming. Answer (A) is correct. Materials requirements planning (MRP) is a system that translates a production schedule into requirements for each component needed to meet the schedule. It is usually implemented in the form of a computer- based information system designed to plan and control raw materials used in production. It assumes that forecasted demand is reasonably accurate and that suppliers can deliver based upon this accurate schedule. MRP is a centralized push-through system; output based on forecasted demand is pushed through to the next department or to inventory. Answer (B) is incorrect because regression analysis is used to fit a linear trend line to a dependent variable based on one or more independent variables. Answer (C) is incorrect because capital budgeting is the process of planning expenditures for long-lived assets. It involves choosing among investment proposals using a ranking procedure. Answer (D) is incorrect because linear programming is a decision model concerned with allocating scarce resources to maximize profit or minimize costs.[162] Gleim #: 2.1 -- Source: CIA 597 III-91 When the economic order quantity (EOQ) decision model is employed, the <List A> are being offset or balanced by the <List B>. List A List B A. Ordering costs Carrying costs B. Purchase costs Carrying costs C. Purchase costs Quality costs D. Ordering costs Stockout costs Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 60 Printed for g j
  • 61. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. The objective of the EOQ model is to find an optimal order quantity that balances carrying and ordering costs. Only variable costs should be considered. The EOQ is the point where the ordering cost and carrying cost curves intersect. It corresponds to the minimum point on the total inventory cost curve. Answer (B) is incorrect because purchase costs are not directly incorporated into the EOQ model. Answer (C) is incorrect because neither purchase costs nor quality costs are incorporated into the EOQ model. Answer (D) is incorrect because stockout costs are not directly incorporated into the EOQ model.[Fact Pattern #11]Candman Company is a wholesale distributor of Long-term capital investments are expected to earn 12% after incomecandy. The company leases space in a public taxes. Candman is subject to an effective income tax rate of 40%.warehouse and is charged according to the squarefeet occupied. Candman has decided to employ the High-Activity Low-Activityeconomic order quantity (EOQ) method to determine Month Month Annualthe optimum number of cases of candy to order. (160 Orders) (100 Orders) CostsThe company placed 2,400 orders the last year. Data Purchasing Dept.for the high-activity month, the low-activity month, Manager $ 1,600 $1,600 $ 23,400and the year for the purchasing and warehouse Clerks 1,750 1,250 18,000operations appear in the next column. Supplies 400 260 3,500 WarehouseThe annual charges for the warehouse totaled Supervisor 1,550 1,550 18,600$12,750 last year. In addition, the annual insurance Rcvg. clerks 2,200 1,700 20,500and property taxes on the candy stored in the Ship. clerks 2,800 2,500 31,200warehouse amounted to $1,500 and $2,250, Totals $10,300 $8,860 $115,200respectively. The average monthly inventory lastyear was $75,000.[163] Gleim #: 2.2 -- Source: CMA 686 5-29 (Refers to Fact Pattern #11) The incremental cost of placing an order that would be used in the EOQ model is A. $48 B. $35 C. $24 D. $19 Answer (A) is incorrect because $48 equals total annual cost divided by total orders from the previous year. Answer (B) is incorrect because $35 equals total annual cost minus the costs associated with the shipping clerks, divided by total orders from the previous year. Answer (C) is incorrect because $24 includes the costs associated with shipping. Answer (D) is correct. The incremental cost of additional orders equals the variable costs incurred in purchasing and receiving inventory (but not costs associated with shipping). Using the high-low method of analysis, these variable costs can be computed by determining the apparent variable costs for the two given levels of activity. For 160 orders, the relevant costs with a variable element include purchasing clerks, $1,750; supplies, $400; and receiving clerks, $2,200. The total is $4,350. For 100 orders, these costs are $1,250, $260, and $1,700, respectively, for a total of $3,210. As the number of orders increased by 60, the costs increased by $1,140. Consequently, the variable or incremental costs per order must have been $19 ($1,140 ÷ 60 orders).[164] Gleim #: 2.3 -- Source: CMA 686 5-30 (Refers to Fact Pattern #11) The annual carrying cost, stated as a percentage, that would be used in the EOQ model is A. 42% B. 37% C. 34% D. 22% Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 61 Printed for g j
  • 62. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. The annual carrying costs are $12,750 for the warehouse, $1,500 for insurance, and $2,250 for property taxes. These costs total $16,500. In addition, the company desires a 12% after-tax return on investments. Because the tax rate is 40%, the 12% after-tax return equals a 20% before-tax return (12% ÷ 60%). A 20% return on the $75,000 average investment in inventory is $15,000. Hence, the total carrying cost is $31,500 ($16,500 + $15,000). This amount is 42% of the $75,000 investment in inventory. Answer (B) is incorrect because 37% does not consider insurance and property taxes. Answer (C) is incorrect because 34% is based on a 12% before-tax return. Answer (D) is incorrect because 22% equals carrying costs other than return on investment divided by average inventory.[165] Gleim #: 2.4 -- Source: CMA 1290 4-9 The calculation of an economic order quantity (EOQ) considers A. The purchasing manager’s salary. B. A corporate charge for advertising expenses. C. The shipping costs to deliver the product to the customer. D. Capital costs. Answer (A) is incorrect because the purchasing manager’s salary is a fixed cost. The EOQ model includes variable costs only. Answer (B) is incorrect because advertising is not an ordering or carrying cost. Answer (C) is incorrect because the cost of shipping to customers is a selling expense. Answer (D) is correct. The determination of the economic order quantity balances the variable costs of ordering and carrying inventory. Factors in the equation include the cost of placing an order, unit carrying cost, and annual demand in units. Carrying costs include storage costs, handling costs, insurance, property taxes, obsolescence, and the opportunity cost of investing capital in inventory. Thus, the return on capital that is forgone when it is invested in inventory should be considered.[166] Gleim #: 2.5 -- Source: CMA 1294 4-8 A characteristic of the basic economic order quantity (EOQ) model is that it A. Is relatively insensitive to error. B. Should not be used when carrying costs are large in relation to procurement costs. C. Is used when product demand, lead-time, and ordering costs are uncertain. D. Should not be used in conjunction with computerized perpetual inventory systems. Answer (A) is correct. The basic EOQ model equals the square root of the quotient of (1) the product of twice the demand times the cost per order, (2) divided by the periodic carrying cost. Hence, the model is relatively insensitive to error. A given percentage error in a value results in a lower percentage change in the EOQ. Answer (B) is incorrect because the EOQ model can be used regardless of the relationship between carrying and holding costs. Answer (C) is incorrect because product demand and ordering costs must be known with some certainty. Answer (D) is incorrect because an EOQ model can be used with any type of system.[167] Gleim #: 2.6 -- Source: CMA 1294 4-6 Companies that adopt just-in-time purchasing systems often experience A. An increase in carrying costs. B. A reduction in the number of suppliers. C. A greater need for inspection of goods as the goods arrive. D. Less need for linkage with a vendor’s computerized order entry system. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 62 Printed for g j
  • 63. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because carrying costs typically decline in JIT companies. Less inventory is on hand. Answer (B) is correct. The objective of JIT is to reduce carrying costs by eliminating inventories and increasing the deliveries made by suppliers. Ideally, shipments of raw materials are received just in time to be incorporated into the manufacturing process. The focus of quality control under JIT is the prevention of quality problems. Quality control is shifted to the supplier. JIT companies typically do not inspect incoming goods; the assumption is that receipts are of perfect quality. Suppliers are limited to those who guarantee perfect quality and prompt delivery. Answer (C) is incorrect because in a JIT system, materials are delivered directly to the production line ready for insertion in the finished product. Answer (D) is incorrect because the need for communication with the vendor is greater. Orders and deliveries must be made on short notice, sometimes several times a day.[168] Gleim #: 2.7 -- Source: CIA 597 III-94 A manufacturing company is attempting to implement a just-in-time (JIT) purchase policy system by negotiating with its primary suppliers to accept long-term purchase orders which result in more frequent deliveries of smaller quantities of raw materials. If the JIT purchase policy is successful in reducing the total inventory costs of the manufacturing company, which of the following combinations of cost changes would be most likely to occur? Cost Category Cost Category to Increase to Decrease A. Purchasing costs Stockout costs B. Purchasing costs Quality costs C. Quality costs Ordering costs D. Stockout costs Carrying costs Answer (A) is incorrect because the supplier may seek a concession on the selling price that will raise purchasing costs, but the manufacturing company’s stockout costs will increase. Answer (B) is incorrect because the cost of quality is not necessarily affected by a JIT system. Answer (C) is incorrect because fewer purchase orders are processed by the manufacturer, so the ordering costs are likely to decrease. However, the cost of quality is not necessarily affected by a JIT system. Answer (D) is correct. The objective of a JIT system is to reduce carrying costs by eliminating inventories and increasing the deliveries made by suppliers. Ideally, shipments are received just in time to be incorporated into the manufacturing process. This system increases the risk of stockout costs because the inventory buffer is reduced or eliminated.[169] Gleim #: 2.8 -- Source: CMA 1288 5-22 Arnold Enterprises uses the EOQ model for inventory control. The company has an annual demand of 50,000 units for part number 191 and has computed an optimal lot size of 6,250 units. Per-unit carrying costs and stockout costs are $13 and $3, respectively. The following data have been gathered in an attempt to determine an appropriate safety stock level: Units Short Because of Number of Times Short Excess Demand During in the Last 40 the Lead Time Period Reorder Cycles 200 6 300 12 400 6 The annual cost of establishing a 200-unit safety stock is expected to be A. $2,600 B. $4,040 C. $4,260 D. $5,200 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 63 Printed for g j
  • 64. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because $2,600 is the annual carrying cost of 200 units of safety stock. Answer (B) is correct. The annual cost consists of the carrying cost of the 200 units of safety stock at $13 each, or $2,600, plus the stockout costs incurred when 200 units are insufficient. The stockout cost per unit is $3. The excess demand has been 100 units (300 – 200) greater than the proposed safety stock 30% of the time (12 ÷ 40). The cost per stockout was $300 ($3 × 100). Demand has exceeded the safety stock by 200 units (400 – 200) 15% of the time (6 ÷ 40). The cost per stockout was $600 ($3 × 200). Given 30% and 15% probabilities of $300 and $600 stockout costs, respectively, the expected stockout cost for a 200-unit safety stock is $180 per inventory cycle [(30% × $300) + (15% × $600)]. Given 8 cycles (50,000 units ÷ 6,250 EOQ), the annual cost of a 200-unit safety stock is therefore $4,040 [$2,600 + (8 × $180)]. Answer (C) is incorrect because $4,260 is the annual cost of establishing a 300-unit safety stock. Answer (D) is incorrect because $5,200 is the annual cost of establishing a 400-unit safety stock.[Fact Pattern #12]The diagram presented represents the economic order quantity (EOQ) model. (Refer to Figure CIA3_02_14.)[170] Gleim #: 2.9 -- Source: CMA 1289 5-16 (Refers to Fact Pattern #12) Which line segment represents the reorder lead time? A. AB. B. AE. C. AF. D. BC. Answer (A) is incorrect because AB is the time between receipt of the last order and the placing of the next order. Answer (B) is incorrect because AE is the safety stock. Answer (C) is incorrect because AF represents the quantity of inventory that will be used during the reorder lead time. Answer (D) is correct. The quantity of inventory on hand is represented by the y axis and time by the x axis. The reorder lead time is represented by the line segment BC.[171] Gleim #: 2.10 -- Source: CMA 1289 5-17 (Refers to Fact Pattern #12) Which line segment identifies the quantity of safety stock maintained? A. AB. B. AE. C. AC. D. BC. Answer (A) is incorrect because AB is the time between the receipt of the last order and the placing of the next order. Answer (B) is correct. Quantities of inventory are shown along the y axis. Safety stock is represented by the line AE. Answer (C) is incorrect because AC is the time to consume the EOQ. Answer (D) is incorrect because BC is the reorder lead time.[172] Gleim #: 2.11 -- Source: CMA 1289 5-18 (Refers to Fact Pattern #12) Which line segment represents the length of time to consume the total quantity of materials ordered? A. DE. B. BC. C. AC. D. AE. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 64 Printed for g j
  • 65. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because DE represents the total inventory on hand just after an order has been received. Answer (B) is incorrect because BC is the reorder lead time. Answer (C) is correct. Time is shown along the x axis. The line segment AC depicts the time to consume an entire order (to reduce the inventory to the safety stock). Answer (D) is incorrect because AE is the safety stock.[173] Gleim #: 2.12 -- Source: CMA 692 4-23 Each stockout of a product sold by A.W. Inn Co. costs $1,750 per occurrence. The carrying cost per unit of inventory is $5 per year, and the company orders 1,500 units of product 24 times a year at a cost of $100 per order. The probability of a stockout at various levels of safety stock is Units of Probability Safety Stock of a Stockout 0 .50 100 .30 200 .14 300 .05 400 .01 The optimal safety stock level for the company is A. 0 units. B. 100 units. C. 300 units. D. 400 units. Answer (A) is incorrect because a safety stock of 0 units has a total expected cost of $21,000. Answer (B) is incorrect because a safety stock of 100 units has a total expected cost of $13,100. Answer (C) is incorrect because a safety stock of 300 units has a total expected cost of $3,600. Answer (D) is correct. The total expected cost of safety stock equals the sum of the expected annual stockout cost and the expected annual carrying cost. Annual expected stockout cost equals the cost per occurrence ($1,750), times the probability of a stockout per cycle, times the number of cycles (24). Annual expected carrying cost of a safety stock equals the unit carrying cost ($5) times the number of units. Hence, a safety stock of 400 units has the lowest total expected cost. Expected Expected Total Units Carrying Stockout Cost Stockout Cost Expected Held Cost Per Cycle for 24 Cycles Cost 0 $ 0 $875.00 $21,000 $21,000 100 500 525.00 12,600 13,100 200 1,000 245.00 5,880 6,880 300 1,500 87.50 2,100 3,600 400 2,000 17.50 420 2,420[Fact Pattern #13]The Huron Corporation purchases 60,000 headbands per year. The average purchase lead time is 20 working days. Maximum leadtime is 27 working days. The corporation works 240 days per year.[174] Gleim #: 2.13 -- Source: CMA 1293 4-8 (Refers to Fact Pattern #13) Huron Corporation should carry safety stock of A. 5,000 units. B. 6,750 units. C. 1,750 units. D. 250 units. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 65 Printed for g j
  • 66. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because 5,000 units represents the quantity expected to be sold during the normal lead time. Answer (B) is incorrect because 6,750 units includes not only the safety stock but also the units expected to be sold during the normal lead time. Answer (C) is correct. Safety stock is defined as the amount of extra stock that is kept to guard against stockouts. It is the inventory level at the reorder point minus the expected usage during the lead time. Daily usage is 250 units (60,000 per year ÷ 240 days). Given a maximum lead time of 27 days and a normal lead time of 20 days, a safety stock for 7 days (27 – 20) should be maintained. Hence, safety stock is 1,750 units (7 × 250 units). Answer (D) is incorrect because 250 units is 1 day’s sales.[175] Gleim #: 2.14 -- Source: CMA 1293 4-9 (Refers to Fact Pattern #13) Huron Corporation should reorder headbands when the quantity in inventory reaches A. 5,000 units. B. 6,750 units. C. 1,750 units. D. 5,250 units. Answer (A) is incorrect because 5,000 units does not allow for safety stock. Answer (B) is correct. The reorder point is the quantity on hand when an order is placed. With a 20-day normal lead time, a 7-day safety stock, and usage of 250 units per day, an order should be placed when 27 days of inventory are on hand, a total of 6,750 units (27 × 250). Answer (C) is incorrect because 1,750 units covers only safety stock. Answer (D) is incorrect because 5,250 units includes only 1 day of safety stock.[Fact Pattern #14]Ryerson Computer Furniture Inc. (RCF) manufactures a line of office computer chairs. The annual demand for the chairs isestimated to be 5,000 units. The annual cost to hold one unit in inventory is $10 per year, and the cost to initiate a production runis $1,000. There are no computer chairs on hand, and RCF has scheduled four equal production runs of computer chairs for thecoming year, the first of which is to be run immediately. RCF has 250 business days per year, sales occur uniformly throughoutthe year, and production start-up is within one day. RCF is considering using the following formula for determining the economicorder quantity (EOQ):If: A = cost to initiate a production run per purchase order D = annual unit demand K = cost of carrying one unit per year[176] Gleim #: 2.15 -- Source: CMA 694 4-23 (Refers to Fact Pattern #14) The number of production runs per year of computer chairs that would minimize the sum of carrying and setup costs for the coming year is A. 1 B. 2 C. 4 D. 5 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 66 Printed for g j
  • 67. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because a single production run indicates an EOQ of 5,000 units. The carrying costs of $25,000 [$10 × ($5,000 ÷ 2)] would exceed the $1,000 of setup costs. Answer (B) is incorrect because two production runs correspond to an EOQ of 2,500 units and an average inventory of 1,250 units. The resulting $12,500 of carrying costs would exceed the $2,000 of setup costs. Answer (C) is incorrect because four production runs correspond to an EOQ of 1,250 units and an average inventory of 625 units. The resulting $6,250 of carrying costs would exceed the $4,000 of setup costs. Answer (D) is correct. The EOQ minimizes the sum of carrying and setup costs. The EOQ is the amount at which carrying costs are equal to setup costs. Thus, plugging the data into the EOQ formula results in the following: Thus, if each lot consists of 1,000 units, five production runs per year are needed to meet the 5,000-unit demand. At this level, setup costs will total $5,000 (5 × $1,000). Carrying costs will also equal $5,000 ($10 per unit carrying cost × average inventory of 500 units). Accordingly, total costs are minimized at $10,000.[177] Gleim #: 2.16 -- Source: CMA 694 4-22 (Refers to Fact Pattern #14) If RCF does not maintain a safety stock, the estimated total carrying costs for the computer chairs for the coming year based on their current schedule is A. $4,000 B. $5,000 C. $6,250 D. $12,500 Answer (A) is incorrect because the cost of maintaining an average inventory of 625 units is $6,250. Answer (B) is incorrect because $5,000 is based upon an EOQ of 1,000 units and an average inventory of 500 units. Answer (C) is correct. Given four production runs and an annual demand of 5,000 units, each production run must generate 1,250 units. Inventory will total 1,250 units at the completion of each run but will decline to zero just prior to the next run. Thus, the average inventory is 625 units (1,250 ÷ 2), and the total carrying cost is $6,250 ($10 × 625 units). Answer (D) is incorrect because $12,500 is based on the maximum inventory level.[178] Gleim #: 2.17 -- Source: CIA 596 IV-78 Which one of the graphs depicts the demand curve for prestige goods? A. (Refer to Figure CIA3_02_17.) B. (Refer to Figure CIA3_02_18.) C. (Refer to Figure CIA3_02_19.) D. (Refer to Figure CIA3_02_20.) Answer (A) is incorrect because this graph describes the familiar, negatively sloped relation between price charged and the resulting demand level for normal goods. Answer (B) is incorrect because the demand curve can be linear or curvilinear. Answer (C) is correct. Over some intermediate range of prices, the reaction to a price increase for prestige goods is an increase, not a decrease, in the quantity demanded. Within this range, the demand curve is upward sloping. The reason is that consumers interpret the higher price to indicate a better or more desirable product. Above some price level, the relation between price and quantity demanded will again become negatively sloped. Answer (D) is incorrect because this demand curve has the same basic shape as the demand curve for prestige goods, but it bends the wrong way. As prices increase, quantity demanded first falls and then rises in this graph. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 67 Printed for g j
  • 68. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[179] Gleim #: 2.18 -- Source: CIA 1194 IV-78 Buyer-based pricing involves A. Adding a standard markup to the cost of the product. B. Determining the price at which the product will earn a target profit. C. Basing prices on the product’s perceived value. D. Basing prices on competitors’ prices. Answer (A) is incorrect because adding a standard markup to the cost of the product is cost-plus pricing. Answer (B) is incorrect because determining the price at which the product will earn a target profit is target profit pricing. Answer (C) is correct. Buyer-based pricing involves basing prices on the product’s perceived value rather than on the seller’s cost. Nonprice variables in the marketing mix augment the perceived value. For example, a cup of coffee may have a higher price at an expensive restaurant than at a fast-food outlet. Answer (D) is incorrect because basing prices on competitors’ prices is going-rate pricing.[180] Gleim #: 2.19 -- Source: CIA 1194 IV-79 Market-skimming pricing strategies could be appropriate when A. No buyers want the product at a high price. B. The costs of producing a small volume are low. C. Competitors can easily enter the market. D. The product is of poor quality. Answer (A) is incorrect because, if no buyers want the product at a high price, this marketing strategy is inappropriate. Answer (B) is correct. Market-skimming pricing is used when a new product is introduced at the highest price possible given the benefits of the product. For market skimming to work, the product must appear to be worth its price, the costs of producing a small volume cannot be so high that they eliminate the advantage of charging more, and competitors cannot enter the market and undercut the price. Answer (C) is incorrect because, if competitors can easily enter the market, they can undercut the price. Answer (D) is incorrect because the product quality and image must support a high price.[181] Gleim #: 2.20 -- Source: CIA 595 IV-74 Which of the following pricing policies involves the selling company setting freight charges to customers at the actual average freight cost? A. Freight absorption pricing. B. Uniform delivered pricing. C. Zone pricing. D. FOB-origin pricing. Answer (A) is incorrect because, in freight absorption pricing, the selling company absorbs all or part of the actual freight charges. Customers are not charged actual delivery costs. Answer (B) is correct. In uniform delivered pricing, the company charges the same price, inclusive of shipping costs, to all customers regardless of their location. This price is the company’s average actual freight cost. Thus, both nearby and distant customers are charged the same amount. This policy is easy to administer, permits the company to advertise one price nationwide, and facilitates marketing to faraway customers. Answer (C) is incorrect because, in zone pricing, differential freight charges are set for customers on the basis of their location. Customers are not charged actual average freight costs. Answer (D) is incorrect because, in FOB-origin pricing, each customer pays its actual freight costs.[182] Gleim #: 2.21 -- Source: CIA 1195 IV-75 Which of the following price adjustment strategies is designed to stabilize production for the selling firm? A. Cash discounts. B. Quantity discounts. C. Functional discounts. D. Seasonal discounts. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 68 Printed for g j
  • 69. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because cash discounts encourage prompt payment. Answer (B) is incorrect because quantity discounts encourage large volume purchases. Answer (C) is incorrect because functional or trade discounts are provided to channel members in return for the performance of certain functions, such as selling, storing, and record keeping. Answer (D) is correct. Seasonal discounts are designed to smooth production by the selling firm. For example, a ski manufacturer offers seasonal discounts to retailers in the spring and summer to encourage early ordering.[183] Gleim #: 2.22 -- Source: CIA 1195 IV-76 In which product-mix pricing strategy is it appropriate for the seller to accept any price that exceeds the storage and delivery costs for the product? A. By-product pricing. B. Optional-product pricing. C. Captive-product pricing. D. Product-bundle pricing. Answer (A) is correct. A by-product is a product of relatively minor importance generated during the production of one or more other products. Its production entails no additional costs. Any amount received above the storage and delivery costs for a by-product allows the seller to reduce the main product’s price to make it more competitive. Answer (B) is incorrect because optional products are offered for sale along with the main product. They are unlikely to have a zero production cost, so the seller must receive a price above their storage and delivery costs. Answer (C) is incorrect because captive products must be used along with the main product, such as film for use with a camera. Sellers often make their profits on the captive products rather than on the main product, which is sold at a low price. The captive products therefore will be priced well above the storage and delivery costs. Answer (D) is incorrect because product bundles are combinations of products sold together at a reduced price, such as season tickets for a theater. Products are bundled to promote the sale of certain items that consumers might not otherwise purchase. The combined price of the bundle must be low enough to encourage consumers to buy the bundle but must recover production costs and provide some profit for the seller, so the price must exceed storage and delivery costs.[184] Gleim #: 2.23 -- Source: CMA 1296 4-6 Several surveys point out that most managers use full product costs, including unit fixed costs and unit variable costs, in developing cost-based pricing. Which one of the following is least associated with cost-based pricing? A. Price stability. B. Price justification. C. Target pricing. D. Fixed-cost recovery. Answer (A) is incorrect because full-cost pricing promotes price stability. It limits the ability to cut prices. Answer (B) is incorrect because full-cost pricing provides evidence that the company is not violating antitrust laws against predatory pricing. Answer (C) is correct. A target price is the expected market price of a product, given the company’s knowledge of its customers and competitors. Hence, under target pricing, the sales price is known before the product is developed. Subtracting the unit target profit margin determines the long-term unit target cost. If cost-cutting measures do not permit the product to be made at or below the target cost, it will be abandoned. Answer (D) is incorrect because full-cost pricing has the advantage of recovering the full long-term costs of the product. In the long term, all costs are relevant.[185] Gleim #: 2.24 -- Source: Publisher If a U.S. manufacturer’s price in the U.S. market is below an appropriate measure of costs and the seller has a reasonable prospect of recovering the resulting loss in the future through higher prices or a greater market share, the seller has engaged in A. Collusive pricing. B. Dumping. C. Predatory pricing. D. Price discrimination. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 69 Printed for g j
  • 70. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because collusive pricing involves a conspiracy to set higher prices. Answer (B) is incorrect because dumping is defined under U.S. law as sale by a non-U.S. company in the U.S. market of a product below its market value in the country where it was produced. Such sale is illegal if it threatens material injury to a U.S. industry. Answer (C) is correct. Predatory pricing is intentionally pricing below cost to eliminate competition and reduce supply. Federal statutes and many state laws prohibit the practice. The U.S. Supreme Court has held that pricing is predatory when two conditions are met: (1) the seller’s price is below “an appropriate measure of its costs,” and (2) it has a reasonable prospect of recovering the resulting loss through higher prices or greater market share. Answer (D) is incorrect because price discrimination entails charging different prices to different customers for essentially the same product if the effect is to lessen competition substantially; to tend to create a monopoly; or to injure, destroy, or prevent competition.[186] Gleim #: 2.25 -- Source: Publisher Fulford Company applies the target pricing and costing approach. The following information about costs and revenues of Fulford’s product are available for the year just ended: Unit sales 60,000 Unit selling price $ 400 Cost of goods sold 13,200,000 Value-chain operating costs excluding production 7,920,000 Fulford plans to increase unit sales to 80,000 by reducing the product’s unit price to $320. If Fulford desires a unit target operating income of 12%, by what amount must it reduce the full cost per unit? A. $32.00 B. $38.40 C. $70.40 D. $80.00 Answer (A) is incorrect because $32.00 equals the current full cost per unit minus the new unit target price. Answer (B) is incorrect because $38.40 is the unit target operating income. Answer (C) is correct. Unit target operating income is $38.40 (12% × $320 unit target price). Hence, the unit target full cost is $281.60 ($320 – $38.40). The current full cost per unit is $352.00 [($13,200,000 CGS + $7,920,000 other value chain operating costs) ÷ 60,000 units sold], so the necessary reduction in the full cost per unit is $70.40 ($352.00 – $281.60). Answer (D) is incorrect because $80.00 equals the change in the unit price.[187] Gleim #: 2.26 -- Source: Publisher A company’s product has an expected 4-year life cycle from research, development, and design through its withdrawal from the market. Budgeted costs are Upstream costs (R&D, design) $2,000,000 Manufacturing costs 3,000,000 Downstream costs (marketing, distribution, customer service) 1,200,000 After-purchase costs 1,000,000 The company plans to produce 200,000 units and price the product at 125% of the whole-life unit cost. Thus, the budgeted unit selling price is A. $15 B. $31 C. $36 D. $45 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 70 Printed for g j
  • 71. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because $15 is the budgeted unit manufacturing cost. Answer (B) is incorrect because $31 is the budgeted unit life-cycle cost. Answer (C) is incorrect because $36 is the budgeted unit whole-life cost. Answer (D) is correct. Whole-life costs include after-purchase costs (operating, support, repair, and disposal) incurred by customers as well as life-cycle costs (R&D, design, manufacturing, marketing, distribution, and research). Hence, the budgeted unit whole-life cost is $36 [($2,000,000 + $3,000,000 + $1,200,000 + $1,000,000) ÷ 200,000 units], and the budgeted unit selling price is $45 (125% × $36).[188] Gleim #: 2.27 -- Source: CMA 696 1-20 The protected group under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, as amended, is defined as anyone in which age group? A. 35 through 60. B. 40 through 75. C. 40 and older. D. 45 and older. Answer (A) is incorrect because the act provides protection for individuals who are aged 40 and older. Answer (B) is incorrect because the act provides protection for individuals who are aged 40 and older. Answer (C) is correct. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act is designed to protect individuals aged 40 and older from employment discrimination. The act has been amended to eliminate the mandatory retirement age. However, certain managerial employees are not protected by this amendment. Answer (D) is incorrect because the act provides protection for individuals who are aged 40 and older.[189] Gleim #: 2.28 -- Source: Publisher Evaluating performance is not done to A. Determine the amount of nondiscriminatory benefits that each employee deserves. B. Assess the available human resources of the firm. C. Motivate the employees. D. Determine which employees deserve salary increases. Answer (A) is correct. There are many reasons for evaluating performance. Evaluations reinforce accomplishments, help in assessing employee strengths and weaknesses, provide motivation, assist in employee development, permit the organization to assess its human resource needs, and serve as a basis for wage increases. Nondiscriminatory benefits are given to everyone in the organization in equal amounts regardless of title, pay, or achievement of objectives. Answer (B) is incorrect because it is a purpose of a performance evaluation. Answer (C) is incorrect because it is a purpose of a performance evaluation. Answer (D) is incorrect because it is a purpose of a performance evaluation.[190] Gleim #: 2.29 -- Source: Publisher When a manager generalizes from the evaluation of one or a few traits to the employee’s total performance, (s)he has made A. A judgmental evaluation. B. An evaluation subject to the halo effect. C. A projection. D. An objective evaluation. Answer (A) is incorrect because a judgmental evaluation is based on nonverifiable, subjective criteria. Answer (B) is correct. The halo effect occurs when the appraiser judges one or a few employee traits and carries over this judgment to the evaluation of the employee’s other traits. The halo effect can be positive or negative. Answer (C) is incorrect because projection is the process of attributing one’s own traits to another person. Answer (D) is incorrect because an objective evaluation uses verifiable, often quantitative criteria.[191] Gleim #: 2.30 -- Source: CIA 596 II-33 A manager discovers by chance that a newly hired employee has strong beliefs that are very different from the manager’s and from those of most of the other employees. The manager’s best course of action would be to Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 71 Printed for g j
  • 72. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Facilitate the reassignment of the new hire as quickly as possible before this situation becomes disruptive. B. Ask the rest of the team for their reaction and act according to the group consensus. C. Take no action unless the new hire’s behavior is likely to cause harm to the organization. D. Try to counsel the new hire into more reasonable beliefs. Answer (A) is incorrect because personal beliefs alone are not an appropriate basis for managerial action. Answer (B) is incorrect because personal beliefs alone are not an appropriate basis for managerial action. Answer (C) is correct. The only legitimate grounds on which the supervisor may take action is the employee’s behavior. Personal beliefs, such as those on religious and political matters, cannot be the basis of personnel actions. Discrimination on the basis of personal beliefs could expose the organization to legal action. Answer (D) is incorrect because personal beliefs alone are not an appropriate basis for managerial action.[192] Gleim #: 2.31 -- Source: Publisher A company allows each of its departments to develop its own system for evaluating performance. Linda Ward, the personnel director, should communicate appraisal information to a new employee by A. Presenting anything that is pertinent to the listener’s situation. B. Providing an overview of all systems within the company. C. Describing how her own performance is evaluated. D. Discussing each department’s evaluation system in detail. Answer (A) is correct. The personnel director should tailor the discussion to the listener by describing how the employee’s department evaluates performance and what is expected of him/her. The director should also obtain feedback from the employee to determine if everything is clearly understood. Answer (B) is incorrect because discussing information that is irrelevant to the new employee’s appraisal information would confuse the new employee. Answer (C) is incorrect because discussing information that is irrelevant to the new employee’s appraisal information would confuse the new employee. Answer (D) is incorrect because discussing information that is irrelevant to the new employee’s appraisal information would confuse the new employee.[193] Gleim #: 2.32 -- Source: Publisher A disadvantage of separating performance evaluations from wage-increase decisions is that A. Not enough emphasis is placed on short-run performance. B. Financial rewards may lose their motivational effect. C. Employees may not be motivated by good appraisals. D. The employee’s performance evaluation does not consider the financial status of the company overall. Answer (A) is incorrect because an advantage of separating appraisals from wage increases is that more emphasis is placed on long-term objectives and goals. Answer (B) is incorrect because this separation does not deprive money of its motivational power, but it does emphasize other rewards, such as feelings of achievement and the recognition of superiors. Answer (C) is correct. The employee may not be motivated immediately by a good appraisal because of the delay in receipt of any monetary reward. The evaluation may also not be taken as seriously by the employee if compensation is not correlated with performance. Answer (D) is incorrect because an advantage of separating performance evaluations from wage-increase decisions is that the employee’s good performance can be separated from the overall company’s bad financial performance.[194] Gleim #: 2.33 -- Source: Publisher A company that wishes to improve its rate of retention of its experienced employees might A. Abolish its hire-from-within policy. B. Improve its fringe benefit package. C. Initiate job simplification programs. D. Set a mandatory retirement age. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 72 Printed for g j
  • 73. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because reduced opportunity for advancement may motivate employees to find jobs elsewhere. Answer (B) is correct. Fringe benefits (e.g., pensions and profit-sharing plans) may be contingent on duration of employment. Accordingly, they motivate employees to remain with the company. Answer (C) is incorrect because job simplification may result in boredom, lessened job satisfaction, and a higher turnover rate. Answer (D) is incorrect because abolition of a mandatory retirement age would be more appropriate.[195] Gleim #: 2.34 -- Source: Publisher A company that formerly paid certain management employees on a salary plus commission basis decided to compensate a test group solely with commissions. Performance of these employees declined. The most likely explanation for this result is that A. The employee received special attention. B. Compensation was a motivational factor. C. Compensation was not a hygiene factor. D. Increased concerns about security made the employees risk averse. Answer (A) is incorrect because the famous Hawthorne studies suggest that the employees’ knowledge of their special status would improve their output. Answer (B) is incorrect because Herzberg defines a motivational factor as one whose absence will not diminish performance but whose presence will be a motivator. Answer (C) is incorrect because a performance decline followed a reduction in the security of compensation; hence, money was probably a hygiene (maintenance) factor according to Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation. Answer (D) is correct. A straight salary with commissions rewarded increased efforts while providing greater security and a reduction in anxiety. Satisfaction of the need for security may have permitted the employees to adopt promising and profitable but more risky strategies. Since people concerned about security needs tend to be risk averse, the change in compensation method probably caused the performance decline.[196] Gleim #: 2.35 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-22 The human resource department of an organization observed that accounting staff turnover was unusually high. Exit interviews indicated that the accounting department work schedule was highly restrictive for accountants who had young children. To improve the retention of skilled employees in the accounting department, the best solution would be to A. Implement a program of job rotation within the accounting department. B. Promote job enlargement for the positions experiencing the greatest turnover. C. Provide job sharing and flextime opportunities for accounting department employees. D. Enrich the jobs of accounting department employees. Answer (A) is incorrect because job rotation would not adequately address the scheduling issue. Answer (B) is incorrect because job enlargement would not adequately address the scheduling issue. Answer (C) is correct. Job sharing and flextime allow employees to adjust their work schedules and hours to better achieve personal objectives. These programs can increase worker loyalty and motivation. Answer (D) is incorrect because job enrichment would not adequately address the scheduling issue.[197] Gleim #: 2.36 -- Source: Publisher The factor that would not contribute to retention of experienced employees would be A. Initiation of job enrichment programs. B. Adherence to federal regulations regarding sex discrimination in paying and promoting workers. C. Paying new employees more than older ones. D. Adoption of flextime rules. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 73 Printed for g j
  • 74. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because a more intrinsically satisfying job will improve the retention rate. Answer (B) is incorrect because employees subject to discrimination may be strongly motivated to find other jobs. Answer (C) is correct. When old employees discover that newcomers are being hired at higher salaries, the group hired first will be unhappy, feeling that their greater experience should warrant greater reward. In the short run, the newcomers will be satisfied. But it is possible that next year’s newcomers will be hired at still higher salaries, contributing to the overall dissatisfaction. Thus, such a policy will provide incentives for experienced workers to leave the company. Answer (D) is incorrect because greater freedom in determining his/her hours may enable a worker to remain with the company when other responsibilities (e.g., child care) might have compelled him/her to leave.[198] Gleim #: 2.37 -- Source: Publisher The value of retaining employees is determined by A. Human asset accounting. B. Financial accounting. C. Cost accounting. D. Human resource planning. Answer (A) is correct. Human resource or human asset accounting attempts to measure the value, and the changes in value, of the organization’s investment in human assets. Although this “asset” is enormously valuable (sometimes estimated at two or three times the annual payroll), it is not shown in balance sheets or accounted for in earnings statements. One experimental measurement approach is a sort of “present value” of human resources. Another is a “cost” approach, with dollar investments (training, customer goodwill, etc.) offset by reductions (e.g., retirement). Answer (B) is incorrect because this traditional accounting method does not value the organization’s human assets. Answer (C) is incorrect because this traditional accounting method does not value the organization’s human assets. Answer (D) is incorrect because it merely audits the skills of the current employees and forecasts needs.[199] Gleim #: 2.38 -- Source: Publisher An employee with a good background and years of experience earns a salary at the top of his/her range. Under the company’s compensation program, the employee must earn a promotion in order to increase his/her salary above the usual annual increase. Which of the following is most likely to be an effect on his/her behavior? A. The employee may refuse new duties or tasks. B. The employee may become less productive. C. The employee may not be motivated to improve performance. D. The employee may seek a position with another company. Answer (A) is incorrect because this behavior would undermine the employee’s chance for a promotion. Answer (B) is incorrect because this behavior would undermine the employee’s chance for a promotion. Answer (C) is incorrect because this behavior would undermine the employee’s chance for a promotion. Answer (D) is correct. When an employee can earn a desired salary increase only through a promotion, (s)he is likely to be motivated to perform better. If this does not result in a promotion, (s)he will probably look for another job.[200] Gleim #: 2.39 -- Source: Publisher A company’s compensation program does not allow for salary increases based on above-average performance after an employee reaches the top of a position’s salary range. It also pays some employees higher salaries because of their educational qualifications. This company could improve the program by A. Allowing each manager to set up his/her own system of salary increases. B. Providing only monetary compensation. C. Developing a system that equates years of experience with education. D. Decreasing the annual percentage increase in each salary range. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 74 Printed for g j
  • 75. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the company should administer a uniform system of salary increases. Answer (B) is incorrect because the company could improve its system if it provided other compensation, such as assisting with an employee’s tuition or recognizing an employee who has given many years of service. Answer (C) is correct. A company with a compensation program that stops rewarding above-average performance at the top of each salary range and rewards education with higher compensation could improve the system in several ways. These include starting a bonus program for above-average performance, refusing to hire a person at the top of a salary range unless (s)he will be promoted quickly, and equating experience and education so that employees are treated fairly. Answer (D) is incorrect because the company would please all employees by increasing this percentage.[201] Gleim #: 2.40 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following methods of employee evaluation is best used in a situation where employees are heavily involved in teamwork? A. 360-degree performance appraisal. B. Attribution method. C. Critical incident technique. D. Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS). Answer (A) is correct. The 360-degree performance appraisal is a model for employee assessment in the age of teamwork. It is based on giving workers feedback from peers, customers, supervisors, and those who work for the employee. Feedback is typically provided anonymously and is usually subjective. Answer (B) is incorrect because this is a nonsense term. Answer (C) is incorrect because the critical incident technique is based on having a list of critical aspects of a job against which to compare the employee’s performance; it would usually not be effective in a team situation. Answer (D) is incorrect because BARS is based on specific job-related behaviors.[202] Gleim #: 2.41 -- Source: Publisher If a supervisor fails to give an employee a negative evaluation because of fear of damaging a good working relationship, this is known as the A. Leniency error. B. Recency effect. C. Halo effect. D. Contrast error. Answer (A) is correct. A leniency error is when a manager fails to give a negative evaluation because of fear of damaging a good working relationship with an employee. Answer (B) is incorrect because the recency effect means that the employee’s most recent behavior overshadows overall performance. Answer (C) is incorrect because the halo effect means the manager’s judgment on one positive trait affects the rating on other traits. Answer (D) is incorrect because a contrast error is the tendency to rate people relative to other people, without consideration of performance standards.[203] Gleim #: 2.42 -- Source: CIA 591 III-11 During an audit of the personnel function, it was noted that numerous questions were asked of potential hirees. Which of the following questions would normally be appropriate when interviewing an inexperienced person applying for an entry- level internal auditing position? A. How have you kept up your internal auditing education? B. What kind of reports have you written in previous jobs? C. What are your career goals? D. What is your marital status? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 75 Printed for g j
  • 76. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the inexperienced applicant may have just finished his/her education. Thus, continuing education may not be relevant. Answer (B) is incorrect because the applicant is inexperienced and thus may not have written reports in previous jobs. Answer (C) is correct. Sawyer’s Internal Auditing (IIA, 1988. p. 791) suggests the following questions for inexperienced candidates: What is your concept of internal auditing? How did you hear about it? Why do you think you’d like it? What kinds of assignments would you like best? What are your outside interests? What are your personal goals? Answer (D) is incorrect because federal law prohibits asking about marital status.[204] Gleim #: 2.43 -- Source: CIA 1192 III-10 When faced with the problem of filling a newly created or recently vacated executive position, organizations must decide whether to promote from within or to hire an outsider. One of the disadvantages of promoting from within is that A. Internal promotions can have negative motivational effect on the employees of the firm. B. Internal promotions are more expensive to the organization than hiring an outsider. C. It is difficult to identify proven performers among internal candidates. D. Hiring an insider leads to the possibility of social inbreeding within the firm. Answer (A) is incorrect because internal promotions usually lead to increased motivation among employees. Answer (B) is incorrect because internal promotions are less expensive. The firm can avoid the expenses associated with an executive search and certain training costs. Answer (C) is incorrect because it is more difficult to identify proven performers from among outside candidates than internal candidates. Answer (D) is correct. Hiring an internal candidate can lead to social inbreeding. Many firms look to external candidates for certain jobs because they bring a fresh perspective to the organization’s problems and may have more up-to-date training or education.[205] Gleim #: 2.44 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-80 The airlines have been leaders in the use of technology. Customers can make reservations either with an airline or through a travel agency. In this situation, a travel agency is classified as which type of distribution channel? A. An intermediary. B. A jobber. C. A distributor. D. A facilitating agent. Answer (A) is correct. Marketing intermediaries assist companies in promoting, selling, and distributing their goods and services to ultimate consumers. For example, travel agents access an airline’s computerized reservation system and make reservations for their customers without ever taking title to the ticket. Answer (B) is incorrect because jobbers buy from manufacturers, then resell the products. Answer (C) is incorrect because distributors, or wholesalers, usually have selective or exclusive distribution rights. Answer (D) is incorrect because facilitating agents assist in functions other than buying, selling, or transferring title.[206] Gleim #: 2.45 -- Source: CIA 595 III-32 Just-in-time (JIT) inventory systems have been adopted by large manufacturers to minimize the carrying costs of inventories. Identify the primary vulnerability of JIT systems. A. Computer resources. B. Materials supply contracts. C. Work stoppages. D. Implementation time. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 76 Printed for g j
  • 77. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because JIT systems can require significant computer resources, but they can also be maintained manually. Answer (B) is incorrect because contracts may have to be renegotiated with strict delivery and quality specifications, but these changes usually occur over extended periods. Answer (C) is correct. JIT minimizes inventory by relying on coordination with suppliers to provide deliveries when they are needed for production. Consequently, work stoppages at suppliers or transportation disruptions can cause almost immediate work stoppages at the manufacturer plant. Answer (D) is incorrect because JIT can be implemented over an extended period or a shorter time frame depending on the manufacturer’s immediate needs.[207] Gleim #: 2.46 -- Source: CIA 596 III-98 A company manufactures banana hooks for retail sale. The bill of material for this item and the parts inventory for each material required are as follows: Bill of Materials Raw Material Quantity Required On Hand Wooden neck 1 0 Wooden base 1 0 Swag hook 1 300 Wood screws 2 400 Foot pads 4 1,000 An incoming order calls for delivery of 2,000 banana hooks in 2 weeks. The company has 200 finished banana hooks in current inventory. If no safety stocks are required for inventory, what are the company’s net requirements for swag hooks and screws needed to fill this order? Swag Hooks Wood Screws A. 1,500 1,400 B. 1,500 3,200 C. 1,700 3,600 D. 1,800 3,600 Answer (A) is incorrect because 1,400 wood screws assumes that one wood screw is used per banana hook. Answer (B) is correct. The company needs 1,800 banana hooks (2,000 – 200) and therefore 1,800 swag hooks (1 × 1,800) and 3,600 wood screws (2 × 1,800). Given that 300 swag hooks and 400 wood screws are on hand, the company must obtain 1,500 swag hooks (1,800 – 300) and 3,200 wood screws (3,600 – 400). Answer (C) is incorrect because 1,700 swag hooks and 3,600 wood screws would be needed if no banana hooks were in current inventory. Answer (D) is incorrect because 1,800 swag hooks would be needed if no swag hooks were in current inventory. Also, 3,600 wood screws would be needed if no banana hooks were in current inventory.[208] Gleim #: 2.47 -- Source: CIA 594 III-66 The purpose of the economic order quantity model is to: A. Minimize the safety stock. B. Minimize the sum of the order costs and the holding costs. C. Minimize the inventory quantities. D. Minimize the sum of the demand costs and the backlog costs. Answer (A) is incorrect because the basic EOQ model does not include safety stock. Answer (B) is correct. The purpose of the EOQ model is to minimize the sum of inventory order costs and holding costs. The EOQ equals the square root of: twice the annual demand multiplied by the variable cost per order, divided by the unit periodic holding cost. Answer (C) is incorrect because, in the EOQ model, costs, not quantities, are to be minimized. Answer (D) is incorrect because quantity demanded is a variable in the model, but order costs, not demand costs, are relevant. Backlogs are customer orders that cannot be filled immediately because of stockouts. Backlog costs are not quantified in the model. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 77 Printed for g j
  • 78. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[209] Gleim #: 2.48 -- Source: CIA 593 III-70 Which of the following is used in determining the economic order quantity (EOQ)? A. Regression analysis. B. Calculus. C. Markov process. D. Queuing theory. Answer (A) is incorrect because regression analysis is used to fit a linear trend line to a dependent variable based on one or more independent variables. Answer (B) is correct. The primary business application of differential calculus is to identify the maxima or minima of curvilinear functions. In business and economics, these are the points of revenue or profit maximization (maxima) or cost minimization (minima). The EOQ results from differentiating the total cost with regard to order quantity. Answer (C) is incorrect because Markov process models are used to study the evolution of certain systems over repeated trials. Answer (D) is incorrect because queuing theory is a waiting-line technique used to balance desirable service levels against the cost of providing more service.[210] Gleim #: 2.49 -- Source: CIA 590 III-45 The EOQ (economic order quantity) model calculates the cost-minimizing quantity of a product to order, based on a constant annual demand, carrying costs per unit per annum, and cost per order. For example, the EOQ is approximately 447 units if the annual demand is 10,000 units, carrying costs are 1 currency unit per item per annum, and the cost of placing an order is $10. What will the EOQ be if the demand falls to 5,000 units per annum and the carrying and ordering costs remain at $1 and $10, respectively? A. 316 B. 447 C. 483 D. 500 Answer (A) is correct. The EOQ formula is If: D is the demand, or number of units used per year. A is the cost of placing one order. K is the cost of carrying one item for 1 year. Answer (B) is incorrect because 447 is the EOQ when demand is 10,000 units per year. Answer (C) is incorrect because 483 results when annual demand is 11,664 units. Answer (D) is incorrect because 500 results when annual demand is 12,500 units.[211] Gleim #: 2.50 -- Source: CIA 1190 III-42 A company stocks, maintains, and distributes inventory. The company decides to add to the safety stock and expedite delivery for several product lines on a trial basis. For the selected product lines the company will experience A. An increase in some costs but no change in the service level. B. A change in the service level. C. An increase in ordering, carrying, and delivery costs. D. A decrease in ordering, carrying, and delivery costs. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 78 Printed for g j
  • 79. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because service will improve. Answer (B) is correct. Safety stocks are amounts held in excess of forecasted demand to avoid the losses associated with stockouts. Holding safety stocks improves the level of service to customers at the expense of increased holding costs. Answer (C) is incorrect because ordering costs will not increase. The fixed costs of the ordering department will be unaffected. Also, the department’s variable costs should not change because the EOQ will be the same. However, in the first year, an additional order may be necessary to increase the safety stock. Answer (D) is incorrect because delivery will increase under the new expedited delivery policy. Moreover, increasing the safety stock increases carrying costs.[212] Gleim #: 2.51 -- Source: CIA 1193 IV-26 Which of the following inventory items would be the most frequently reviewed in an ABC inventory control system? A. Expensive, frequently used, high stock-out cost items with short lead times. B. Expensive, frequently used, low stock-out cost items with long lead times. C. Inexpensive, frequently used, high stock-out cost items with long lead times. D. Expensive, frequently used, high stock-out cost items with long lead times. Answer (A) is incorrect because long, not short, lead times prompt a more frequent review. Answer (B) is incorrect because high, not low, stockout costs prompt a more frequent review. Answer (C) is incorrect because expensive, not inexpensive, items prompt a more frequent review. Answer (D) is correct. The ABC system is a method for controlling inventories that divides inventory items into three groups: Group A -- high-dollar value items, which account for a small portion (perhaps 10%) of the total inventory usage Group B -- medium-dollar value items, which may account for about 20% of the total inventory items Group C -- low-dollar value items, which account for the remaining 70% of sales or usage The ABC system permits the proper degree of managerial control to be identified and exercised over each group. Group A items are reviewed on a regular basis. Group B items may not have to be reviewed as often as group A items, but more often than group C items. For group C, extensive use of models and records is not cost effective. It is cheaper to order large quantities infrequently. The ABC method therefore reduces the safety-stock investment because high-value items are frequently monitored and medium-value items are monitored more often than inexpensive items. Frequent review can prevent stockouts and decrease inventory levels, and the cost of such review is minimized if it is limited to high- or medium-value items.[213] Gleim #: 2.52 -- Source: CIA 1193 IV-25 The company uses a planning system that focuses first on the amount and timing of finished goods demanded and then determines the derived demand for raw material, components, and subassemblies at each of the prior stages of production. This system is referred to as A. Economic order quantity. B. Materials requirements planning. C. Linear programming. D. Just-in-time purchasing. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 79 Printed for g j
  • 80. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the economic order quantity is a decision model that focuses on the trade-off between carrying and ordering costs. Answer (B) is correct. Materials requirements planning (MRP) is usually a computer-based information system designed to plan and control raw materials used in a production setting. It assumes that estimated demand for materials is reasonably accurate and that suppliers can deliver based upon this accurate schedule. It is crucial that delivery delays be avoided because, under MRP, production delays are almost unavoidable if the materials are not on hand. An MRP system uses a parts list, often called a bill of materials, and lead times for each type of material to obtain materials just as they are needed for planned production. Answer (C) is incorrect because linear programming is a decision model concerned with allocating scarce resources to maximize profit or minimize costs. Answer (D) is incorrect because just-in-time purchasing involves the purchase of goods such that delivery immediately precedes demand or use.[214] Gleim #: 2.53 -- Source: CIA 592 III-62 An inventory planning method that minimizes inventories by arranging to have raw materials and subcomponents arrive immediately preceding their use is called A. A safety stock planning system. B. An economic order quantity model. C. A just-in-time inventory system. D. A master budgeting system. Answer (A) is incorrect because safety stock is the inventory maintained in order to reduce the number of stockouts resulting from higher-than-expected demand during lead time. Answer (B) is incorrect because the economic order quantity is the order quantity that minimizes total inventory costs. Answer (C) is correct. JIT is a manufacturing philosophy popularized by the Japanese that combines purchasing, production, and inventory control. As with MRP, minimization of inventory is a goal; however, JIT also encompasses changes in the production process itself. An emphasis on quality and a “pull” of materials related to demand are key differences between JIT and MRP. The factory is organized so as to bring materials and tools close to the point of use rather than keeping them in storage areas. A key element of the JIT system is reduction or elimination of waste of materials, labor, factory space, and machine usage. Minimizing inventory is the key to reducing waste. When a part is needed on the production line, it arrives just in time, not before. Daily deliveries from suppliers are the ultimate objective, and some Japanese users have been able to get twice-daily deliveries. Answer (D) is incorrect because the master budget is the detailed financial plan for the next period.[215] Gleim #: 2.54 -- Source: CIA 595 III-98 One of the elements included in the economic order quantity (EOQ) formula is A. Safety stock. B. Yearly demand. C. Selling price of item. D. Lead time for delivery. Answer (A) is incorrect because the safety stock is not included in the basic EOQ formula. Answer (B) is correct. The basic EOQ formula is used to minimize the total of inventory carrying and ordering costs. The basic EOQ equals the square root of a fraction consisting of a numerator equal to the product of twice the unit periodic demand and the variable cost per order and a denominator equal to the unit periodic carrying cost. Answer (C) is incorrect because the selling price of the item is not included in the basic EOQ formula. Answer (D) is incorrect because the lead time for delivery is not included in the basic EOQ formula.[Fact Pattern #15]Using an EOQ analysis (assuming a constant demand), it is determined that the optimal order quantity is 2,500. The companydesires a safety stock of 500 units. A five-day lead time is needed for delivery. Annual inventory holding costs equal 25% of theaverage inventory level. It costs the company $4 per unit to buy the product, which it sells for $8. It costs the company $150 toplace a detailed order, and the monthly demand for the product is 4,000 units.[216] Gleim #: 2.55 -- Source: CIA 595 III-99 (Refers to Fact Pattern #15) Annual inventory holding costs equal Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 80 Printed for g j
  • 81. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. $750 B. $1,250 C. $1,750 D. $2,250 Answer (A) is incorrect because $750 results from subtracting instead of adding the cost of holding safety stock. Answer (B) is incorrect because $1,250 ignores safety stock. Answer (C) is correct. Given that demand is constant and the EOQ is 2,500 units, the average inventory level without regard to safety stock is 1,250 units (2,500 ÷ 2). Adding safety stock results in an average level of 1,750 units (1,250 + 500). Given also that annual holding costs are 25% of average inventory and that unit cost is $4, total annual holding cost is $1,750 [(1,750 units × $4) × 25%]. Answer (D) is incorrect because $2,250 results from double counting the cost of holding safety stock.[217] Gleim #: 2.56 -- Source: CIA 595 III-100 (Refers to Fact Pattern #15) Total inventory ordering costs per year equal A. $1,250 B. $2,400 C. $2,880 D. $3,600 Answer (A) is incorrect because $1,250 equals the annual holding cost of the average inventory excluding safety stock. Answer (B) is incorrect because $2,400 assumes an EOQ of 3,000 units. Answer (C) is correct. Total annual demand is 48,000 units (4,000 per month × 12). Hence, total annual ordering costs equal $2,880 [$150 cost per order × (48,000 units ÷ 2,500 EOQ)]. Answer (D) is incorrect because $3,600 assumes an EOQ of 2,000 units.[218] Gleim #: 2.57 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-66 An organization sells a product for which demand is uncertain. Management would like to ensure that there is sufficient inventory on hand during periods of high demand so that it does not lose sales (and customers). To do so, the organization should A. Keep a safety stock. B. Use a just-in-time inventory system. C. Employ a materials requirements planning system. D. Keep a master production schedule. Answer (A) is correct. Safety stock is inventory maintained to reduce the number of stockouts resulting from higher- than-expected demand during lead time. Maintaining a safety stock avoids the costs of stockouts, e.g., lost sales and customer dissatisfaction. Answer (B) is incorrect because a just-in-time inventory system involves the purchase of materials and production of components immediately preceding their use. Answer (C) is incorrect because materials requirements planning is a system for scheduling production and controlling the level of inventory for components with dependent demand. Answer (D) is incorrect because a master production schedule is a statement of the timing and amounts of individual items to be produced.[219] Gleim #: 2.58 -- Source: CIA 1195 III-97 The economic order quantity is the size of the order that minimizes total inventory costs which include ordering and holding costs. It can be calculated using the formula If: Q = order size in units, D = annual demand in units, p = cost per purchase order, s = carrying cost per year for one unit of inventory. If the annual demand decreases by 36% the optimal order size will Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 81 Printed for g j
  • 82. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Decrease by 20%. B. Increase by 20%. C. Increase by 6%. D. Decrease by 6%. Answer (A) is correct. If D decreases by 36%, that is, from 100% to 64%, the EOQ will decrease by 20%. Answer (B) is incorrect because the new EOQ decreases to 80% of its former value. Answer (C) is incorrect because 6% is the square root of 36%. Answer (D) is incorrect because 6% is the square root of 36%.[220] Gleim #: 2.59 -- Source: CIA 1196 III-95 The economic order quantity, Q, is the size of the order that minimizes total inventory costs. These costs, which are composed of ordering and holding costs, can be computed using the following expression: If: TC = total inventory costs Q = size of each order D = annual demand in units F = fixed costs of ordering p = variable cost of placing one order s = holding cost per year for one unit of inventory The following inventory information is available for an organization (costs stated in currency units): Annual demand (D) 20,000 units Variable cost of placing one order (p) CU100 Holding cost per unit (s) CU1 Economic order quantity (Q) 2,000 units Fixed cost of ordering CU0 If the organization decides to order 4,000 units at a time rather than 2,000 units, by how much will its total inventory costs change? A. CU500 increase. B. CU1,000 increase. C. CU1,000 decrease. D. CU900 increase. Answer (A) is correct. When the order size is 2,000 units, the variable inventory costs are CU2,000 {[(2,000 units × CU1) ÷ 2] + [(20,000 units ÷ 2,000 units) × CU100]}. When the order size is 4,000 units, the variable inventory costs are CU2,500 {[(4,000 units × CU1) ÷ 2] + [(20,000 units ÷ 4,000 units) × CU100]}. The increase in inventory costs is CU500 (CU2,500 – CU2,000). Answer (B) is incorrect because a CU1,000 increase omits the change in the number of orders. Answer (C) is incorrect because increasing the order size increases total costs. The EOQ is 2,000 units. Answer (D) is incorrect because a CU900 increase results from an order size of 5,000 units.[221] Gleim #: 2.60 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following is the method of adding a standard markup to the cost of the product? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 82 Printed for g j
  • 83. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Penetration pricing. B. Going-rate pricing. C. Cost-based pricing. D. Price skimming. Answer (A) is incorrect because penetration pricing is a new product pricing method in which an introductory price is set relatively low to attract as many customers as possible. Answer (B) is incorrect because going-rate pricing is a method of pricing based largely on competitors’ prices. Answer (C) is correct. Cost-based pricing is a pricing method in which a standard markup or target profit is added to the cost of the product in determining the product’s sales price. Answer (D) is incorrect because price skimming sets the introductory price relatively high to attract buyers who are not concerned with price.[222] Gleim #: 2.61 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following is not a component of physical distribution? A. Transportation. B. Pricing. C. Location of retail outlets. D. Warehousing. Answer (A) is incorrect because a physical distribution system includes transportation. Answer (B) is correct. Physical distribution (market logistics) involves planning, implementing, and controlling the movement of materials and final goods to meet customer needs while earning a profit. Physical distribution systems coordinate suppliers, purchasing agents, marketers, channels, and customers. They include warehousing, transportation, and retail outlets. Answer (C) is incorrect because a physical distribution system includes the location of retail outlets. Answer (D) is incorrect because a physical distribution system includes warehousing.[223] Gleim #: 2.62 -- Source: Publisher Physical distribution is the moving of finished products to A. Retail outlets. B. Shipping point. C. Consumers. D. Warehouses. Answer (A) is incorrect because physical distribution is the efficient movement of finished products to consumers. Answer (B) is incorrect because physical distribution is the efficient movement of finished products to consumers. Answer (C) is correct. Physical distribution is the efficient management of supply chains. It controls value-added flows from suppliers to consumers. Answer (D) is incorrect because physical distribution is the efficient movement of finished products to consumers.[224] Gleim #: 2.63 -- Source: Publisher Intensive distribution is most likely to be used for A. Shopping goods. B. Specialty goods. C. Convenience goods. D. Unsought goods. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 83 Printed for g j
  • 84. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because shopping goods are usually sold through selective distribution. Answer (B) is incorrect because specialty goods are usually sold through selective or exclusive distribution. Answer (C) is correct. Convenience goods are consumer goods and services that are usually low-priced and widely available. Consumers buy them often and with a minimum of comparison and effort. Examples are soap and newspapers. Producers of convenience goods ordinarily use intensive distribution to sell their products through a large number of retail or wholesale units. Answer (D) is incorrect because unsought goods, e.g., life insurance, are often marketed through personal selling.[225] Gleim #: 2.64 -- Source: CMA 691 4-4 A decrease in inventory order costs will A. Decrease the economic order quantity. B. Increase the reorder point. C. Increase the economic order quantity. D. Decrease the holding cost percentage. Answer (A) is correct. A decrease in inventory ordering costs should decrease the economic order quantity. The effect is that more orders can be made (of smaller quantities) without increasing costs. Accordingly, in the EOQ model, ordering cost is a numerator value. Answer (B) is incorrect because the reorder point is based on lead time, not the EOQ model. Answer (C) is incorrect because the EOQ does not increase when inventory order costs decrease. Answer (D) is incorrect because the holding cost percentage will always be identical to the ordering cost percentage in accordance with the fundamental calculus underlying the EOQ model.[226] Gleim #: 2.65 -- Source: CMA 1294 4-7 Which one of the following items is not directly reflected in the basic economic order quantity (EOQ) model? A. Interest on invested capital. B. Inventory obsolescence. C. Public warehouse rental charges. D. Quantity discounts lost on inventory purchases. Answer (A) is incorrect because interest on invested capital is considered in the basic EOQ model. Answer (B) is incorrect because inventory obsolescence is considered in the basic EOQ model. Answer (C) is incorrect because public warehouse rental charges is considered in the basic EOQ model. Answer (D) is correct. The basic EOQ model minimizes the sum of ordering (or setup) and carrying costs. Included in the formula are annual demand, ordering (or setup) costs, and carrying costs. Carrying costs include warehousing costs, insurance, spoilage, obsolescence, and interest on invested capital. The cost of the inventory itself and any quantity discounts lost on inventory purchases are not components of the EOQ model.[227] Gleim #: 2.66 -- Source: CMA 1286 5-10 In production management, product breakdown into component parts and lead times for procuring these parts is necessary for A. A critical path method (CPM) system. B. A materials requirements planning (MRP) system. C. An economic order quantity (EOQ) system. D. An ABC system. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 84 Printed for g j
  • 85. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because a CPM system is a project management and scheduling technique that determines the longest time path from the first to the last event for a project. Answer (B) is correct. Materials requirements planning (MRP) is usually considered a computer-based information system designed to plan and control raw materials used in a production setting. It assumes that estimated demand for materials is reasonably accurate and that suppliers can deliver based upon this accurate schedule. It is crucial that delivery delays be avoided because, under MRP, production delays are almost unavoidable if the materials are not on hand. An MRP system uses a parts list, often called a bill of materials, and lead times for each type of material to obtain materials just as they are needed for planned production. Answer (C) is incorrect because the EOQ model does not adjust for the dependent demand for the components of an inventory item. Answer (D) is incorrect because the main purpose of the ABC system is to increase control over items accounting for the most profit.[228] Gleim #: 2.67 -- Source: CMA 1286 5-11 The inventory model that follows the concept that 80% of the value of an inventory is in 20% of the inventory items is the A. ABC system. B. Economic order quantity (EOQ) model. C. Just-in-time inventory system. D. Materials requirements planning (MRP) system. Answer (A) is correct. The ABC method of inventory control requires management to exert greatest control over the A classification items, which usually include a relatively small percentage of total items but a high percentage of the dollar volume. This method is analogous to the 80/20 rule, which says, for instance, that 20% of the customers account for 80% of the profit. Answer (B) is incorrect because the EOQ model is intended to minimize the sum of holding and ordering costs. Answer (C) is incorrect because a just-in-time system attempts to reduce holding costs by scheduling deliveries of materials as closely as possible to when they are needed in production. Answer (D) is incorrect because an MRP system recognizes that the demand for one inventory item creates a dependent demand for the components of that item.[229] Gleim #: 2.68 -- Source: CMA 688 5-22 When a specified level of safety stock is carried for an item in inventory, the average inventory level for that item A. Decreases by the amount of the safety stock. B. Is one-half the level of the safety stock. C. Increases by one-half the amount of the safety stock. D. Increases by the amount of the safety stock. Answer (A) is incorrect because the average inventory level increases by the amount of the safety stock. Answer (B) is incorrect because the average inventory level increases by the amount of the safety stock. Answer (C) is incorrect because the average inventory level increases by the amount of the safety stock. Answer (D) is correct. If there is no safety stock, the average level of inventory will be one-half of the economic order quantity. For example, if the EOQ is 500, the basic model predicts that the average inventory level will be 250. The company will have 500 units immediately after a purchase and zero immediately before the receipt of the next purchase (replenishment is assumed to be instantaneous). However, safety stock increases the average inventory level by the amount of the safety stock. The modified EOQ model assumes that safety stock will never be used. Thus, if a safety stock of 100 is carried by the company in the example, the average inventory level will increase to 350. Inventory will be 600 units immediately upon receipt of a purchase and 100 units immediately before the receipt of the next purchase.[230] Gleim #: 2.69 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-78 A distribution channel moves goods from producers to customers. Suppose a channel has four producers, each serving the same four customers, and no middlemen. If a distributor is introduced, the number of contacts (among producers, customers, and the distributor) in the channel will A. Be unaffected. B. Decrease from 8 to 4. C. Increase from 8 to 16. D. Decrease from 16 to 8. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 85 Printed for g j
  • 86. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the introduction of a distributor will affect the number of contacts in the marketing channel. Answer (B) is incorrect because the number of contacts declined from 16 to 8. Answer (C) is incorrect because the number of contacts decreased. Answer (D) is correct. The number of contacts without a distributor is 16 (four producers × four customers). The number with a distributor is 8 (four producers + four customers). Thus, the effort required of producers and consumers is reduced by the distributor, thereby increasing marketing efficiency.[231] Gleim #: 2.70 -- Source: CIA R98 III-32 An appropriate technique for planning and controlling manufacturing inventories, such as raw materials, components, and subassemblies whose demand depends on the level of production is A. Materials requirements planning. B. Regression analysis. C. Capital budgeting. D. Linear programming. Answer (A) is correct. Materials requirements planning (MRP) is a system that translates a production schedule into requirements for each component needed to meet the schedule. It is usually implemented in the form of a computer- based information system designed to plan and control raw materials used in production. It assumes that forecasted demand is reasonably accurate and that suppliers can deliver based upon this accurate schedule. MRP is a centralized push-through system; output based on forecasted demand is pushed through to the next department or to inventory. Answer (B) is incorrect because regression analysis is used to fit a linear trend line to a dependent variable based on one or more independent variables. Answer (C) is incorrect because capital budgeting is the process of planning expenditures for long-lived assets. It involves choosing among investment proposals using a ranking procedure. Answer (D) is incorrect because linear programming is a decision model concerned with allocating scarce resources to maximize profit or minimize costs.[232] Gleim #: 2.71 -- Source: CIA 1194 IV-79 Price skimming involves A. Setting a low introductory price. B. Setting a high introductory price. C. Setting different freight charges for customers in different zones. D. Using markups tied closely to the price paid for a product. Answer (A) is incorrect because it refers to penetration pricing. Answer (B) is correct. Price skimming is used when a new product is introduced at the highest price possible given the benefits of the product. For market skimming to work, the product must appear to be worth its price, the costs of producing a small volume cannot be so high that they eliminate the advantage of charging more, and competitors cannot enter the market and undercut the price. Answer (C) is incorrect because it refers to zone pricing. Answer (D) is incorrect because it relates to pricing by intermediaries.[233] Gleim #: 2.72 -- Source: CIA 1195 IV-75 Which of the following price adjustment strategies is designed to smooth production for the selling firm? A. Cash discounts. B. Quantity discounts. C. Functional discounts. D. Seasonal discounts. Answer (A) is incorrect because cash discounts encourage prompt payment. Answer (B) is incorrect because quantity discounts encourage large volume purchases. Answer (C) is incorrect because functional or trade discounts are provided to channel members in return for the performance of certain functions, such as selling, storing, and record keeping. Answer (D) is correct. Seasonal discounts are designed to smooth production by the selling firm. For example, a ski manufacturer offers seasonal discounts to retailers in the spring and summer to encourage early ordering. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 86 Printed for g j
  • 87. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[234] Gleim #: 2.73 -- Source: Publisher A seller that does which of the following is engaged in uniform delivered pricing? A. Charges each customer its actual freight costs. B. Charges the same price, inclusive of shipping, to all customers regardless of location. C. Absorbs all of the actual freight charges. D. Sets differential freight charges for customers on the basis of their location. Answer (A) is incorrect because it refers to FOB-origin pricing. Answer (B) is correct. A seller that uses uniform delivered pricing charges the same price, inclusive of shipping, to all customers regardless of their location. Answer (C) is incorrect because it refers to freight-absorption pricing. Answer (D) is incorrect because it refers to zone pricing.[235] Gleim #: 2.74 -- Source: Publisher Jabberwock Corporation’s corporate headquarters is in Carroll City. Jabberwock also has six distribution centers, one in Carroll City and the others located throughout North America. Jabberwock sets freight costs based on the distance of the destination city from Carroll City. What is this pricing method? A. Basing-point pricing. B. Zone pricing. C. FOB-origin pricing. D. Cost-plus pricing. Answer (A) is correct. Basing-point pricing charges each customer the freight costs incurred from a specified city to the destination, regardless of the actual point of origin of the shipment. Answer (B) is incorrect because zone pricing sets differential freight charges for customers on the basis of their location. Answer (C) is incorrect because FOB-origin pricing charges each customer its actual freight costs. Answer (D) is incorrect because cost-plus pricing is not a geographical pricing method.[236] Gleim #: 2.75 -- Source: Publisher Manx Co. produces and sells two products. Product A costs $10 per unit and Product B costs $5 per unit. The As are selling very well, but sales of B are low. In order to increase sales of B, Manx has begun setting a price of $13 for one of each. This pricing method is A. Product-bundle pricing. B. By-product pricing. C. Value pricing. D. Collusive pricing. Answer (A) is correct. Product-bundle pricing entails selling combinations of products at a price lower than the combined prices of the individual items. This strategy promotes sales of items consumers might not otherwise buy. Answer (B) is incorrect because it refers to the practice of accepting prices at any amount in excess of storing and delivering the by-products. Answer (C) is incorrect because it refers to the practice of redesigning products to improve quality without raising prices, or offering the same quality at lower prices. Answer (D) is incorrect because collusive pricing occurs when companies conspire to restrict output and set artificially high prices.[237] Gleim #: 2.76 -- Source: Publisher Selling below cost in other countries is called A. Predatory pricing. B. Price discrimination. C. Dumping. D. Collusive pricing. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 87 Printed for g j
  • 88. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because it is pricing products below cost. It may be done both domestically and in other countries. Answer (B) is incorrect because price discrimination is charging different prices to different customers. Answer (C) is correct. Dumping, which refers to selling below cost in other countries, is an inappropriate pricing tactic that may trigger retaliatory tariffs and other sanctions. Answer (D) is incorrect because collusive pricing occurs when companies conspire to restrict output and set artificially high prices.[238] Gleim #: 2.77 -- Source: Publisher All of the following are objectives of pricing except A. Image oriented objectives. B. Profit maximization. C. Stabilization. D. Production maximization. Answer (A) is incorrect because it is a pricing objective. Answer (B) is incorrect because it is a pricing objective. Answer (C) is incorrect because it is a pricing objective. Answer (D) is correct. Pricing objectives include 1. profit maximization, which assumes that all firms select the price that results in the highest profit 2. target margin maximization, which is stated as a percentage ratio of profits to sales 3. volume-oriented objectives, which refers to setting prices to meet target sales volumes or market shares 4. image oriented objectives, which refers to setting prices to enhance the consumer’s perception of the firm’s merchandise mix 5. stabilization objectives, which refers to setting prices to maintain a stable relationship between the firm’s prices and the industry leader’s prices Price setting is not a factor in maximizing production.[239] Gleim #: 2.78 -- Source: Publisher Monolith Company, which produces Hal computers, uses a target pricing and costing approach. The following is Monolith’s costs and revenues for the year just ended: Number of computers sold 10,000 Sales price per computer $1,500 Cost of goods sold $8,000,000 Operating costs excluding production $5,500,000 Monolith plans to increase sales of computers to 15,000 in the next year by reducing the unit price to $1,250. If Monolith wishes to achieve a unit target operating income of 10%, by what amount must it reduce the full cost per unit? A. $100 B. $125 C. $225 D. $250 Answer (A) is incorrect because it equals the current full cost per unit minus the new unit target price. Answer (B) is incorrect because it is the unit target operating income. Answer (C) is correct. Unit target operating income is $125 (10% × $1,250 target price). Thus, the unit target full cost is $1,125 ($1,250 – $125). The current full cost per unit is $1,350 [($8,000,000 cost of goods sold + $5,500,000 operating costs excluding production) ÷ 10,000 units sold], so the necessary reduction in full cost per unit is $225 ($1,350 – $1,125). Answer (D) is incorrect because it is the change in unit price.[240] Gleim #: 2.79 -- Source: CIA 1194 IV-78 Market-based pricing involves Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 88 Printed for g j
  • 89. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Adding a standard markup to the cost of the product. B. Determining the price at which the product will earn a target profit. C. Basing prices on the product’s perceived value. D. Basing prices on competitors’ prices. Answer (A) is incorrect because adding a standard markup to the cost of the product is cost-plus pricing. Answer (B) is incorrect because determining the price at which the product will earn a target profit is target-profit pricing. Answer (C) is correct. Market-based pricing involves basing prices on the product’s perceived value rather than on the seller’s cost. Nonprice variables in the marketing mix augment the perceived value. For example, a cup of coffee may have a higher price at an expensive restaurant than at a fast food outlet. Answer (D) is incorrect because basing prices on competitors’ prices is going-rate pricing.[241] Gleim #: 2.80 -- Source: CMA 1296 4-6 Several surveys point out that most managers use full product costs, including unit fixed costs and unit variable costs, in developing cost-based pricing. Which one of the following is least associated with cost-based pricing? A. Price stability. B. Price justification. C. Target pricing. D. Fixed-cost recovery. Answer (A) is incorrect because full-cost pricing promotes price stability. It limits the ability to cut prices. Answer (B) is incorrect because full-cost pricing provides evidence that the company is not violating antitrust laws against predatory pricing. Answer (C) is correct. A target price is the expected market price of a product, given the company’s knowledge of its customers and competitors. Hence, under target pricing, the sales price is known before the product is developed. Subtracting the unit target profit margin determines the long-term unit target cost. If cost-cutting measures do not permit the product to be made at or below the target cost, the product will be abandoned. Answer (D) is incorrect because full-cost pricing has the advantage of recovering the full long-term costs of the product. In the long term, all costs are relevant.[242] Gleim #: 2.81 -- Source: Publisher Value engineering is A. A policy of seeking continuous improvement in all phases of company activities. B. A method of determining prices based on a cost determination. C. An element of a marketing mix strategy. D. A systematic approach to assessing all aspects of cost buildup for a product. Answer (A) is incorrect because it refers to Kaizen. Answer (B) is incorrect because it refers to cost-plus pricing. Answer (C) is incorrect because value added engineering is not directly related to marketing mix strategies. Answer (D) is correct. Value engineering is a means of reaching targeted cost levels. It is a systematic approach to assessing all aspects of the value chain cost buildup for a product: R&D, design of products, design of processes, production, marketing, distribution, and customer service. The purpose is to minimize costs without sacrificing customer satisfaction.[243] Gleim #: 2.82 -- Source: Publisher Sunshine Co. is a producer of citrus flavored dessert products. Its most popular product is its key lime pies, which are made with many fine ingredients, including egg yolks. Sunshine also sells the egg whites that are left over from its production process. These egg whites are sold at any price that is greater than the cost of storing and delivering them. The pricing of the egg whites is A. By-product pricing. B. Captive-product pricing. C. Product-bundle pricing. D. Value pricing. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 89 Printed for g j
  • 90. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. By-product pricing usually sets prices at any amount in excess of storing and delivering by-products. Such prices allow the seller to reduce the costs and therefore the prices of the main products. Answer (B) is incorrect because captive-product pricing involves products that must be used with a main product. Answer (C) is incorrect because product-bundle pricing entails selling combinations of products at a price lower than the combined prices of individual items. Answer (D) is incorrect because value pricing entails redesigning products to improve quality without raising prices or offering the same quality at lower prices.[244] Gleim #: 2.83 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following is a definition of predatory pricing? A. Pricing products below cost to destroy competitors. B. Pricing products at different prices for different customers. C. Conspiring to restrict output and set artificially high prices. D. Selling below cost in other countries. Answer (A) is correct. Predatory pricing is the practice of pricing products below cost to destroy competitors. The U.S. Supreme Court has held that a price is predatory if it is below an appropriate measure of costs and the seller has a reasonable prospect of recovering its losses in the future through higher prices or greater market share. Answer (B) is incorrect because it refers to price discrimination. Answer (C) is incorrect because it refers to collusive pricing. Answer (D) is incorrect because it refers to dumping.[245] Gleim #: 2.84 -- Source: Publisher Prices vary directly with capacity usage under A. Collusive pricing. B. Peak-load pricing. C. Market-based pricing. D. Cost-based pricing. Answer (A) is incorrect because it refers to the illegal practice of conspiring to restrict output and set artificially high prices. Answer (B) is correct. Under peak-load pricing, prices vary directly with capacity usage. Thus, when idle capacity is available, that is, when demand falls, the price of a product or service tends to be higher given a peak-load pricing approach. Answer (C) is incorrect because it involves basing prices on the product’s perceived value. Answer (D) is incorrect because it involves making a cost determination and setting a price that will recover costs and provide a return on investment.[246] Gleim #: 2.85 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following is a false statement about cost-based pricing? A. A cost-based price should cover costs and provide the desired return on investment. B. A commonly used cost-plus pricing formula is to add a markup percentage to the total cost. C. Variable costs may not be used as the basis for costs. D. A cost-plus price equals the cost plus a markup. Answer (A) is incorrect because it is a true statement about cost-based pricing. Answer (B) is incorrect because it is a true statement about cost-based pricing. Answer (C) is correct. Cost-based pricing begins with a cost determination followed by setting a price that will recover the value chain costs and provide the desired return on investment. A cost-plus price equals the cost plus a markup. Cost may be defined in many ways. Most companies use either absorption manufacturing cost or total cost when calculating the price. Variable costs may be used as the basis for cost, but then fixed costs must be covered by the markup. Answer (D) is incorrect because it is a true statement about cost-based pricing. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 90 Printed for g j
  • 91. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[247] Gleim #: 2.86 -- Source: Publisher A company uses a target pricing and costing approach. The following is its costs and revenues for the current year: Units sold 100,000 Sales price per unit $ 10 Cost of goods sold 515,000 Operating costs excluding production 335,000 The company intends to increase unit sales to 120,000 in the next year by reducing the unit price to $8. If the company is to achieve a unit target operating income of 15%, by what amount must it reduce the full cost per unit? A. $0.50 B. $1.20 C. $1.50 D. $1.70 Answer (A) is incorrect because it equals the current full cost per unit minus the new unit target price. Answer (B) is incorrect because it is the unit target operating income. Answer (C) is incorrect because it is the change in unit price. Answer (D) is correct. Unit target operating income is $1.20 (15% × $8 target price). Thus, the unit target full cost is $6.80 ($8 – $1.20). The current full cost per unit is $8.50 [$515,000 cost of goods sold + $335,000 operating costs excluding production) ÷ 100,00 units sold], so the necessary reduction in full cost per unit is $1.70 ($8.50 – $6.80).[248] Gleim #: 2.87 -- Source: Publisher A situation in which companies conspire to restrict output and set artificially high prices is known as: A. Collusive pricing. B. Predatory pricing. C. Price discrimination. D. Market-based pricing. Answer (A) is correct. Collusive pricing is illegal. It involves two or more competitors conspiring to restrict output and charge artificially high prices. Answer (B) is incorrect because predatory pricing occurs when a company sells products below cost to destroy competitors. Answer (C) is incorrect because price discrimination occurs when different prices are charged to different customers. Answer (D) is incorrect because market-based pricing bases prices on a product’s perceived value rather than on cost.[249] Gleim #: 2.88 -- Source: CIA 595 IV-74 Which of the following pricing policies involves the selling company setting freight charges to customers at the actual average freight cost? A. Freight absorption pricing. B. Uniform delivered pricing. C. Zone pricing. D. FOB-origin pricing. Answer (A) is incorrect because, in freight absorption pricing, the selling company absorbs all or part of the actual freight charges. Customers are not charged actual delivery costs. Answer (B) is correct. In uniform delivered pricing, the company charges the same price, inclusive of shipping costs, to all customers regardless of their location. This price is the company’s average actual freight cost. Thus, both nearby and distant customers are charged the same amount. This policy is easy to administer, permits the company to advertise one price nationwide, and facilitates marketing to faraway customers. Answer (C) is incorrect because, in zone pricing, differential freight charges are set for customers on the basis of their location. Customers are not charged actual average freight costs. Answer (D) is incorrect because, in FOB-origin pricing, each customer pays its actual freight costs. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 91 Printed for g j
  • 92. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[250] Gleim #: 2.89 -- Source: Publisher Setting the introductory price of a new product relatively high is A. Market-based pricing. B. Price skimming. C. Penetration pricing. D. Pricing by intermediaries. Answer (A) is incorrect because the price is based on buyer perceptions in market-based pricing, rather than simply being set at a high price. Answer (B) is correct. Price skimming is the practice of setting an introductory price relatively high to attract buyers who are not concerned about price and to recover research and development costs rather quickly. The opposite approach is to use penetration pricing, which involves setting a relatively low price to gain deep market penetration quickly. Answer (C) is incorrect because penetration pricing sets a relatively low price to gain deep market penetration quickly. Answer (D) is incorrect because pricing by intermediaries does not describe the setting of a high introductory price.[251] Gleim #: 2.90 -- Source: Publisher Washboard Inc. charges customers the shipping costs incurred from Detroit to the destination regardless of the shipping point of origin. What is this pricing method commonly called? A. Discriminatory pricing. B. Zone pricing. C. Basing-point pricing. D. FOB-origin pricing. Answer (A) is incorrect because it is not discriminatory to charge everyone the same from the same point. Answer (B) is incorrect because zone pricing differs by region of the country to which a shipment is made. Answer (C) is correct. Basing-point pricing charges each customer the freight costs incurred from a specified city to the destination regardless of the actual point of origin of the shipment. Answer (D) is incorrect because FOB-origin pricing charges each customer its actual freight costs.[252] Gleim #: 2.91 -- Source: Publisher A pricing strategy that sells combinations of products at a price lower than the combined prices of the individual items is A. Predatory pricing. B. Going-rate pricing. C. Product-bundle pricing. D. Captive-product pricing. Answer (A) is incorrect because predatory prices are prices set below cost to destroy competitors. Answer (B) is incorrect because this means charging the going rate in the market. Answer (C) is correct. Product-bundle pricing is a strategy to promote items consumers might not otherwise buy by selling combinations of products at a price lower than the prices of the individual items combined. Answer (D) is incorrect because captive-product pricing involves charging a low price for a main product (such as a razor), while razor blades are sold at a high markup. Once a person has a razor, he has to buy blades.[253] Gleim #: 2.92 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following statements is true with respect to value engineering? I. Value engineering is a means of reaching targeted cost levels. II. Value engineering is the Japanese concept that emphasizes continuous improvement in all phases of company activities through numerous minor changes. III. Value engineering requires distinguishing between cost incurrence and locked-in costs, with an emphasis on controlling costs at the design stage. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 92 Printed for g j
  • 93. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Items I and II only. B. Items I and III only. C. Items II and III only. D. Items I, II, and III. Answer (A) is incorrect because the Japanese concept of continuous improvement is known as “Kaizen.” Answer (B) is correct. Value engineering is a means of reaching targeted cost levels. Value engineering requires distinguishing between cost incurrence and locked-in costs, with emphasis on controlling costs at the design stage. It is not Japanese. Answer (C) is incorrect because the Japanese concept of continuous improvement is known as “Kaizen.” Answer (D) is incorrect because the Japanese concept of continuous improvement is known as “Kaizen.”[254] Gleim #: 2.93 -- Source: CIA 1195 IV-76 In which product-mix pricing strategy is it appropriate for the seller to accept any price that exceeds the storage and delivery costs for the product? A. By-product pricing. B. Optional-product pricing. C. Captive-product pricing. D. Product-bundle pricing. Answer (A) is correct. A by-product is a product of relatively minor importance generated during the production of one or more other products. Its production entails no additional costs. Any amount received above the storage and delivery costs for a by-product allows the seller to reduce the main product’s price to make it more competitive. Answer (B) is incorrect because optional products are offered for sale along with the main product. They are unlikely to have a zero production cost, so the seller must receive a price above their storage and delivery costs. Answer (C) is incorrect because captive products must be used along with the main product, such as film for use with a camera. Sellers often make their profits on the captive products rather than on the main product, which is sold at a low price. The captive products therefore will be priced well above the storage and delivery costs. Answer (D) is incorrect because product bundles are combinations of products sold together at a reduced price, such as season tickets for a theater. Products are bundled to promote the sale of certain items that consumers might not otherwise purchase. The combined price of the bundle must be low enough to encourage consumers to buy the bundle but must recover production costs and provide some profit for the seller, so the price must exceed storage and delivery costs.[255] Gleim #: 2.94 -- Source: Publisher If a U.S. manufacturer’s price in the U.S. market is below an appropriate measure of costs and the seller has a reasonable prospect of recovering the resulting loss in the future through higher prices or a greater market share, the seller has engaged in A. Collusive pricing. B. Dumping. C. Predatory pricing. D. Price discrimination. Answer (A) is incorrect because collusive pricing involves a conspiracy to set higher prices. Answer (B) is incorrect because dumping is defined under U.S. law as sale by a non-U.S. company in the U.S. market of a product below its market value in the country where it was produced. Such sale is illegal if it threatens material injury to a U.S. industry. Answer (C) is correct. Predatory pricing is intentionally pricing below cost to eliminate competition and reduce supply. Federal statutes and many state laws prohibit the practice. The U.S. Supreme Court has held that pricing is predatory when two conditions are met: (1) the seller’s price is below “an appropriate measure of its costs,” and (2) it has a reasonable prospect of recovering the resulting loss through higher prices or greater market share. Answer (D) is incorrect because price discrimination entails charging different prices to different customers for essentially the same product if the effect is to lessen competition substantially; to tend to create a monopoly; or to injure, destroy, or prevent competition. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 93 Printed for g j
  • 94. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[256] Gleim #: 2.95 -- Source: Publisher Flesher Furniture Company applies a target pricing and costing approach. The following information about costs and revenues of Flesher’s product are available for the year just ended: Unit sales 60,000 Unit selling price $ 400 Cost of goods sold 13,200,000 Value-chain operating costs excluding production 7,920,000 Flesher plans to increase unit sales to 80,000 by reducing the product’s unit price to $320. If Flesher desires a unit target operating income of 12%, by what amount must it reduce the full cost per unit? A. $32.00 B. $38.40 C. $70.40 D. $80.00 Answer (A) is incorrect because $32.00 equals the current full cost per unit minus the new unit target price. Answer (B) is incorrect because because $38.40 is the unit target operating income. Answer (C) is correct. Unit target operating income is $38.40 (12% × $320 unit target price). Hence, the unit target full cost is $281.60 ($320 – $38.40). The current full cost per unit is $352.00 [($13,200,000 CGS + $7,920,000 other value chain operating costs) &divide; 60,000 units sold], so the necessary reduction in the full cost per unit is $70.40 ($352.00 – $281.60). Answer (D) is incorrect because $80.00 equals the change in the unit price.[257] Gleim #: 2.96 -- Source: Publisher Labrador Hardware Co. has implemented the following discount policies: Customers may trade in older models of tools when buying the latest models. Customers purchasing with cash receive a 10% discount. Credit customers who pay their balances in full within 30 days receive a 5% discount. Customers who purchase supplies such as nails in bulk receive discounted prices. Labrador uses all of the following discount methods except A. Cash discounts. B. Quantity discounts. C. Allowances. D. Trade discounts. Answer (A) is incorrect because it is a discount offered by Labrador. Answer (B) is incorrect because it is a discount offered by Labrador. Answer (C) is incorrect because it is a discount offered by Labrador. Answer (D) is correct. Cash discounts encourage prompt payment, improve cash flows, and avoid bad debts. Quantity discounts encourage large volume purchases. Trade (functional) discounts are offered to other members of the marketing channel for performing certain services, such as selling. Seasonal discounts are offered for sales out of season. They help smooth production. Allowances such as trade-ins reduce list prices.[258] Gleim #: 2.97 -- Source: CMA 696 1-20 The protected group under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, as amended, is defined as anyone in which age group? A. Between 35 and 60. B. Between 40 and 75. C. 40 and older. D. 45 and older. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 94 Printed for g j
  • 95. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the act provides protection for individuals who are aged 40 and older. Answer (B) is incorrect because the act provides protection for individuals who are aged 40 and older. Answer (C) is correct. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act is designed to protect individuals aged 40 and older from employment discrimination. The act has been amended to eliminate the mandatory retirement age. However, certain managerial employees are not protected by this amendment. Answer (D) is incorrect because the act provides protection for individuals who are aged 40 and older.[259] Gleim #: 2.98 -- Source: Publisher Questions about which of the following can legally be asked in recruiting interviews? A. Age. B. Number of children. C. Kind of military discharge. D. Criminal record (but only for security clearance purposes). Answer (A) is incorrect because age may not be asked in a recruiting interview. Answer (B) is incorrect because number of children may not be asked in a recruiting interview. Answer (C) is incorrect because the kind of military discharge cannot be asked in a recruiting interview. Answer (D) is correct. In a recruiting interview, one may not ask about the applicant’s marital status, number of children, height and weight, criminal record (except for the purpose of giving a security clearance), kind of military discharge, or age.[260] Gleim #: 2.99 -- Source: Publisher The halo effect may diminish the accuracy of the evaluation of employees. Which of the following is an example? A. A manager rates some employees as very good and some as very poor. B. A manager’s judgment of one positive trait affects his/her rating of other traits. C. The most recent behavior overshadows overall performance. D. All personnel who work together are rated within the same narrow range. Answer (A) is incorrect because this is not an example of the halo effect. Answer (B) is correct. The halo effect diminishes the accuracy of an evaluation when a manager’s judgment on one positive trait affects the rating of other traits. Answer (C) is incorrect because the recency effect is when the most recent behavior overshadows overall performance. Answer (D) is incorrect because the central tendency effect is when all personnel who work together are rated within the same narrow range.[261] Gleim #: 2.100 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following is not a characteristic of an effective evaluation system? A. Relevant. B. Significant. C. Unbiased. D. Highly structured. Answer (A) is incorrect because the evaluation system should be relevant. Answer (B) is incorrect because the evaluation system should be significant. Answer (C) is incorrect because the evaluation system should be unbiased. Answer (D) is correct. The system should be relevant, unbiased, significant, and practical. The evaluation system should be as objective, easy to use, clearly understood, and efficient as possible, but it is not necessary that it be highly structured.[262] Gleim #: 3.1 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-1 The measurement basis most often used to report a long-term payable representing a commitment to pay money at a determinable future date is Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 95 Printed for g j
  • 96. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Historical cost. B. Current cost. C. Net realizable value. D. Present value of future cash flows. Answer (A) is incorrect because historical cost is used to measure property, plant, and equipment and most inventories. Answer (B) is incorrect because some inventories are measured at current (replacement) cost. Answer (C) is incorrect because short-term receivables and some inventories are reported at net realizable value. Answer (D) is correct. The measurement basis most commonly adopted by enterprises in preparing their financial statements is historical cost. However, it is usually combined with other measurement bases (attributes). The attribute used to measure a long-term receivable or payable is the present or discounted value of its future cash flows.[263] Gleim #: 3.2 -- Source: CIA 593 IV-25 In December year 1, catalogs were printed for use in a special promotion in January year 2. The catalogs were delivered by the printer on December 13, year 1, with an invoice for 70,000 attached. Payment was made in January year 2. The 70,000 should be reported as a deferred cost at the December 31, year 1 balance sheet date because of the A. Matching principle. B. Revenue recognition principle. C. Reliability principle. D. Cost principle. Answer (A) is correct. Matching is the simultaneous or combined recognition of revenues and expenses resulting directly and jointly from the same transactions or other events. Expenses should be associated with the revenues that they help to create. Because the catalogs are still on hand at the balance sheet date, they will not contribute to an inflow of economic benefits until the next period. Hence, the cost should be deferred and matched with the revenues of the following period. Answer (B) is incorrect because the revenue recognition principle determines the period in which revenue is recognized. Answer (C) is incorrect because reliable information is free of error and bias and is representationally faithful. Answer (D) is incorrect because the cost principle states that cost is the usual basis for recording most assets and liabilities.[264] Gleim #: 3.3 -- Source: CIA 1192 IV-37 Because of inexact estimates of the service life and the residual value of a plant asset, a fully depreciated asset was sold in 2004 at a material gain. This gain most likely should be reported A. In the other revenues and gains section of the 2004 income statement. B. As part of sales revenue on the 2004 income statement. C. In the extraordinary item section of the 2004 income statement. D. As an adjustment to prior periods’ depreciation on the statement of changes in equity. Answer (A) is correct. Income includes revenue and gains. Their essential nature is the same, and they are not treated as separate financial statement elements. Revenues occur in the course of ordinary activities. Gains may or may not occur in the course of ordinary activities. For example, gains may occur from the sale of noncurrent assets. Thus, the gain on the sale of a plant asset is not an operating item and should be classified in an income statement with separate operating and nonoperating sections in the other revenues and gains section. Answer (B) is incorrect because the asset sold was not stock in trade. Answer (C) is incorrect because the transaction does not meet the criteria of an extraordinary item, which results from an event or transaction that is clearly different from ordinary activities and is not expected to recur frequently and regularly. Answer (D) is incorrect because the transaction is not the correction of a fundamental error in the financial statements of a prior period.[265] Gleim #: 3.4 -- Source: CIA 595 IV-29 Assume that employees confessed to a 500,000 inventory theft but are not able to make restitution. How should this material fraud be shown in the company’s financial statements? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 96 Printed for g j
  • 97. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Classified as a loss and shown as a separate line item in the income statement. B. Initially classified as an accounts receivable because the employees are responsible for the goods. Because they cannot pay, the loss would be recognized as a write-off of accounts receivable. C. Included in cost of goods sold because the goods are not on hand, losses on inventory shrinkage are ordinary, and it would cause the least amount of attention. D. Recorded directly to retained earnings because it is not an income-producing item. Answer (A) is correct. Expenses include losses. Their essential nature is the same, and they are not treated as separate financial statement elements. Losses may or may not occur in the course of ordinary activities. For example, they may result from nonreciprocal transactions (e.g., theft), reciprocal transactions (e.g., a sale of plant assets), or from holding assets or liabilities. Losses are typically displayed separately. Answer (B) is incorrect because no restitution will be made. Thus, recording the item as a receivable, then writing it off, is not consistent with the substance of the event. Answer (C) is incorrect because, although some inventory shrinkage is expected in the normal course of processing, fraud is abnormal. Hence, the item should be recorded as a loss. Answer (D) is incorrect because losses are included in the determination of net profit or loss.[266] Gleim #: 3.5 -- Source: CIA 591 IV-44 The assets of a liquidating enterprise should be shown on the balance sheet at their A. Undepreciated historical cost. B. Fair market value. C. Realizable value. D. Current cost. Answer (A) is incorrect because a going concern should report assets at their undepreciated historical cost. When liquidation appears imminent, historical cost is inappropriate for balance sheet reporting. Answer (B) is incorrect because an enterprise facing liquidation is expected to dispose of its assets in a “forced” or “distressed” sale and is unlikely to realize the fair value amount. The net realizable value of the assets is the appropriate amount for reporting purposes. Answer (C) is correct. When liquidation is imminent, and the going concern assumption is no longer valid, the most appropriate valuation method for assets is realizable value, which is the amount of cash currently obtainable by sale in an orderly disposal. Answer (D) is incorrect because current cost is only appropriate when the going concern assumption is applicable and the effects of changing prices are to be measured and reported in the financial statements.[267] Gleim #: 3.6 -- Source: CIA 1190 IV-27 An objective of financial reporting is A. Providing information useful to investors, creditors, donors, and other users for decision making. B. Assessing the adequacy of internal control. C. Evaluating management results compared with standards. D. Providing information on compliance with established procedures. Answer (A) is correct. The objectives of financial reporting are concerned with the underlying goals and purposes of accounting. They are to provide information that (1) is useful to those making investment and credit decisions, assuming that those individuals have a reasonable understanding of business and economic activities; (2) is helpful to current and potential investors and creditors and other users in assessing the amount, timing, and uncertainty of future cash flows; and (3) discloses economic resources, claims to those resources, and the changes therein. Answer (B) is incorrect because assessing the adequacy of internal control is a function of internal auditing, not financial reporting. Answer (C) is incorrect because evaluating management results compared with standards is a function of internal auditing, not financial reporting. Answer (D) is incorrect because providing information on compliance with established procedures is a function of internal auditing, not financial reporting. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 97 Printed for g j
  • 98. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[268] Gleim #: 3.7 -- Source: CIA 592 IV-29 An enterprise with total assets of 100,000,000 and net profit of 9,000,000 purchases staplers with an estimated life of 10 years for 1,000. In connection with the purchase, the company debits miscellaneous expense. This scenario is most closely associated with which of the following concepts or principles? A. Materiality and going concern. B. Relevance and neutrality. C. Reliability and comparability. D. Materiality and the balance between cost and benefit. Answer (A) is incorrect because the going-concern principle relates to circumstances in which there is doubt as to the viability of the enterprise. Answer (B) is incorrect because relevance and reliability are two of the principal qualitative characteristics of information in financial statements. Information is relevant if it permits users to predict the outcome of future events or confirm or correct their prior expectations. Reliability provides assurance that the information is reasonably free from error and bias and represents what it purports to represent. Thus, reliable information must be neutral, that is, free from error and bias. Answer (C) is incorrect because comparability is a principal qualitative characteristic. Financial statements must be comparable for the same enterprise over time and also among different enterprises. Information is relevant if it permits users to predict the outcome of future events or confirm or correct their prior expectations. Answer (D) is correct. In principle, wasting assets should be capitalized and depreciated. However, the effect on the financial statements of expensing rather than capitalizing and depreciating the staplers is clearly not material given that they cost 1,000 and the enterprise has total assets of 100,000,000. The choice of treatment is not large enough to influence the decisions of financial statement users. The balance between benefit and cost is a pervasive constraint, not a qualitative characteristic. The benefits should exceed the cost of information. Specifically, the cost of producing the information about depreciation expense over 10 years for the staplers probably is higher than the benefits of the information for decision making. Thus, the expedient procedure of expensing the 1,000 should be followed.[269] Gleim #: 3.8 -- Source: CIA 1192 IV-38 In recording transactions, which of the following best describes the relation between expenses and losses? A. Losses are extraordinary charges to income, whereas expenses are ordinary charges to income. B. Losses are material items, whereas expenses are immaterial items. C. Losses are expenses that may or may not arise in the course of ordinary activities. D. Expenses can always be prevented, whereas losses can never be prevented. Answer (A) is incorrect because not all losses are extraordinary items. Answer (B) is incorrect because losses may be immaterial, and most expenses are material. Answer (C) is correct. Expenses are defined as “decreases in economic benefits during the accounting period in the form of outflows or depletions of assets or incurrences of liabilities that result in decreases in equity, other than those relating to distributions to equity participants.” Expenses include losses. Thus, losses are not treated as separate elements. Expenses include items arising in the course of ordinary activities. Losses meet the definition of expenses but may or may not occur in the course of ordinary activities. For example, losses may result from the sale of noncurrent assets or from natural disasters. Answer (D) is incorrect because some expenses cannot be prevented, or at least not in the short run. Some losses can be prevented.[270] Gleim #: 3.9 -- Source: CIA 1191 IV-29 To comply with the matching principle, the cost of labor services of an employee who participates in the manufacturing of a product normally should be charged to the income statement in the period in which the A. Work is performed. B. Employee is paid. C. Product is completed. D. Product is sold. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 98 Printed for g j
  • 99. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because direct labor cost is a product (inventoriable) cost that is normally not recognized until sale. Answer (B) is incorrect because direct labor cost is a product (inventoriable) cost that is normally not recognized until sale. Answer (C) is incorrect because direct labor cost is a product (inventoriable) cost that is normally not recognized until sale. Answer (D) is correct. Recognition of expenses occurs concurrently with recognition of increases in liabilities or decreases in assets. Expenses are recognized if the costs are directly associated with the earning of particular income items. This process is often called matching. Matching is simultaneous or combined recognition of the revenues and expenses that result directly and jointly from the same transactions or other events. This direct relationship is exemplified by the sale of a product. This transaction results in revenue (sales revenue) for receipt of cash or a receivable, the recognition of an expense (cost of sales) for the sacrifice of the product to a customer, and a decrease in inventory. The direct labor cost of manufacturing the product is absorbed by the finished goods inventory and is not recognized until sale.[271] Gleim #: 3.10 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-12 A service enterprise keeps its accounting records on a cash basis. During the recent year, the enterprise collected 600,000 from customers. The following information is also available: Beginning End of of Year Year Accounts receivable 120,000 180,000 Unearned revenue 0 15,000 What was the amount of service revenue for the year on an accrual basis? A. 525,000 B. 555,000 C. 645,000 D. 675,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because 525,000 deducts rather than adds the 60,000 increase in receivables. Answer (B) is incorrect because 555,000 deducts the increase in receivables and adds the increase in unearned revenue. Answer (C) is correct. The amount of service revenue for the year on an accrual basis equals 645,000 (600,000 cash collected – 15,000 unearned revenue + 60,000 increase in accounts receivable). Answer (D) is incorrect because 675,000 adds the 15,000 increase in unearned revenue.[Fact Pattern #16]An enterprise is in the equipment rental business. Part of its On October 1, 2004, the enterprise paid 18,000 to renew itsunadjusted trial balance at December 31, 2004, is as follows: only insurance policy for a 3-year period beginning on that date. This transaction has not been recorded.Cash 17,400 Salaries and wages of 1,700 have been incurred but not paidPrepaid insurance 3,600 as of December 31, 2004.Property, plant, and equipment 180,000Accumulated depreciation 32,000 At December 31, 2004, the balance per bank statement wasAccounts payable 12,000 12,000. Outstanding checks amounted to 6,900. Interest ofShare capital 60,000 40 was credited to the enterprise’s account by the bankRetained earnings 38,000 during December, but has not yet been entered on the books.Rental revenue 171,000Salaries and wages expense 80,000Utilities expense 14,000[272] Gleim #: 3.11 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-4 (Refers to Fact Pattern #16) What amounts should be reported for prepaid insurance and insurance expense in the annual financial statements prepared at December 31, 2004? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 99 Printed for g j
  • 100. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Prepaid Insurance Insurance ExpenseA. 16,500 1,500B. 16,500 5,100C. 18,000 3,600D. 20,100 1,500 Answer (A) is incorrect because the existing balance in the prepaid insurance account should be expensed. Answer (B) is correct. The insurance policy in effect at the beginning of the year expired and was renewed during the year. Hence, the entire 3,600 beginning balance in the prepaid insurance account should be expensed. The amount of the prepayment on the new policy to be expensed is 1,500 [3 months elapsed × (18,000 ÷ 36-month duration of the policy)]. The debit balance in prepaid insurance at year-end is therefore 16,500 (18,000 – 1,500), and total insurance expense is 5,100 (3,600 + 1,500). Answer (C) is incorrect because insurance expense should be recognized for the last 3 months of the year. Answer (D) is incorrect because prepaid insurance should be credited and insurance expense debited for 3,600.[273] Gleim #: 3.12 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-5 (Refers to Fact Pattern #16) The required adjusting entry at December 31, 2004 related to salaries and wages is A. Salaries & wages expense 1,700 Income summary 1,700 B. Salaries & wages payable 1,700 Salaries & wages expense 1,700 C. Salaries & wages expense 1,700 Salaries & wages payable 1,700 D. Income summary 1,700 Salaries & wages payable 1,700 Answer (A) is incorrect because the income summary account is used for closing entries, not adjusting entries. Answer (B) is incorrect because the entry shown is a reversing entry that could be made at the beginning of the subsequent period. Answer (C) is correct. An expense incurred but not yet paid is an accrued expense. The adjusting entry to record an accrued expense of 1,700 for unpaid salaries and wages is to debit an expense account and credit a liability account. Answer (D) is incorrect because the debit should be to an expense account.[274] Gleim #: 3.13 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-6 (Refers to Fact Pattern #16) The journal entry required to close the utilities expense account is A. Utilities expense 14,000 Income summary 14,000 B. Income summary 14,000 Utilities expense 14,000 C. Rental revenue 14,000 Utilities expense 14,000 D. Utilities expense 14,000 Retained earnings 14,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because an expense account should be credited in a closing entry, and the income summary account should be debited. Answer (B) is correct. All income statement account balances are closed either to a summary account (such as income summary or revenue and expense summary) or to retained earnings. The normal balance of an expense account is a debit; therefore, an expense account is credited in a closing entry. Answer (C) is incorrect because an expense account should not be closed to a revenue account. Such offsetting is not good practice. Answer (D) is incorrect because an expense account should be credited in a closing entry. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 100 Printed for g j
  • 101. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[275] Gleim #: 3.14 -- Source: CIA 1195 IV-3 The correct order of the following steps of the accounting cycle is A. Posting, closing, adjusting, reversing. B. Posting, adjusting, closing, reversing. C. Posting, reversing, adjusting, closing. D. Adjusting, posting, closing, reversing. Answer (A) is incorrect because adjusting entries are made prior to closing. Answer (B) is correct. The order of the steps in the accounting cycle is identification and measurement of transactions and other events required to be recognized, journalization, posting from the journals to the ledgers, the development of a trial balance, adjustments to produce an adjusted trial balance, statement presentation, closing, taking a postclosing trial balance (optional), and making reversing entries (optional). Answer (C) is incorrect because reversing entries are made after adjustments and closing entries. Answer (D) is incorrect because posting is done prior to adjusting.[276] Gleim #: 3.15 -- Source: CIA 596 IV-5 An enterprise has made all necessary adjusting entries and is now closing its accounts for the period. Dividends of 30,000 were declared and distributed during the year. The entry to close the dividends account would be A. Retained earnings 30,000 Dividends 30,000 B. Dividends 30,000 Retained earnings 30,000 C. Income summary 30,000 Dividends 30,000 D. Dividends 30,000 Income summary 30,000 Answer (A) is correct. Assuming an account entitled “dividends” or “dividends declared” is debited when dividends payable is credited on the declaration date, it must be closed at the end of the period. The balance in this account is closed directly to retained earnings. The effect of declaring and paying dividends is to reduce retained earnings, so the entry is a debit to retained earnings and a credit to dividends. Answer (B) is incorrect because the closing entry should credit dividends and debit retained earnings. Answer (C) is incorrect because dividends is closed directly to retained earnings. Answer (D) is incorrect because dividends is closed directly to retained earnings by a credit.[277] Gleim #: 3.16 -- Source: CIA 1195 IV-4 Which of the following statements is the best description of reversing entries? A. The recording of reversing entries is a mandatory step in the accounting cycle. B. Reversing entries are made at the end of the next accounting period, after recording regular transactions of the period. C. Reversing entries are identical to the adjusting entries made in the previous period. D. Reversing entries are the exact opposite of the adjustments made in the previous period. Answer (A) is incorrect because reversing entries are optional. Answer (B) is incorrect because reversing entries are made at the beginning of the next accounting period. Answer (C) is incorrect because reversing entries are the exact opposite of the adjustments made in the previous period. Answer (D) is correct. Reversing entries are made at the beginning of a period to reverse the effects of adjusting entries made at the end of the preceding period. They are optional entries made for the sake of convenience in recording the transactions of the period. In order for reversing entries to reverse the prior adjustments, they must be the exact opposite of the adjustments made in the previous period.[278] Gleim #: 3.17 -- Source: CIA 1195 IV-27 The practice of recording advance payments from customers as a liability is an example of applying the Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 101 Printed for g j
  • 102. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Going concern assumption. B. Monetary unit assumption. C. Historical cost principle. D. Revenue recognition principle. Answer (A) is incorrect because the going concern assumption is that the business will have an indefinite life. Answer (B) is incorrect because the monetary unit assumption is that money is the common denominator by which economic activity is conducted and that the monetary unit provides an appropriate basis for accounting measurement and analysis. Answer (C) is incorrect because the historical cost principle reflects the practice that many assets and liabilities are accounted for and reported on the basis of acquisition price. Answer (D) is correct. Recognition of revenue occurs when the flow of future economic benefits to the enterprise is probable and such benefits are reliably measurable. Recording advance payments as a liability reflects a determination that the receipt of future economic benefits is not sufficiently certain to merit revenue recognition, given that the enterprise has not yet performed its obligations.[279] Gleim #: 3.18 -- Source: CIA 1194 IV-24 An enterprise sells a durable good to a customer on January 1, 2003, and the customer is automatically given a 1-year warranty. The customer also buys an extended warranty package, extending the coverage for an additional 2 years to the end of 2005. At the time of the original sale, the company expects warranty costs to be incurred evenly over the life of the warranty contracts. The customer has only one warranty claim during the 3-year period, and the claim occurs during 2004. The company will recognize income from the sale of the extended warranty A. On January 1, 2003. B. In years 2004 and 2005. C. At the time of the claim in 2004. D. December 31, 2005, when the warranty expires. Answer (A) is incorrect because the recognition of income from the sale of the extended warranty is deferred until the extended warranty period begins. Answer (B) is correct. Because warranty costs are expected to be incurred evenly over the life of the warranty contracts, the income should be recognized on the straight-line basis over the life of the extended warranty contract. Answer (C) is incorrect because the income should be recognized evenly over the life of the contract. It is not related to the timing of the claims. Answer (D) is incorrect because income is recognized over the life of the warranty, not at expiration.[280] Gleim #: 3.19 -- Source: CIA 596 IV-4 An enterprise had cash receipts from sales of 175,000 during 2004, of which 30,000 was unearned at the end of 2004. At the end of 2003, the company had 40,000 of unearned revenue, all of which was earned in 2004. The company’s sales revenue for 2004 would be A. 145,000 B. 165,000 C. 175,000 D. 185,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because 145,000 equals 2004 revenue from 2004 sales. Answer (B) is incorrect because 165,000 adds, rather than subtracts, the 2004 unearned revenue and subtracts, rather than adds, the 2003 receipts for which revenue was earned in 2004. Answer (C) is incorrect because 175,000 equals the cash receipts for 2004. Answer (D) is correct. The sales revenue earned in 2004 equals 2004 cash receipts, minus any receipts in 2004 for which the revenue has not yet been earned, plus the revenue earned from cash receipts in 2003, or 185,000 (175,000 – 30,000 + 40,000).[281] Gleim #: 3.20 -- Source: CIA 590 IV-26 ABC operates a catering service that specializes in business luncheons for large corporations. ABC requires customers to place their orders 2 weeks in advance of the scheduled events. ABC bills its customers on the tenth day of the month following the date of service and requires that payment be made within 30 days of the billing date. Conceptually, ABC should recognize revenue from its catering services at the date when a Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 102 Printed for g j
  • 103. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Customer places an order. B. Luncheon is served. C. Billing is mailed. D. Customer’s payment is received. Answer (A) is incorrect because the certainty and measurability criteria are not met when the customer places an order. Answer (B) is correct. Income, which includes revenue and gains, should not be recognized until an increase in future economic benefits related to an increase in an asset or a decrease in a liability is sufficiently certain and can be measured reliably. The most common time at which these two conditions are met is when the product or merchandise is delivered or services are rendered to customers. Thus, the enterprise has substantially accomplished what it must do to be entitled to future economic benefits when it serves the luncheon. It should then accrue a receivable and revenue. Answer (C) is incorrect because the date for billing is a matter of administrative procedure and convenience. The revenue should be recognized at the date the service was performed. Answer (D) is incorrect because the revenue should be recognized at the point of performance of the service. To wait until the receivable is collected is to ignore the accrual basis of accounting, which is identified in the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements as an underlying assumption of financial accounting.[282] Gleim #: 3.21 -- Source: CIA 595 IV-11 If sales are accounted for using the installment method, which of the following is(are) only recognized in proportion to the cash collected on the sales during the period? A. Sales. B. Sales and cost of sales. C. Sales and cost of sales and selling expenses. D. Sales and cost of sales and administrative expenses. Answer (A) is incorrect because sales and cost of sales are recognized in proportion to cash collections. Answer (B) is correct. Under the installment method, the gross profit on sales (sales – cost of sales) is not recognized until cash is collected. The proportion of cash collected on the sales during the accounting period determines the proportion of the gross profit on those sales that is recognized during the period. Hence, both sales and cost of sales are deferred. Answer (C) is incorrect because only the gross profit is deferred on sales for which cash has not yet been collected. Answer (D) is incorrect because only the gross profit is deferred on sales for which cash has not yet been collected.[283] Gleim #: 3.22 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-10 Using the cost-recovery method of revenue recognition, profit on an installment sale is recognized A. On the date of the installment sale. B. In proportion to the cash collections. C. After cash collections equal to the cost of goods sold have been received. D. On the date the final cash collection is received. Answer (A) is incorrect because the accrual basis recognizes revenue on the date of the installment sale. Answer (B) is incorrect because the installment basis recognizes revenue in proportion to the cash collections. Answer (C) is correct. Under the cost-recovery method, no revenue is recognized until cash payments by the buyer exceed the seller’s cost of the merchandise sold. This method is appropriate when collection of the revenue is very uncertain. Answer (D) is incorrect because, after the cash collections equal the cost of sales, revenue is to be recognized for any further collections.[284] Gleim #: 3.23 -- Source: CIA 1190 IV-28 On February 1, year 1 a computer software firm agrees to program a software package. Twelve payments of 10,000 on the first of each month are to be made, with the first payment March 1, year 1. The software is accepted by the client June 1, year 2. How much year 1 revenue should be recognized? A. 0 B. 100,000 C. 110,000 D. 120,000 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 103 Printed for g j
  • 104. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. Recognition of an element of financial statements (e.g., income, which includes revenue and gains) requires that two criteria be met. It must be probable that any future economic benefit associated with the item will flow to or from the enterprise, and the cost or value of the item must be measurable with reliability. The usual procedures for income recognition, e.g., that income be earned, reflect these criteria. Thus, income is recognized when an increase in future economic benefits is associated with an increase in an asset or a decrease in a liability. However, the enterprise has not substantially completed what it must do to be entitled to the benefits represented by the advance payment, and the receipt of future economic benefits is not sufficiently certain to merit income recognition. Accordingly, a liability should be recognized because the entity has a current obligation arising from a past event that will require an outflow of economic benefits, that is, to deliver the software or to refund the customer’s money. Thus, a liability for 100,000 and revenue of 0 should be recognized for year 1. NOTE: This analysis assumes that the sale of the software is a sale either of goods or of services for which the appropriate conditions have not been met. Under IAS 18, Revenue Recognition, revenue is recognized for a sale of goods when the enterprise has transferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership, the enterprise has neither continuing managerial involvement to an extent associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods, the amount can be reliably measured, it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the enterprise, and transaction costs can be reliably measured. For a sale of services, revenue is recognized when revenue can be reliably measured, it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the enterprise, the stage of completion can be reliably measured, and the costs incurred and the costs to complete can be reliably measured. Answer (B) is incorrect because income, which includes revenue and gains, should not be recognized until an increase in future economic benefits related to an increase in an asset or a decrease in a liability is sufficiently certain and can be measured reliably. Answer (C) is incorrect because income, which includes revenue and gains, should not be recognized until an increase in future economic benefits related to an increase in an asset or a decrease in a liability is sufficiently certain and can be measured reliably. Answer (D) is incorrect because income, which includes revenue and gains, should not be recognized until an increase in future economic benefits related to an increase in an asset or a decrease in a liability is sufficiently certain and can be measured reliably.[285] Gleim #: 3.24 -- Source: CIA 1193 IV-28 A building contractor has a fixed-price contract to construct a large building. It is estimated that the building will take 2 years to complete. Progress billings will be sent to the customer at quarterly intervals. Which of the following describes the preferable point for revenue recognition for this contract if the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably? A. After the contract is signed. B. As progress is made toward completion of the contract. C. As cash is received. D. When the contract is completed. Answer (A) is incorrect because revenue is not recognized until progress has been made toward completion. Answer (B) is correct. Under the percentage-of-completion method, revenues and expenses are recognized based on the stage of completion at the balance sheet date if the outcome of the contract can be estimated reliably. For a fixed- price contract, the outcome can be estimated reliably if (1) total revenue can be measured reliably, (2) it is probable that the economic benefits of the contract will flow to the enterprise, (3) contract costs to complete and stage of completion can be measured reliably, and (4) contract costs can be clearly identified and measured reliably so that actual and estimated costs can be compared. Answer (C) is incorrect because the cash basis is inappropriate. An accrual method, that is, the percentage-of- completion method, should be used. Answer (D) is incorrect because the completed-contract method is not a permissible method.[286] Gleim #: 3.25 -- Source: CIA 590 IV-32 The major distinction between the multiple-step and single-step income statement formats is the separation of A. Operating and nonoperating data. B. Income tax expense and administrative expenses. C. Cost of goods sold expense and administrative expenses. D. The effect on income taxes of extraordinary items and the effect on income taxes of profit or loss from ordinary activities. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 104 Printed for g j
  • 105. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. The IASs do not require a particular income statement format, although, at a minimum, certain line items must be presented, including one for the results of operating activities. The single-step income statement provides one grouping for income items and one for expense items. The “single step” is the one subtraction necessary to arrive at net profit or loss. The multiple-step income statement matches operating income and expenses separately from nonoperating items. Answer (B) is incorrect because both formats separate income tax expense and administrative expenses. Answer (C) is incorrect because both formats separate cost of goods sold expense and administrative expenses. Answer (D) is incorrect because intraperiod income tax allocation procedures must be applied to both formats.[287] Gleim #: 3.26 -- Source: CIA 1196 IV-5 At January 1, year 1, a sole proprietorship’s assets totaled 210,000, and its liabilities amounted to 120,000. During year 1, owner investments amounted to 72,000, and owner withdrawals totaled 75,000. At December 31, year 1, assets totaled 270,000, and liabilities amounted to 171,000. The amount of net profit for year 1 was A. 0 B. 6,000 C. 9,000 D. 12,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because the enterprise did have a net profit. Answer (B) is incorrect because 6,000 mistakenly deducts the 72,000 and adds the 75,000. Answer (C) is incorrect because 9,000 is the difference between beginning and ending equity without taking into consideration the capital transactions with, and distributions to, the owner. Answer (D) is correct. Net profit or loss may be derived using the basic accounting equation (assets = liabilities + equity). Equity at 1/1/year 1 was 90,000 (210,000 of assets – 120,000 of liabilities). Equity at 12/31/year 1 was 99,000 (270,000 – 171,000). Because owner transactions decreased net assets by 3,000 (72,000 investment – 75,000 withdrawals), net profit must have been 12,000 [99,000 – (90,000 – 3,000)].[288] Gleim #: 3.27 -- Source: CIA 596 IV-44 An enterprise has a 50% gross margin, general and administrative expenses of 50, interest expense of 20, and net profit of 10 for the year just ended. If the corporate tax rate is 50%, the level of sales for the year just ended was A. 90 B. 135 C. 150 D. 180 Answer (A) is incorrect because 90 is the gross margin. Answer (B) is incorrect because 135 is 150% of the gross margin. Answer (C) is incorrect because 150 assumes profit before tax equals 50% of net profit. Answer (D) is correct. Net profit equals sales minus cost of sales, G&A expenses, interest, and tax. Given a 50% tax rate, profit before tax must have been 20 [10 net profit ÷ (1.0 – .5 tax rate)]. Accordingly, profit before interest and tax must have been 40 (20 profit before tax + 20 interest), and the gross margin (sales – cost of sales) must have been 90 (40 profit before interest and tax + 50 G&A expenses). If the gross margin is 50% of sales, sales equals 180 (90 gross margin ÷ .5).[289] Gleim #: 3.28 -- Source: CIA 1193 IV-33 Which combination below explains the impact of credit card interest incurred and paid during the period on (1) equity on the balance sheet and (2) the statement of cash flows? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 105 Printed for g j
  • 106. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) (2) (1) Reflected on Effect on Equity Statement of on Balance Sheet Cash Flows as a(n)A. Decrease Investing outflowB. Decrease Operating or financing outflowC. No effect Financing or investing outflowD. No effect Operating outflow Answer (A) is incorrect because interest payments are classified as an operating or financing outflow on the statement of cash flows. Answer (B) is correct. Interest incurred is classified as interest expense on the income statement, which in turn reduces equity on the balance sheet by reducing retained earnings. According to IAS 7, cash payments for interest made by an enterprise that is not a financial institution may be classified on the statement of cash flows as an outflow of cash from operating or financing activities. Answer (C) is incorrect because credit card interest charges reduce equity. Answer (D) is incorrect because credit card interest charges reduce equity.[Fact Pattern #17]Balance sheets on December 31, year 1 and December 31, year 2 are presented below: Dec 31, year 1 Dec. 31, year 2 Liabilities and Equity:Assets: Trade accounts payable 62,000 49,000 Cash 50,000 60,000 Interest payable 8,000 11,000 Accounts receivable 95,000 89,000 Bonds payable 200,000 200,000 Allowance for Unamortized bond discount (15,000) (10,000) uncollectible Equity 199,000 257,000 accounts (4,000) (3,000) Total Liabilities and Inventory 120,000 140,000 Equity 454,000 507,000 Property, plant, and equipment 295,000 340,000 Additional information for the year 1: Accumulated depreciation (102,000) (119,000) 1. Cash payments to suppliers of merchandise were Total Assets 454,000 507,000 180,000. 2. Sales revenue was 338,000. 3. 3,000 of accounts receivable was written off. 4. Equipment was acquired for 65,000. 5. Depreciation expense was 30,000. 6. Interest expense was 20,000.[290] Gleim #: 3.29 -- Source: CIA 1196 IV-13 (Refers to Fact Pattern #17) Cost of goods sold in year 2 was A. 147,000 B. 160,000 C. 167,000 D. 180,000 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 106 Printed for g j
  • 107. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. Cost of goods sold equals beginning inventory, plus purchases, minus ending inventory. To determine cost of goods sold, purchases must be calculated. Purchases equal 167,000 (49,000 ending accounts payable + 180,000 payments to suppliers – 62,000 beginning accounts payable). Thus, cost of goods sold equals 147,000 (120,000 beginning inventory + 167,000 purchases – 140,000 ending inventory). Answer (B) is incorrect because 160,000 results from assuming that 180,000 of cash payments to suppliers equaled purchases. Answer (C) is incorrect because 167,000 equals purchases. Answer (D) is incorrect because 180,000 is the amount of cash payments to suppliers.[291] Gleim #: 3.30 -- Source: CIA 1196 IV-14 (Refers to Fact Pattern #17) Cash collections from customers in year 2 were A. 341,000 B. 338,000 C. 344,000 D. 335,000 Answer (A) is correct. Cash collections from customers equals beginning accounts receivable, plus sales revenue, minus accounts written off, minus ending accounts receivable. In year 2, cash collections from customers were 341,000 (95,000 + 338,000 – 3,000 – 89,000). Answer (B) is incorrect because 338,000 is the sales revenue for the year. Answer (C) is incorrect because 344,000 includes the 3,000 of accounts written off. Answer (D) is incorrect because 335,000 is sales revenue minus accounts written off.[292] Gleim #: 3.31 -- Source: CIA 1196 IV-15 (Refers to Fact Pattern #17) The carrying amount (cost minus accumulated depreciation) of property, plant, and equipment disposed of in year 2 was A. 7,000 B. 17,000 C. 20,000 D. 32,000 Answer (A) is correct. The cost of PPE disposed of is 20,000 (295,000 beginning PPE + 65,000 acquisitions – 340,000 ending PPE). The accumulated depreciation is 13,000 (102,000 beginning accumulated depreciation + 30,000 depreciation expense – 119,000 ending accumulated depreciation). Thus, the carrying amount of PPE disposed of is 7,000 (20,000 cost of PPE – 13,000 accumulated depreciation). Answer (B) is incorrect because 17,000 is the difference between ending and beginning accumulated depreciation. Answer (C) is incorrect because 20,000 is the cost of the PPE disposed. Answer (D) is incorrect because 32,000 results from using the change in the PPE account without acquisitions minus the accumulated depreciation.[293] Gleim #: 3.32 -- Source: CIA 1196 IV-16 (Refers to Fact Pattern #17) Cash interest payments in year 2 were A. 8,000 B. 12,000 C. 20,000 D. 25,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because 8,000 is the beginning interest payable. Answer (B) is correct. The interest payable credited in year 1 was 15,000 (20,000 interest expense – 5,000 amortized bond discount). Thus, the cash interest payment was 12,000 (8,000 beginning interest payable + 15,000 interest payable credited in year 1 – 11,000 ending interest payable). Answer (C) is incorrect because 20,000 is the interest expense for year 1. Answer (D) is incorrect because 25,000 is the interest expense plus the amortized discount. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 107 Printed for g j
  • 108. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[294] Gleim #: 3.33 -- Source: CIA 1192 IV-32 A reader of a statement of cash flows wishes to analyze the major classes of gross cash receipts and gross cash payments from operating activities. Which methods of reporting cash flows from operating activities will supply that information? A. Both the direct and indirect methods. B. Only the direct method. C. Only the indirect method. D. Neither method. Answer (A) is incorrect because only the direct method supplies information about major classes of gross cash receipts and payments related to operating activities. Answer (B) is correct. The statement of cash flows may report cash flows from operating activities in either an indirect or a direct format. The direct format reports the major classes of operating cash receipts and cash payments as gross amounts. The indirect presentation adjusts net profit or loss to the same amount of net cash from operating activities that would be determined in accordance with the direct method. To arrive at this amount, the indirect method adjusts net profit or loss for the effects of noncash transactions, deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash flows, and income or expense related to financing or investing activities. Answer (C) is incorrect because the direct method, rather than the indirect method, supplies information about major classes of gross cash receipts and payments related to operating activities. Answer (D) is incorrect because the direct method reports major classes of gross cash receipts and payments from operating activities.[295] Gleim #: 3.34 -- Source: CIA 1195 IV-34 In the statement of cash flows, the payment of cash dividends appears in the <List A> activities section as a <List B> of cash. List A List B A. Operating or investing Source B. Operating or financing Use C. Investing or financing Use D. Investing Source Answer (A) is incorrect because payment of cash dividends is a use of cash for an operating or financing activity. Answer (B) is correct. According to IAS 7, dividends paid may be treated as a cash outflow from financing activities because they are a cost of obtaining resources from owners. However, they may also be treated as operating items to help determine the enterprise’s ability to pay dividends from operating cash flows. Answer (C) is incorrect because payment of cash dividends is a use of cash for an operating or financing activity. Answer (D) is incorrect because payment of cash dividends is a use of cash for an operating or financing activity. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 108 Printed for g j
  • 109. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[296] Gleim #: 3.35 -- Source: CIA 596 IV-10 The comparative balance sheet for an enterprise that had net profit of 150,000 for the year ended December 31, 2004, and paid 125,000 of dividends during 2004 is as follows: 12/31/04 12/31/03 Cash 150,000 180,000 Accounts receivable 200,000 220,000 Total assets 350,000 400,000 Payables 80,000 160,000 Share capital 130,000 125,000 Retained earnings 140,000 115,000 Total 350,000 400,000 If dividends paid are treated as a cost of obtaining financial resources, the amount of net cash from operating activities during 2004 was A. 70,000 B. 90,000 C. 150,000 D. 210,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because 70,000 fails to add to net profit the reduction in accounts receivable. Answer (B) is correct. Net profit is adjusted to determine the net cash from operations. The payment of cash dividends is regarded as a cash flow from a financing activity. Hence, it is not a reconciling item. However, the decrease in accounts receivable (220,000 – 200,000 = 20,000) during the period represents a cash inflow (collections of pre-2004 receivables) not reflected in 2004 net profit. Moreover, the decrease in payables (160,000 – 80,000 = 80,000) indicates a cash outflow (payment of pre-2004 liabilities) that also is not reflected in 2004 net income. Accordingly, net cash from operations was 90,000 (150,000 + 20,000 – 80,000). Answer (C) is incorrect because 150,000 is net profit. Answer (D) is incorrect because 210,000 subtracts the reduction in receivables and adds the reduction in payables.[297] Gleim #: 3.36 -- Source: CIA 595 IV-2 In the determination of cost of goods sold, <List A> must be <List B> cash payments for goods along with other adjustments. List A List B A. An increase in accounts Added to payable B. A decrease in accounts Added to payable C. An increase in inventory Added to D. A decrease in inventory Subtracted from Answer (A) is correct. To convert from the cash basis (cash payments) to the accrual basis (cost of goods sold), an increase in accounts payable must be added to cash payments for goods to determine net purchases. Net purchases is then adjusted for the change in inventory to determine cost of goods sold. Answer (B) is incorrect because a decrease in accounts payable must be subtracted from, not added to, cash payments. Answer (C) is incorrect because an increase in inventory must be subtracted from, not added to, cash payments to calculate cost of goods sold. Answer (D) is incorrect because a decrease in inventory must be added to, not subtracted from, cash payments to calculate cost of goods sold. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 109 Printed for g j
  • 110. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[298] Gleim #: 3.37 -- Source: CIA 1196 IV-1 A corporation reported salaries expense of 190,000 for December of the current year. The following data are from its records: Dec. 31 Nov. 30 Prepaid salaries 46,000 40,000 Salaries payable 170,000 140,000 The amount of cash payments for salaries during December of the current year was A. 154,000 B. 166,000 C. 214,000 D. 226,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because 154,000 subtracts the 6,000 increase in prepaid salaries instead of adding it. Answer (B) is correct. An increase in prepaid salaries indicates that salaries expense is less than the cash paid for salaries. An increase in salaries payable indicates that salaries expense is more than the cash paid for salaries. Thus, the amount of cash payments for salaries was 166,000 (190,000 salaries expense + 6,000 increase in prepaid salaries – 30,000 increase in salaries payable). Answer (C) is incorrect because 214,000 subtracts the increase in prepaid salaries instead of adding it and adds the 30,000 increase in salaries payable instead of subtracting it. Answer (D) is incorrect because 226,000 adds the 30,000 increase in salaries payable instead of subtracting it.[299] Gleim #: 3.38 -- Source: CIA 593 IV-44 In reconciling net profit on an accrual basis to net cash from operating activities, what adjustment is needed to net profit because of (1) an increase during the period in prepaid expenses and (2) the periodic amortization of premium on bonds payable? (1) (2) Increase in Amortization of Premium Prepaid Expenses on Bonds Payable A. Add Add B. Add Deduct C. Deduct Add D. Deduct Deduct Answer (A) is incorrect because the increase in prepaid expenses requires a deduction from net profit in the reconciliation. Answer (B) is incorrect because the increase in prepaid expenses requires a deduction from net profit in the reconciliation. Answer (C) is incorrect because amortization of premium on bonds payable requires a deduction from net profit in the reconciliation. Answer (D) is correct. An increase in prepaid expenses indicates that cash outlays for expenses exceeded the related expense incurred; thus, net profit exceeded net cash from operating activities, and a deduction is needed in the reconciliation. Also, the amortization of premium on bonds payable causes a reduction of interest expense but does not increase cash; therefore, net profit exceeds net cash from operating activities, and a deduction is needed in the reconciliation.[300] Gleim #: 3.39 -- Source: CIA 1193 IV-34 An enterprise has publicly announced a detailed, formal plan to dispose in its entirety of a component of the enterprise that represents a separate major line of business that is distinct operationally and financially. Which of the following is the proper treatment of the disclosures that should be made after the announcement? A. As part of continuing operations. B. As a discontinuing operation. C. As an extraordinary item. D. As a prior-period item. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 110 Printed for g j
  • 111. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the component is to be terminated (discontinued). Answer (B) is correct. A discontinuing operation (DO) is a separate major line of business or geographical operating area that is distinct for operational and reporting purposes. Furthermore, it is a component that the enterprise is disposing of under a single plan. The initial disclosure event (IDE) is the earlier of entry into a binding agreement to sell substantially all of the DO’s assets or the approval and announcement by the enterprise’s governing body of a detailed, formal plan of discontinuance. Disclosures about a DO should be included in the financial statements beginning with the period of the IDE. Answer (C) is incorrect because discontinuing operations are not extraordinary items. They are not clearly distinct from ordinary activities. Answer (D) is incorrect because disclosures begin with the period of the IDE.[301] Gleim #: 3.40 -- Source: CIA 590 IV-35 Assuming all of the following involve material amounts, which is most likely to be classified as an extraordinary item in the income statement? A. A loss because of an expropriation of assets by a foreign government. B. A loss because of adjustments of accruals on long-term contracts. C. A gain because of the disposal of assets associated with a discontinuing operation of a business. D. A loss because of a lawsuit that resulted from charges of patent infringement. The company had unsuccessfully defended a similar suit 5 years ago. Answer (A) is correct. Net profit or loss includes profit or loss from ordinary activities and extraordinary items. Both are disclosed on the face of the income statement. Extraordinary items result from events or transactions that are clearly different from ordinary activities and are not expected to recur frequently and regularly. Examples are an expropriation of assets or a natural disaster. Each extraordinary item is separately disclosed. However, a total may be disclosed on the income statement if the nature and amount of each item are disclosed in the notes. Answer (B) is incorrect because an extraordinary item must be clearly different from ordinary activities. Answer (C) is incorrect because an extraordinary item must be clearly different from ordinary activities. Answer (D) is incorrect because an extraordinary item must be clearly different from ordinary activities.[302] Gleim #: 3.41 -- Source: CIA 595 IV-21 An enterprise changes its method of accounting for depreciation during the current year because it believes that the result will be a more appropriate presentation in the financial statements. In its income statement for the year, how should the enterprise report the adjustment resulting from the change in accounting policy if the alternative treatment allowed by the IASs is used? A. Not disclosed in the financial statements. B. Reported as an adjustment to beginning retained earnings. C. Disclosed as a separate type of depreciation expense, directly following depreciation expense for the current year. D. Included in the determination of net profit or loss for the current period. Answer (A) is incorrect because changes in accounting policies must be disclosed in the financial statements for the period. Answer (B) is incorrect because the benchmark treatment reports an adjustment to beginning retained earnings. Answer (C) is incorrect because the cumulative effect on net profit or loss should be reported. Answer (D) is correct. Under IAS 8, Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Fundamental Errors, and Changes in Accounting Policies, the benchmark treatment provides that a change in accounting policy should be applied retrospectively unless any resulting adjustment that relates to prior periods is not reasonably determinable. If the adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings cannot be reasonably determined, the change in accounting policy should be applied prospectively. Given that the benchmark treatment is not indicated, the allowed alternative treatment, that is, a cumulative-effect adjustment included in the determination of current net profit or loss, is permissible unless the amount to be included in current net profit or loss is not reasonably determinable. In that case, the allowed alternative treatment provides for the change in accounting policy to be applied prospectively. In the current period, a change in depreciation methods is reported by a cumulative-effect adjustment under the allowed alternative treatment. Pro forma comparative information also should be presented if practicable.[303] Gleim #: 3.42 -- Source: CIA 591 IV-38 Which of the following is a unique reporting problem associated with the determination of the results of operations for an interim period? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 111 Printed for g j
  • 112. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Advertising and similar costs expensed in one interim period may benefit other interim periods in the same annual period. B. Cost of goods sold for an interim period reflects only the amount of product cost applicable to sales revenue recognized in the interim period. C. Depreciation for an interim period represents an estimate. D. An extraordinary loss occurring in the second quarter must be prorate d over the last three interim periods of the year. Answer (A) is correct. Costs and expenses other than product costs should be either charged to income in interim periods as incurred or allocated among interim periods based upon the benefits received. Accordingly, costs such as advertising should be deferred in an interim period if the benefits extend beyond that period; otherwise, they should be expensed as incurred. But such a determination is difficult, and deferral raises the additional issue of how the deferred costs should be allocated among quarters. Thus, many companies expense the costs as incurred even though they may benefit other interim periods in the same annual period. Answer (B) is incorrect because the only product costs appropriate to expense in an interim period are the ones related to the revenue transactions recognized in the same interim period. Answer (C) is incorrect because the annual depreciation amount is an estimate. The depreciation amount for an interim period is simply a pro rata amount of the annual estimate. Answer (D) is incorrect because an extraordinary item is to be reported in the interim period in which it occurs rather than allocated to multiple interim periods. This approach is consistent with the way extraordinary items are handled on an annual basis.[304] Gleim #: 3.43 -- Source: CIA 1191 IV-42 An extraordinary gain occurs in the second fiscal quarter. How should the gain be accounted for? A. Recognized in full in the second quarter. B. Recognized equally over the second, third, and fourth quarters. C. Recognized only in the annual financial statements. D. Recognized equally in each quarter, by restating the first quarter. Answer (A) is correct. Extraordinary items result from events or transactions that are clearly different from ordinary activities and are not expected to recur frequently and regularly. Examples are an expropriation of assets or a natural disaster. Extraordinary items should be disclosed separately and included in the determination of net profit for the interim period in which they occur. Gains and losses similar to those that would not be deferred at year-end should not be deferred to later interim periods of the same year. Hence, the extraordinary gain should not be prorated. Answer (B) is incorrect because the gain should be recognized in full in the second quarter. Answer (C) is incorrect because the gain should be recognized in full in the second quarter. Answer (D) is incorrect because the gain should be recognized in full in the second quarter.[305] Gleim #: 3.44 -- Source: CIA 1192 IV-26 A newly acquired plant asset is to be depreciated over its useful life. The rationale for this process is the A. Economic entity assumption. B. Monetary unit assumption. C. Materiality assumption. D. Going concern assumption. Answer (A) is incorrect because the economic entity assumption provides that economic activity can be identified with a particular unit of accountability. Answer (B) is incorrect because the monetary unit assumption provides that all transactions and events can be measured in terms of a common denominator, for instance, the dollar. Answer (C) is incorrect because the materiality assumption simply implies that items of insignificant value may be expensed rather than capitalized and depreciated or amortized. The difference in treatment is not large enough to influence users if the item is not material. Answer (D) is correct. A basic feature of financial accounting is that the enterprise is assumed to be a going concern in the absence of evidence to the contrary. The going concern concept is based on the empirical observation that many enterprises have an indefinite life. The reporting entity is assumed to have a life long enough to fulfill its objectives and commitments and therefore to depreciate wasting assets over their useful lives. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 112 Printed for g j
  • 113. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[306] Gleim #: 3.45 -- Source: CIA 1188 IV-33 The following data were extracted from the financial statements of a company for the year ended December 31, 2004. Net profit 70,000 Depreciation expense 14,000 Amortization of intangibles 1,000 Decrease in accounts receivable 2,000 Increase in inventories 9,000 Increase in accounts payable 4,000 Increase in plant assets 47,000 Increase in share capital 31,000 Decrease in short-term notes payable 55,000 There were no disposals of plant assets during the year. Based on the above, a statement of cash flows will report a net increase in cash of A. 11,000 B. 17,000 C. 54,000 D. 69,000 Answer (A) is correct. Depreciation and amortization are noncash expenses and are added to net profit. A decrease in receivables indicates that cash collections exceed sales on an accrual basis, so it is added to net profit. To account for the difference between cost of goods sold (a deduction from net profit) and cash paid to suppliers, a two-step adjustment of net profit is necessary. The difference between CGS and purchases is the change in inventory. The difference between purchases and the amount paid to suppliers is the change in accounts payable. Accordingly, the conversion of CGS to cash paid to suppliers requires deducting the inventory increase and adding the accounts payable increase. An increase in plant assets indicates an acquisition of plant assets, causing a decrease in cash, so it is deducted. An increase in share capital represents a cash inflow and is added to net profit. A decrease in short-term notes payable is deducted from net profit because it reflects a cash outflow. Thus, cash increased by 11,000 (70,000 net profit + 14,000 + 1,000 + 2,000 – 9,000 + 4,000 – 47,000 + 31,000 – 55,000). Answer (B) is incorrect because 17,000 results from subtracting the amortization and the decrease in receivables and adding the increase in inventories. Answer (C) is incorrect because 54,000 results from adjusting net profit for the increase in plant assets and the increase in share capital only. Answer (D) is incorrect because 69,000 results from failing to make the adjustments for receivables, inventories, notes payable, and accounts payable.[307] Gleim #: 3.46 -- Source: CIA 593 IV-27 An airline should recognize revenue from airline tickets in the period when A. Passenger reservations are booked. B. Passenger reservations are confirmed. C. Tickets are issued. D. Related flights occur. Answer (A) is incorrect because a sufficient degree of certainty that economic benefits will flow to the enterprise does not exist when the reservations are booked or confirmed. Answer (B) is incorrect because a sufficient degree of certainty that economic benefits will flow to the enterprise does not exist when the reservations are booked or confirmed. Answer (C) is incorrect because a sufficient degree of certainty that economic benefits will flow to the enterprise does not exist when the ticket is issued. Answer (D) is correct. Recognition of an element of financial statements (e.g., income, which includes revenue and gains) requires that two criteria be met. It must be probable that any future economic benefit associated with the item will flow to or from the enterprise, and the cost or value of the item must be measurable with reliability. The usual procedures for income recognition, e.g., that income be earned, reflect these criteria. Thus, income is recognized when an increase in future economic benefits is associated with an increase in an asset or a decrease in a liability. The recognition criteria are not met with respect to the collections from sales of airline tickets until the receipt of future economic benefits is sufficiently certain. Such certainty exists when the airline performs the contracted-for service, that is, when the related flights occur. The critical event in the earning process for the airline is the delivery of the service to the customer, which occurs when the related flight takes place. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 113 Printed for g j
  • 114. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[308] Gleim #: 3.47 -- Source: CIA 1192 IV-27 A company provides fertilization, insect control, and disease control services for a variety of trees, plants, and shrubs on a contract basis. For 50 per month, the company will visit the subscriber’s premises and apply appropriate mixtures. If the subscriber has any problems between the regularly scheduled application dates, the company’s personnel will promptly make additional service calls to correct the situation. Some subscribers elect to pay for an entire year because the company offers an annual price of 540 if paid in advance. For a subscriber who pays the annual fee in advance, the company should recognize the related revenue A. When the cash is collected. B. Evenly over the year as the services are performed. C. At the end of the contract year after all of the services have been performed. D. At the end of the fiscal year. Answer (A) is incorrect because a liability is recognized when the cash is collected prior to the rendition of the service. Answer (B) is correct. Income, which includes revenue and gains, should not be recognized until an increase in future economic benefits related to an increase in an asset or a decrease in a liability is sufficiently certain and can be measured reliably. The most common time at which these two conditions are met is when the product or merchandise is delivered or services are rendered to customers. In the situation presented, the performance of the service (monthly spraying) is so significant to creating a sufficient certainty of an increase in future economic benefits that revenue should not be recognized until delivery occurs. Answer (C) is incorrect because revenue from services rendered is recognized when the services have been performed. A portion of the services is performed monthly. Thus, a portion of the related revenue should be recognized monthly rather than waiting until the entire contract year is complete. Answer (D) is incorrect because a portion of the related revenue should be recognized monthly rather than waiting until the entire fiscal year is complete.[Fact Pattern #18]A company had the pre-closing trial balance at December 31 shown. Additional information:The balance of opening inventory was 140,000.The long-term debt pays interest at a rate of 10% per annum, payable every 12 months. The debt was issued on July 1 of thecurrent year and originally had 5 years to maturity.The assets classified as property, plant, and equipment (exclusive of land) have a 10-year estimated useful life and were 1 year oldat the start of the current year. Straight-line depreciation is used by the company.Cash 80,000Accounts receivable 100,000Inventory 230,000Gross property, plant, and equipment 600,000Accumulated depreciation 60,000Accounts payable 200,000Long-term debt 1,000,000Share capital 2,000,000Retained earnings (Jan. 1) 500,000Sales revenue 750,000Purchases 530,000Administrative expenses 200,000[309] Gleim #: 3.48 -- Source: CIA 594 IV-2 (Refers to Fact Pattern #18) On the year-end financial statements, the company will report cost of goods sold of A. 440,000 B. 620,000 C. 670,000 D. 900,000 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 114 Printed for g j
  • 115. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. Cost of goods sold equals beginning inventory, plus purchases, minus ending inventory. Hence, cost of goods sold is 440,000 (140,000 + 530,000 – 230,000). Answer (B) is incorrect because 620,000 is obtained by reversing the opening and closing inventory figures. Answer (C) is incorrect because 670,000 omits closing inventory from the calculation. Answer (D) is incorrect because 900,000 adds, rather than subtracting, closing inventory.[310] Gleim #: 3.49 -- Source: CIA 594 IV-3 (Refers to Fact Pattern #18) Which is the correct order of the following four steps in the accounting cycle? Step 1 prepare adjusting journal entries Step 2 take a post-closing trial balance Step 3 prepare an adjusted trial balance Step 4 prepare reversing entries A. 1, 3, 2, 4 B. 4, 1, 3, 2 C. 3, 1, 2, 4 D. 1, 2, 3, 4 Answer (A) is correct. The accounting cycle may be summarized as consisting of nine steps: record the period’s transactions in the appropriate journals, post to the ledger(s) from the journals, prepare an unadjusted trial balance, prepare and post adjusting journal entries, prepare an adjusted trial balance, prepare the financial statements, prepare and post the closing entries, take a post-closing trial balance, and prepare reversing entries (optional). Answer (B) is incorrect because the preparation of reversing entries is the last step in the accounting cycle. Answer (C) is incorrect because the adjusted trial balance is prepared after adjusting entries are made. Answer (D) is incorrect because the post-closing trial balance is prepared after adjusting entries and the adjusted trial balance are completed.[311] Gleim #: 3.50 -- Source: CIA 591 IV-43 On 1/1/03, an enterprise acquired a plant asset for 300,000. Using the straight-line method of depreciation over a service life of 10 years with no residual value, the enterprise recorded depreciation of 30,000 for the year ending 12/31/03. The fair value of the asset at 12/31/03 is 310,000. If the enterprise uses the benchmark treatment for the measurement of property, plant, and equipment subsequent to initial recognition, the balance sheet prepared on 12/31/03 will A. Report the excess of the fair value over the carrying amount as goodwill. B. Report the excess of the fair value over the carrying amount as part of property, plant, and equipment. C. Report the excess of the fair value over the carrying amount in equity as revaluation surplus. D. Not report the excess of the fair value over the carrying amount. Answer (A) is incorrect because an excess of fair value over book value of a plant asset is not reflected in conventional financial statements under the benchmark treatment. Answer (B) is incorrect because an excess of fair value over book value of a plant asset is not reflected in conventional financial statements. Answer (C) is incorrect because the allowed alternative treatment described in IAS 16 is to carry the item of property, plant, and equipment at a revalued amount equal to fair value minus any subsequent accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. An increase in the carrying amount after a revaluation is credited directly to equity as revaluation surplus. Answer (D) is correct. According to the benchmark treatment for the measurement of property, plant, and equipment subsequent to initial recognition as an asset, the carrying amount should be cost minus any accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Thus, the plant asset should be reported at its book value of 270,000 [300,000 – (300,000 ÷ 10 years)].[312] Gleim #: 3.51 -- Source: CIA 1192 IV-30 The management of ABC Corporation is analyzing the financial statements of XYZ Corporation because ABC is strongly considering purchasing a block of XYZ ordinary shares that would give ABC significant influence over XYZ. Which financial statement should ABC primarily use to assess the amounts, timing, and certainty of future cash flows of XYZ Company? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 115 Printed for g j
  • 116. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Income statement. B. Statement of changes in equity. C. Statement of cash flows. D. Balance sheet. Answer (A) is incorrect because the statement of income is prepared on an accrual basis and is not meant to report cash flows. Answer (B) is incorrect because the statement of changes in equity is prepared on the accrual basis. Answer (C) is correct. A statement of cash flows provides information about the cash receipts and cash payments of an enterprise during a period. This information helps investors, creditors, and other users to assess the enterprise’s ability to generate cash and cash equivalents and the needs of the enterprise to use those cash flows. Historical cash flow data indicate the amount, timing, and certainty of future cash flows. It is also a means of verifying past cash flow assessments and of determining the relationship between profits and net cash flows and the effects of changing prices. Answer (D) is incorrect because the balance sheet reports on financial position at a moment in time.[313] Gleim #: 3.52 -- Source: CIA 1191 IV-32 In a statement of cash flows (indirect method), depreciation expense should be presented as A. An inflow of cash. B. An outflow of cash. C. An addition to net profit in converting net profit or loss to net cash flows from operating activities. D. A deduction from net profit in converting net profit or loss to net cash flows from operating activities. Answer (A) is incorrect because depreciation does not involve an inflow or outflow of cash. The purchase and the sale of property, plant, and equipment constitute investing activities, but the process of depreciating such assets is not defined as an investing activity. Depreciation is a noncash operating expense. Answer (B) is incorrect because depreciation is a noncash operating expense. Answer (C) is correct. Net cash flow from (used by) operating activities may be reported indirectly by removing from net profit or loss the effects of (1) deferrals of past operating cash flows, (2) accruals of expected future operating cash flows, (3) income or expense items related to financing and investing cash flows, and (4) noncash transactions. These adjustments include such items as depreciation, amortization of patents, amortization of bond discount and bond premium, gains and losses, changes during the period in trade receivables, changes in inventory, and changes in accounts payable and accrued liabilities. In the reconciliation of net profit or loss to net cash from (used by) operations, depreciation (a noncash expense) is added to net profit or loss. Answer (D) is incorrect because depreciation should be added.[314] Gleim #: 3.53 -- Source: CIA 592 IV-35 A financial statement includes all of the following items: net profit, depreciation, operating activities, and financing activities. What financial statement is this? A. Balance sheet. B. Income statement. C. Statement of cash flows. D. Statement of changes in equity. Answer (A) is incorrect because the balance sheet does not include periodic net profit or loss or depreciation expense. Answer (B) is incorrect because the income statement does not have captions for operating and financing activities. Answer (C) is correct. A statement of cash flows is a required financial statement. It provides information about cash receipts and payments by reporting the cash effects of an enterprise’s operating, investing, and financing activities. Related disclosures report the effects of noncash investing and financing activities. If the statement is presented using the indirect method, it will reconcile net profit or loss to net cash from (used in) operating activities. Depreciation, a noncash expense, is included in this presentation. Answer (D) is incorrect because the statement of changes in equity does not include captions for operating and investing activities and depreciation.[315] Gleim #: 3.54 -- Source: Publisher Which of the following describes the proper treatment of a material loss resulting from a natural disaster that is not expected to recur frequently or regularly? Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 116 Printed for g j
  • 117. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. Report as part of continuing operations. B. Report as part of discontinuing operations. C. Report as an extraordinary item. D. Report as a fundamental error. Answer (A) is incorrect because the loss should be treated as extraordinary. It is from an event clearly different from ordinary activities. Answer (B) is incorrect because the facts do not state that operations will be discontinued. Answer (C) is correct. Net profit or loss includes profit or loss from ordinary activities and extraordinary items. Both are disclosed on the face of the income statement. Extraordinary items result from events or transactions that are clearly different from ordinary activities and are not expected to recur frequently and regularly. Examples are an expropriation of assets or a natural disaster. Each extraordinary item is separately disclosed. However, a total may be disclosed on the income statement if the nature and amount of each item are disclosed in the notes. Answer (D) is incorrect because a fundamental error relates to a prior period. The loss presumably is current.[316] Gleim #: 3.55 -- Source: CIA 592 IV-36 An enterprise decided to sell a separate major line of its business. The assets were sold for 100,000 and had a net carrying amount of 70,000. The applicable tax rate was 20%. The result of this transaction may appear on the A. Balance sheet as a fundamental error. B. Income statement as an extraordinary item. C. Income statement as discontinuing operations. D. Income statement as a change in accounting policy. Answer (A) is incorrect because the gain or loss from disposing of assets or settling liabilities of a discontinuing operation appears on the face of the income statement. Answer (B) is incorrect because IAS 35 states that a discontinuing operation is not presented as an extraordinary item. Answer (C) is correct. A discontinuing operation (DO) is part of an enterprise that is being disposed of in accordance with a single plan. It constitutes a separate major line of business or geographical operating area that is distinct for operational and reporting purposes. If an enterprise disposes of assets or settles liabilities of a DO or reaches a binding agreement to do so, it must disclose on the face of the financial statements the pre-tax gain or loss and related income tax expense for any gain or loss recognized on the disposal or settlement. However, other required disclosures may be made in the notes or on the face of the financial statements. Consequently, the income statement may, but is not required to, be presented by segregating continuing and discontinuing operations. Answer (D) is incorrect because accounting policies guide the preparation and presentation of financial statements.[317] Gleim #: 3.56 -- Source: CIA 1191 IV-40 A company uses the percentage-of-completion method and reports the following: Year 1 Year 2 Construction costs 100 200 Estimated cost to complete at year-end 300 0 The contract price is 1,000. What is the gross profit recognized in year 2? A. 150 B. 400 C. 550 D. 800 Answer (A) is incorrect because gross profit recognized in year 2 is 550. Answer (B) is incorrect because gross profit recognized in year 2 is 550. Answer (C) is correct. At the end of year 1, total cost was expected to be 400 (100 incurred + 300 estimated cost to complete), and estimated total gross profit was 600 (1,000 price – 400 estimated total cost). Hence, the amount of gross profit recognized in year 1 was 150 [600 × (100 cost incurred ÷ 400 estimated total cost)]. The project was completed in year 2 at an additional cost of 200. Actual gross profit was therefore 700 (1,000 – 300 actual total cost). Gross profit recognized in year 2 is 550 (700 total – 150 recognized in year 1). Answer (D) is incorrect because gross profit recognized in year 2 is 550. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 117 Printed for g j
  • 118. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[318] Gleim #: 3.57 -- Source: CIA 594 IV-30 Which of the following is not an appropriate basis for measuring the historical cost of property, plant, and equipment? A. Delivery and handling costs and installation costs of a productive asset should be included in the asset’s cost. B. The cost should include the purchase price without a deduction for trade discounts. C. The costs of improvements to equipment incurred after its acquisition should be added to the asset’s cost if they provide future economic benefits exceeding the originally assessed standard of performance. D. All costs incurred in the construction of a plant building, from excavation to completion, should be considered as part of the asset’s cost. Answer (A) is incorrect because directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to working condition for its intended use are included in its cost. Answer (B) is correct. An asset classified under property, plant, and equipment is measured initially at cost. This amount includes the purchase price and any directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to working condition for its intended use. Directly attributable costs include costs of, for example, site preparation, initial delivery and handling, installation, professional fees (e.g., those of architects and engineers), and dismantling and removing the asset and restoring the site. The purchase price is determined by adding any import fees and nonrefundable purchase taxes and subtracting any trade discounts and rebates. Answer (C) is incorrect because subsequent expenditures should be added to the carrying amount if it is probable that they will result in future economic benefits exceeding the originally assessed standard of performance. Answer (D) is incorrect because the costs of a self-constructed asset are determined in the same way as those of an acquired asset. Hence, all costs of construction of a building are included in its initially recorded cost because they are directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to its working condition for its intended use.[319] Gleim #: 3.58 -- Source: CIA 590 IV-31 DEF is the consignee for 1,000 units of product X for ABC Company. ABC should recognize the revenue from these 1,000 units when A. The agreement between DEF and ABC is signed. B. ABC ships the goods to DEF. C. DEF receives the goods from ABC. D. DEF sells the goods and informs ABC of the sale. Answer (A) is incorrect because the revenue recognition criteria for sales of goods are not met in a consignment until the consignee sells the goods to a third party. Answer (B) is incorrect because the revenue recognition criteria for sales of goods are not met in a consignment until the consignee sells the goods to a third party. Answer (C) is incorrect because the revenue recognition criteria for sales of goods are not met in a consignment until the consignee sells the goods to a third party. Answer (D) is correct. Under a consignment arrangement, the consignor ships merchandise to the consignee who acts as agent for the consignor in selling the goods. The goods are in the physical possession of the consignee but remain the property of the consignor and are included in the consignor’s inventory. Revenue and the related cost of goods sold from these consigned goods should only be recognized by the consignor when the merchandise is sold and delivered to the final customer. Accordingly, recognition occurs when notification is received that the consignee has sold the goods. Only then are the recognition criteria for a sale of goods satisfied: the enterprise has transferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership, the enterprise has neither continuing managerial involvement to an extent associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods, the amount can be reliably measured, it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the enterprise, and transactional costs can be reliably measured.[320] Gleim #: 3.59 -- Source: CIA 1193 IV-37 ABC Manufacturing Company ships merchandise costing 40,000 on consignment to XYZ Stores. ABC pays 3,000 of freight costs to a transport company, and XYZ pays 2,000 for local advertising costs that are reimbursable from ABC. By the end of the period, three fourths of the consigned merchandise has been sold for 50,000 cash. XYZ notifies ABC of the sales, retains a 10% commission and the paid advertising costs, and remits the cash due ABC. Select the journal entry that appropriately records the notification of sale and the receipt of cash by ABC. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 118 Printed for g j
  • 119. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)A. Cash 40,000 Advertising expense 2,000 Commission expense 5,000 Freight expense 3,000 Revenue from consignment sales 50,000B. Cash 43,000 Advertising expense 2,000 Commission expense 5,000 Revenue from consignment sales 50,000C. Cash 50,000 Revenue from consignment sales 50,000D. Cash 45,000 Commission expense 5,000 Revenue from consignment sales 50,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because the freight was paid earlier in the period and would have been recorded then by a credit to cash and a debit to inventory. Thus, the freight costs will be included in the determination of net profit when cost of goods sold is recognized. Answer (B) is correct. ABC debits the cash received 43,000 [50,000 sales – 2,000 advertising – (.10 × 50,000) sales commission]. The advertising and commission expenses are debited for 2,000 and 5,000, respectively. Finally, 50,000 of gross revenue is credited. Answer (C) is incorrect because the 10% commission and the advertising costs are ignored in this answer. Answer (D) is incorrect because the reimbursable advertising costs are ignored in this answer.[321] Gleim #: 3.60 -- Source: CIA 592 IV-34 On December 1, year 1, a company using the installment sales method sold goods that cost 1,000 for 1,500. The buyer paid 100 down. Monthly payments start January 1, year 2. Interest accrues at 1% per month on the unpaid balance. To the nearest dollar, the effect on profit for year 1 is A. 33 increase. B. 47 increase. C. 67 increase. D. 114 increase. Answer (A) is incorrect because 33 is the net profit effect excluding interest revenue of 14 [.01 × (1,500 – 100)]. Answer (B) is correct. The gross profit margin is 33 1/3% [(1,500 – 1,000) ÷ 1,500], so the amount of profit from the 100 down payment recognizable in year 1 is 33 (rounded). Interest accrued on the 1,400 (1,500 – 100) balance for 1 month is 14. Consequently, the effect on profit is 47 (33 + 14). Answer (C) is incorrect because 67 is the cost of goods sold [(1,000 ÷ 1,500) × 100]. Answer (D) is incorrect because 114 {100 + [.01 × (1,500 – 100)]} is the total revenue, not the profit.[322] Gleim #: 3.61 -- Source: CIA 1189 IV-9 On January 31, 2003, a company prepaid the 72,000 rental fee for a parking lot it leases. The rental fee covered a 3-year period beginning February 1, 2003. What is the effect of this transaction on the December 31, 2001 financial statements for each of the following? Current Prepaid Expenses Expenses A. 0 72,000 B. 22,000 50,000 C. 24,000 48,000 D. 72,000 0 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 119 Printed for g j
  • 120. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the expenses relating to the current year need to be recognized. Answer (B) is correct. The 72,000 rental fee should be recognized as expense evenly over the 36-month duration of the lease. In 2003, 22,000 should be debited to current expenses (11 months × 72,000 ÷ 36), and 50,000 should be deferred as prepaid expense. Answer (C) is incorrect because 24,000 is the expense recognized for 12 months instead of the 11 months from January 31, 2003 to December 31, 2003. Answer (D) is incorrect because only those expenditures related to the current year should be expensed.[323] Gleim #: 3.62 -- Source: CIA 1189 IV-29 A department store sells gift certificates that may be redeemed for merchandise. Each certificate expires 3 years after issuance. The revenue from the gift certificates should be recognized A. Evenly over 3 years from the date of issuance. B. In the period the certificates are sold. C. In the period the certificates expire. D. In the period the certificates are redeemed or in the period they expire if they are allowed to lapse. Answer (A) is incorrect because there is no basis for such an allocation. Answer (B) is incorrect because, when the certificates are sold, future economic benefits are neither sufficiently certain nor reliably measurable. The store has not yet performed its obligations created by the sales of gift certificates. Answer (C) is incorrect because revenue is also recognized when certificates are redeemed. Answer (D) is correct. Income, which includes revenue and gains, should not be recognized until an increase in future economic benefits related to an increase in an asset or a decrease in a liability is sufficiently certain and can be measured reliably. These criteria are met when the certificates are redeemed or expire because the liability for redemptions will then decrease and economic benefits will be reliably measurable.[324] Gleim #: 3.63 -- Source: CIA 1185 IV-20 Which of the following costs is most likely to be expensed immediately rather than recognized as an asset? A. Development. B. Equipment. C. Goodwill. D. Research. Answer (A) is incorrect because an internally generated intangible asset may arise from the development (but not the research) phase of asset generation. An asset is recognized if the enterprise demonstrates the technical feasibility of completing the asset, the intent to complete and use or sell the asset, the ability to use or sell it, how it will generate probable future economic benefits, the availability of resources to complete development and to use or sell the asset, and the ability to make a reliable measurement of development expenditures for the asset. Answer (B) is incorrect because items of equipment that qualify for asset recognition are initially measured at cost. The depreciable amounts of these assets are then allocated as expense (unless included in the carrying amount of other assets) over their useful lives. Answer (C) is incorrect because goodwill arising from a business combination that meets the definition of an acquisition is recognized as an asset and then subsequently amortized. Answer (D) is correct. Research expenditures should be expensed when incurred. No intangible asset resulting from research should be recognized. The enterprise cannot demonstrate at this stage that future economic benefits are probable.[Fact Pattern #19]On January 1, 2003, a construction company signed a contract with a property management firm involving the construction of alarge urban office tower. The total price of constructing the tower was agreed to be 10 million with 2 million being paid on thedate of the agreement. Construction began immediately upon the signing of the contract and was expected to take 3 years tocomplete. The original estimate of total construction costs was 8 million.During the year ended December 31, 2003, 4 million of construction costs were incurred, and engineering estimates indicated thatthe office tower was 30% complete at year-end. At year-end, the revised estimate of total construction costs was 8.5 million andthe property management firm had been billed a further 4 million, although only 1 million of that amount had been collected byyear-end. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 120 Printed for g j
  • 121. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[325] Gleim #: 3.64 -- Source: CIA 1194 IV-8 (Refers to Fact Pattern #19) If the construction company uses the percentage-of-completion (cost-to-cost basis) method of revenue recognition, in 2003 the amount of revenue it will recognize on the long-term contract will be A. 3,000,000 B. 4,705,882 C. 5,000,000 D. 6,000,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because 3,000,000 is based on the engineering estimate of the stage of completion. Answer (B) is correct. Under the cost-to-cost approach to determining the stage of completion of the contract, the stage of completion equals contract costs incurred to date divided by the most recent estimate of total contract costs. Hence, the revenue to be recognized in the first year is 4,705,882 [(4,000,000 ÷ 8,500,000) × 10,000,000]. This amount equals costs incurred plus recognized profit. Answer (C) is incorrect because 5,000,000 is based on the original estimate of contract costs. Answer (D) is incorrect because 6,000,000 is based on the percentage of total revenue billed to date.[326] Gleim #: 3.65 -- Source: CIA 1194 IV-9 (Refers to Fact Pattern #19) Assume that the construction company recognizes 2 million of revenue for the long-term contract in 2003. If the company uses the percentage-of-completion method (cost-to-cost basis), the difference between revenue recognized to date and contract billings at the end of 2003 will be shown on the December 31, 2003 balance sheet as a <List A> of <List B>. List A List B A. Current asset 1,000,000 B. Current asset 4,000,000 C. Current liability 1,000,000 D. Current liability 4,000,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because an excess of billings over the sum of costs and recognized profits is a liability, and 1,000,000 is the amount of cash collected. Answer (B) is incorrect because an excess of billings over the sum of costs and recognized profits is a liability. Answer (C) is incorrect because 1,000,000 equals cash collected. Answer (D) is correct. The gross amount due from (to) customers for contract work is an asset (liability). If the amount of costs incurred plus recognized profits minus recognized losses exceeds progress billings, the enterprise presents an asset. If the amount of progress billings exceeds costs incurred plus recognized profits minus recognized losses, the enterprise presents a liability. At the end of 2003, the company had recognized 2,000,000 of revenue (costs to date + recognized profit) and had submitted billings of 6,000,000. Thus, the excess billings equal 4,000,000. Because the billings exceed revenue recognized, this amount is listed as a current liability. It represents unearned revenue. NOTE: Given a 10 million fixed price and 8.5 million of total costs, the assumption that 2 million of revenue was recognized under the percentage-of-completion method (cost-to-cost basis) necessarily includes the assumption that the stage of completion was 20% (2 million ÷ 10 million), that recognized profit was 300,000 [20% × (10 million – 8.5 million)], and that costs to date were 1.7 million (20% × 8.5 million). Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 121 Printed for g j
  • 122. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[Fact Pattern #20]On January 1, a new landscaping firm acquired a fleet of vehicles, all the necessary tools and equipment, and a parking andstorage facility. It began operations immediately. It is now the end of the first year of operations, and the first set of year-endfinancial statements are being prepared. Several decisions have to be made regarding the appropriate accounting and reportingpractices for this company. Relevant information for several of these items is described in the following list of transactions andevents:At year-end, the parking and storage facility that was purchased for 150,000 has a fair value of 250,000.The physical flow of inventory is first in, first out, and the cost of materials has risen steadily over the year.To promote sales for the coming year, maintenance contracts were sold in December at very reasonable prices, provided that thecustomers paid cash.On April 1, the company arranged a 100,000, 10% bank loan. Interest payments of 5,000 are due on October 1 and April 1 ofeach year during the 5-year term of the loan.During the first year of operations, the company experienced a 5% bad debt rate on credit sales. None of the bad debts areexpected to be recovered, given that 5% is the industry average level of bad debts. Total credit sales for the year were 400,000.The year-end balance of accounts receivable, which includes uncollected overdue accounts, is 100,000. Half of the uncollectedoverdue amounts are estimated to be uncollectible.[327] Gleim #: 3.66 -- Source: CIA 1194 IV-25 (Refers to Fact Pattern #20) The company will recognize revenue from the December sale of the maintenance contracts in the <List A> year if it selects <List B> basis reporting. List A List B A. First Cash B. First Accrual C. Second Cash D. Third Accrual Answer (A) is correct. Under the cash basis of accounting, revenue is recognized when the cash is received. Because the customers paid cash for the maintenance contracts in the first year, that is the year in which the revenue should be recognized. Answer (B) is incorrect because, if the accrual basis is used, revenue received for the maintenance contracts is recognized after the first year. The services are provided and the revenue recognition criteria are met after year one. Answer (C) is incorrect because, under cash-basis accounting, the revenue received in the first year is recognized in the first year. Answer (D) is incorrect because accrual-basis accounting recognizes the revenue in year two. Services will be provided in year two.[328] Gleim #: 3.67 -- Source: CIA 1194 IV-26 (Refers to Fact Pattern #20) The company will report a value of <List A> for the parking and storage facility if it prepares financial reports consistent with the <List B> principle. List A List B A. 150,000 Matching B. 150,000 Historical cost C. 250,000 Going concern D. 250,000 Revenue recognition Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 122 Printed for g j
  • 123. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the matching principle requires the recognition of related revenues and expenses in the same accounting period. Answer (B) is correct. An asset classified under property, plant, and equipment is measured initially at cost. This amount includes the purchase price and any directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to working condition for its intended use. Directly attributable costs include costs of, for example, site preparation, initial delivery and handling, installation, professional fees (e.g., those of architects and engineers), and dismantling and removing the asset and restoring the site. The purchase price is determined by adding any import fees and nonrefundable purchase taxes and subtracting any trade discounts and rebates. Answer (C) is incorrect because the going-concern assumption is that the enterprise will continue in existence indefinitely. Answer (D) is incorrect because revenue recognition principles refer to the timing of revenue recognition, not to the valuation basis for property, plant, and equipment.[329] Gleim #: 3.68 -- Source: CIA 1194 IV-27 (Refers to Fact Pattern #20) If the company uses the <List A> approach to estimate bad debt expense, the estimated bad debt expense will be <List B>. List A List B A. Balance sheet 20,000 B. Balance sheet 100,000 C. Income statement 20,000 D. Income statement 50,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because the balance sheet approach estimates bad debts as a portion of overdue accounts estimated to be uncollectible. Under this approach, the amount estimated to be uncollectible is 50,000 (100,000 × 50%). Answer (B) is incorrect because the balance sheet approach estimates bad debts as a portion of overdue accounts estimated to be uncollectible. Under this approach, the amount estimated to be uncollectible is 50,000 (100,000 × 50%). Answer (C) is correct. Using the income statement approach, the bad debt expense is determined using a percentage of total credit sales. Thus, bad debt expense is 20,000 (400,000 credit sales × 5% estimated bad debt rate). Answer (D) is incorrect because 50,000 is the estimated bad debt expense using the balance sheet approach.[330] Gleim #: 3.69 -- Source: CIA 1194 IV-28 (Refers to Fact Pattern #20) If the company reports expenses on an accrual basis, interest expense for the first year of operations is A. 5,000 B. 7,500 C. 10,000 D. 12,500 Answer (A) is incorrect because 5,000 is the interest expense under the cash basis. Answer (B) is correct. The interest expense for the first year equals the 5,000 payment made on October 1 plus the three months’ accrued interest at year-end, or 7,500 (5,000 + 2,500). Answer (C) is incorrect because 10,000 is the interest expense for a full year. Answer (D) is incorrect because 12,500 is equal to 15 months of interest.[331] Gleim #: 3.70 -- Source: CIA 595 IV-1 To calculate net sales, <List A> must be <List B> cash receipts from customers. List A List B A. An increase in accounts receivable Added to B. An increase in accounts receivable Subtracted from C. An increase in accounts payable Added to D. An increase in accounts payable Subtracted from Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 123 Printed for g j
  • 124. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. To convert from the cash basis (cash receipts) to the accrual basis (net sales), the increase in net accounts receivable must be added to cash receipts from customers. Answer (B) is incorrect because a decrease in receivables would be subtracted from cash receipts. Answer (C) is incorrect because changes in accounts payable are not included in the calculation of net sales. Answer (D) is incorrect because changes in accounts payable are not included in the calculation of net sales.[332] Gleim #: 3.71 -- Source: CIA 595 IV-3 Which of the following steps in the accounting cycle is completed later than the others? A. Adjustments. B. Journalization. C. Posting. D. Identification and measurement of transactions. Answer (A) is correct. The order of the steps in the accounting cycle is identification and measurement of transactions and other events required to be recognized, journalization, posting from the journals to the ledgers, the development of a trial balance, adjustments to produce an adjusted trial balance, statement presentation, closing, taking a post-closing trial balance (optional), and making reversing entries (optional). Answer (B) is incorrect because, of the steps listed, journalization occurs second. Answer (C) is incorrect because, of the steps listed, posting occurs third. Answer (D) is incorrect because the identification and measurement of transactions is the first step in the accounting cycle.[333] Gleim #: 3.72 -- Source: CIA 595 IV-4 A company purchased 50,000 worth of office supplies on January 1st and had 15,000 of office supplies still on hand at year-end. If the initial purchase of supplies entry on January 1st was to debit office supplies expense and to credit cash for 50,000, the adjusting entry on December 31 will be A. Office supplies 15,000 Office supplies expense 15,000 B. Office supplies expense 15,000 Office supplies 15,000 C. Office supplies 35,000 Office supplies expense 35,000 D. Office supplies expense 35,000 Office supplies 35,000 Answer (A) is correct. Because the initial entry recorded the entire purchase to a nominal account, the year-end adjusting entry must debit a prepaid asset to reflect the remaining supplies on hand of 15,000. The adjusting entry must also credit (reduce) expenses for the 15,000 of supplies that were not used during the period. Answer (B) is incorrect because the reversing entry is to debit expense and credit a prepaid asset. Answer (C) is incorrect because the appropriate amount is 15,000, not 35,000. Answer (D) is incorrect because the closing entry would have been to debit expense and credit a prepaid asset if the initial entry had been to a real account.[334] Gleim #: 3.73 -- Source: CIA 1196 IV-11 A company began work on a long-term construction contract in year 1. The contract price was 3,000,000. Year-end information related to the contract is as follows: Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Estimated total cost 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 Cost incurred 700,000 900,000 400,000 Billings 800,000 1,200,000 1,000,000 Collections 600,000 1,200,000 1,200,000 If the company uses the percentage-of-completion method of accounting for this contract, the gross profit to be recognized in year 1 is Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 124 Printed for g j
  • 125. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. (100,000) B. 100,000 C. 200,000 D. 350,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because (100,000) is the difference between costs incurred and collections. Answer (B) is incorrect because 100,000 is the difference between billings and costs incurred. Answer (C) is incorrect because 200,000 is the difference between billings and collections. Answer (D) is correct. When the outcome of a contract can be reasonably estimated, the percentage-of-completion method recognizes revenue based on the stage of completion of the contract. One typical method for estimating the stage of completion is the calculation of ratio of the contract costs incurred to date to the estimated total costs. The percentage-of- completion at year-end on the cost-to-cost basis is 35% (700,000 ÷ 2,000,000). The gross profit for year 1 is the anticipated gross profit on the contract times the completion percentage. Thus, gross profit for year 1 is 350,000 [(3,000,000 – 2,000,000) × 35%].[335] Gleim #: 3.74 -- Source: CIA 1196 IV-30 A vendor sells specialty inks on consignment to a manufacturer of colored paper at a price of 200 per barrel. Payment is made to the vendor in the month the manufacturer uses the barrels in production. The vendor records revenues when the barrels are shipped and makes no adjusting entries to record unearned revenues until the December 31st closing of the books. At the end of July, the manufacturer had 40 barrels of ink on consignment. During August, the vendor consigned 50 barrels and received payment for 30 barrels. Another 5 barrels were returned to the vendor by the manufacturer for credit. At the end of August, what is the amount of unearned revenue contained in the vendor’s accounts receivable from the manufacturer? A. 3,000 B. 4,000 C. 11,000 D. 12,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because 3,000 does not include the 40 barrels consigned in July. Answer (B) is incorrect because 4,000 does not include the 40 barrels consigned in July or deduct the 5 barrels returned. Answer (C) is correct. Under a consignment arrangement, the consignor ships merchandise to the consignee who acts as agent for the consignor in selling the goods. The goods are in the physical possession of the consignee but remain the property of the consignor and are included in the consignor’s inventory. Revenue and the related cost of goods sold from these consigned goods should only be recognized by the consignor when the merchandise is sold and delivered to the final customer. Accordingly, recognition occurs when notification is received that the consignee has sold the goods. Only then are the recognition criteria for a sale of goods satisfied: the enterprise has transferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership, the enterprise has neither continuing managerial involvement to an extent associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods, the amount can be reliably measured, it is probable that the economic benefits will flow to the enterprise, and transactional costs can be reliably measured. In this consignment arrangement, 30 barrels have been paid for, so the revenue is recognized for these barrels. The 5 barrels returned are not included in unearned revenue because they constitute a return of consigned goods. Accordingly, the amount of inappropriately recognized revenue is 11,000 [(40 consigned + 50 consigned - 30 paid for - 5 returns) x 200]. Answer (D) is incorrect because 12,000 does not reflect the 5 barrels returned.[336] Gleim #: 3.75 -- Source: CIA 591 IV-52 A project is expected to result in the following adjustments over the next year: Cash sales increase by 400,000. Expenses (except depreciation) increase by 180,000. Depreciation increases by 80,000. Assume the corporate tax rate is 34%. The total relevant net cash flows during that year are A. 92,400 B. 140,000 C. 172,400 D. 220,000 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 125 Printed for g j
  • 126. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because 92,400 equals the increase in after-tax net profit. Answer (B) is incorrect because 140,000 is the increase in pre-tax net profit. Answer (C) is correct. The increase in pre-tax net profit is 140,000 (400,000 cash sales increase – 180,000 nondepreciation expenses increase – 80,000 depreciation). Thus, taxes will increase by 47,600 (34% × 140,000), and the increase in net cash inflows will be 172,400 (400,000 – 180,000 – 47,600). Answer (D) is incorrect because 220,000 equals cash sales minus expenses other than depreciation.[337] Gleim #: 3.76 -- Source: CIA 590 IV-55 A company had 30 million in total sales last year and expects 40 million in total sales this year. Ten percent of each year’s sales are on credit that will be paid the following year. The company anticipates the following expenses for this year: Depreciation of 5 million. Labor, materials, taxes, and other expenses of 51 million. Assume the company begins this year with a zero cash balance. At the end of this year, the company will have a cash deficit of A. 8 million. B. 12 million. C. 15 million. D. 17 million. Answer (A) is incorrect because 8 million includes next year’s payments on this year’s sales in the estimation of this year’s cash inflows. Answer (B) is correct. The cash inflows from last year’s credit sales are estimated to be 3,000,000 (10% × 30,000,000). The cash inflows from this year’s sales are expected to be 36,000,000 (90% × 40,000,000), a total cash inflow of 39,000,000 for the current year. Ignoring depreciation, which is a noncash expense, cash outflows are estimated at 51,000,000. Hence, the net cash outflow is anticipated to be 12,000,000 (39,000,000 – 51,000,000). Answer (C) is incorrect because 15 million excludes the 3 million cash inflow that resulted from last year’s credit sales. Answer (D) is incorrect because 17 million includes depreciation when estimating cash outflows.[338] Gleim #: 3.77 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-32 The management discussion and analysis section of a company’s annual report typically contains A. A description of the company’s primary business and segments. B. A discussion of the company’s operating results. C. A discussion of the future prospects of the company. D. All of the answers are correct. Answer (A) is incorrect because a description of the company’s primary business and segments, a discussion of the company’s operating results, and a discussion of the future prospects of the company are included. Answer (B) is incorrect because a description of the company’s primary business and segments, a discussion of the company’s operating results, and a discussion of the future prospects of the company are included. Answer (C) is incorrect because a description of the company’s primary business and segments, a discussion of the company’s operating results, and a discussion of the future prospects of the company are included. Answer (D) is correct. The MD&A section addresses capital resources, liquidity, and operating results. Management must also identify trends and discuss significant events and uncertainties. Thus, the MD&A section typically includes a description of the company’s primary business and segments. It reviews the operating results of the company, providing a breakdown of net sales and income by segment. It also contains prospective information on economic trends and market changes, and their potential effects on the company’s future performance.[339] Gleim #: 3.78 -- Source: CIA R98 IV-36 The present value of 100,000 due at the end of eight years, at 10%, is 46,650. What is the approximate value of 100,000 invested for the same length of time and at the same rate? A. 46,650 B. 100,000 C. 114,360 D. 214,360 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 126 Printed for g j
  • 127. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because 46,650 is the present value of 100,000 discounted at 10% for 8 years. Answer (B) is incorrect because 100,000 is the present value of 214,360 discounted at 10% for 8 years. Answer (C) is incorrect because 114,360 is the interest earned. Answer (D) is correct. The present value of a future amount equals that amount divided by the interest factor for the given discount period and discount rate. The interest factor for the present value of 1 due in 8 years and discounted at 10% is 2.1436 (100,000 ÷ 46,650). Thus, the future value of 100,000 must be 214,360 (2.1436 × 100,000).[340] Gleim #: 3.79 -- Source: CIA R98 IV-41 A company purchased a new machine on an installment payment plan and is to make equal annual payments beginning one year from the date of purchase. Using an interest rate of 10%, the cost of the machine can be determined by multiplying one payment by the A. Future value of one currency unit. B. Future value of an annuity due of one currency unit. C. Present value of one currency unit. D. Present value of an ordinary annuity of one currency unit. Answer (A) is incorrect because the cost at the date of purchase is the present value of an ordinary annuity. Answer (B) is incorrect because the cost at the date of purchase is the present value of an ordinary annuity. Answer (C) is incorrect because the cost at the date of purchase is the present value of an ordinary annuity. Answer (D) is correct. The cost of the machine is the present value of the annuity (the series of equal periodic payments). The annuity is an ordinary annuity because the payments begin one period after the date of purchase. The cost therefore equals the periodic payment times the interest factor for an ordinary annuity of one currency unit for a specified number of equal periodic payments discounted at a given interest rate.[341] Gleim #: 3.80 -- Source: Publisher IAS 34, Interim Financial Reporting, provides guidelines for interim reporting stating that enterprises A. May use estimates based on sales margins for interim inventory valuation although a different method is used for annual reporting. B. Must determine income tax expense by applying progressive tax rates to income on a quarterly basis. C. May prorate extraordinary items over four quarters. D. Need not disclose basic and diluted earnings per share each quarter. Answer (A) is correct. Essentially the same reporting methods should be used for interim and annual financial statements. However, the preparation of interim financial reports ordinarily requires a greater use of estimates. For example, IAS 34 states that complete inventory-taking and valuation may not be required at interim dates. Estimates based on sales margins may suffice. Answer (B) is incorrect because income tax expense is based on the estimated annual effective income tax rate. Answer (C) is incorrect because the same accounting policies should be applied in the interim statements as in the annual statements. Accordingly, an extraordinary item is to be reported in the interim period in which the gain or loss occurred. Answer (D) is incorrect because the same accounting policies should be applied in the interim statements as in the annual statements. Thus, BEPS and DEPS must be reported.[342] Gleim #: 3.81 -- Source: CIA 1193 IV-30 An enterprise that sprays chemicals in residences to eliminate or prevent infestation of insects requires that customers prepay for 3 monthsrsquo; service at the beginning of each new quarter. Select the term that appropriately describes this situation from the viewpoint of the enterprise. A. Unearned income. B. Earned income. C. Accrued income. D. Prepaid expense. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 127 Printed for g j
  • 128. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. The prepayment does not meet the income recognition criteria because the future inflow of economic benefits is not sufficiently certain given that the enterprise has not done what is required to be entitled to those benefits. Thus, the amount received in advance is considered a liability (unearned income) because it represents an obligation to perform a service in the future arising from a past transaction. Answer (B) is incorrect because the income is not earned. The exterminator has not performed the related services for the customer. Answer (C) is incorrect because accrued income has met the recognition criteria but has not been received. Answer (D) is incorrect because the customer has a prepaid expense (expense paid but not incurred).[343] Gleim #: 3.82 -- Source: CIA 1196 IV-4 The purpose of an entry that contains a debit to prepaid property taxes and a credit to property tax expense is to recognize a(n) A. Prepaid expense. B. Accrued expense. C. Prepaid income. D. Expired cost. Answer (A) is correct. An entry debiting prepaid property taxes and crediting property tax expense is needed at the balance sheet date when prepayments are initially recorded in an expense account. This adjusting entry defers expense recognition to the future period in which the property taxes apply. Answer (B) is incorrect because the entry records an asset. Answer (C) is incorrect because the entry records an asset. Answer (D) is incorrect because the entry records an unexpired cost (an asset).[344] Gleim #: 3.83 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-3 What are the effects of an adjusting entry used to accrue revenue from credit sales? Assets Liabilities Equity A. Decrease No effect Decrease B. Increase No effect Increase C. No effect Decrease Increase D. No effect Increase Decrease Answer (A) is incorrect because the accrual of revenue increases assets, increases equity, and has no effect on liabilities. Answer (B) is correct. The journal entry to accrue revenue requires a debit to a receivable account and a credit to a revenue account. Thus, the accrual of revenue increases assets and equity. Answer (C) is incorrect because the accrual of revenue increases assets, increases equity, and has no effect on liabilities. Answer (D) is incorrect because the accrual of revenue increases assets, increases equity, and has no effect on liabilities.[345] Gleim #: 3.84 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-14 A manufacturer receives an advance payment for special-order goods that are to be manufactured and delivered within the next year. The advance payment should be reported in the manufacturer’s current-year balance sheet as a(n) A. Current liability. B. Noncurrent liability. C. Contra asset amount. D. Accrued revenue. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 128 Printed for g j
  • 129. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is correct. Recognition of an element of financial statements (e.g., income, which includes revenue and gains) requires that two criteria be met. It must be probable that any future economic benefit associated with the item will flow to or from the enterprise, and the cost or value of the item must be measurable with reliability. The usual procedures for income recognition, e.g., that income be earned, reflect these criteria. Thus, income is recognized when an increase in future economic benefits is associated with an increase in an asset or a decrease in a liability. However, the enterprise has not substantially completed what it must do to be entitled to the benefits represented by the advance payment, and the receipt of future economic benefits is not sufficiently certain to merit income recognition. Accordingly, a liability should be recognized because the entity has a current obligation arising from a past event that will require an outflow of economic benefits, that is, to deliver goods or to refund the customerrsquo;s money. The delivery of goods is to take place within a year of the balance-sheet date; therefore, the obligation is expected to be settled in the normal course of the operating cycle or is due to be settled within 12 months. Answer (B) is incorrect because the obligation is current. Answer (C) is incorrect because a contra account reduces the valuation of the related account. Answer (D) is incorrect because the payment has not met the income recognition criteria.[346] Gleim #: 3.85 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-28 An enterprise that owns a new professional basketball team sells season tickets to its team’s games. The season lasts from November through April, with 10 games played each month. In 2003, the enterprise collected 3 million from season-ticket sales for the 2003-2004 season. Its fiscal year-end is December 31. Based on this information, the enterprise should A. Report a liability for unearned income of 2 million on its December 31, 2003 balance sheet. B. Report a liability for unearned income of 3 million on its December 31, 2003 balance sheet. C. Report income of 3 million on its 2003 income statement. D. Report income of 1 million on its 2004 income statement. Answer (A) is correct. The collections represent a liability (unearned income). The income recognition criteria are not met with respect to the season ticket collections until the receipt of future economic benefits is sufficiently certain. Such certainty exists with respect to collections related to the games played as of the balance sheet date. Accordingly, the enterprise should recognize 1 million as income in 2003 [2 months × (3,000,000 ÷ 6 months)]. The remaining 2 million should be reported as a liability. Answer (B) is incorrect because the liability at the end of 2003 is 2 million. Answer (C) is incorrect because the enterprise should report income of 1 million in 2003 and 2 million in 2004. Answer (D) is incorrect because the enterprise should report income of 1 million in 2003 and 2 million in 2004.[Fact Pattern #21]An enterprise had the pre-closing trial balance at December 31 shown below. Additional information:The balance of opening inventory was 140,000.The long-term debt pays interest at a rate of 10% per annum, payable every 12 months. The debt was issued on July 1 of thecurrent year and originally had 5 years to maturity.The assets classified as property, plant, and equipment have a 10-year estimated useful life and were 1 year old at the start of thecurrent year. Straight-line depreciation is used.Cash 80,000Accounts receivable 100,000Inventory 230,000Gross property, plant, and equipment 600,000Accumulated depreciation 60,000Accounts payable 200,000Long-term debt 1,000,000Share capital 2,000,000Retained earnings (Jan. 1) 500,000Sales revenue 750,000Purchases 530,000Administrative expenses 200,000 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 129 Printed for g j
  • 130. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[347] Gleim #: 3.86 -- Source: CIA 594 IV-1 (Refers to Fact Pattern #21) The enterprise uses straight-line depreciation for financial reporting purposes, but uses accelerated depreciation for tax purposes. Which of the following account balances would be lower in the financial statements used for tax purposes than it would be in the general purpose financial statements? A. Accumulated depreciation. B. Cash. C. Retained earnings. D. Gross property, plant, and equipment. Answer (A) is incorrect because the balance of accumulated depreciation is higher in the tax-basis financial statements. Answer (B) is incorrect because depreciation expense is a noncash charge. The cash balance is unaffected by the depreciation method used. Answer (C) is correct. Because the tax basis uses an accelerated method, depreciation expense and accumulated depreciation will be greater. Moreover, taxable income will be lower than financial net income. Consequently, tax- basis retained earnings will be less than that in the general purpose financial statements. Answer (D) is incorrect because the historical cost of property, plant, and equipment is recorded in the gross property, plant, and equipment account. This amount is unaffected by depreciation.[348] Gleim #: 3.87 -- Source: CIA 594 IV-5 (Refers to Fact Pattern #21) The enterprise will report year-end total assets of A. 800,000 B. 890,000 C. 950,000 D. 1,010,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because 800,000 uses the beginning balance of inventory. Answer (B) is correct. The year-end total assets can be determined by summing all of the assets and deducting accumulated depreciation (including the current yearrsquo;s depreciation). Total accumulated depreciation at the end of the second year is 120,000 [(600,000 ÷ 10 years) × 2 years]. Total assets equal 890,000 (80,000 cash + 100,000 A/R + 230,000 EI + 600,000 gross property, plant, and equipment – 120,000 accumulated depreciation). Answer (C) is incorrect because 950,000 omits second-year depreciation from the calculation. Answer (D) is incorrect because 1,010,000 omits total accumulated depreciation from the calculation.[349] Gleim #: 3.88 -- Source: CIA 594 IV-4 (Refers to Fact Pattern #21) Which adjusting entry should be used at year-end to account for interest expense on the long-term debt? A. Interest expense 100,000 Interest payable 100,000 B. Interest expense 50,000 Cash 50,000 C. Interest payable 100,000 Interest expense 100,000 D. Interest expense 50,000 Interest payable 50,000 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 130 Printed for g j
  • 131. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because the debt has been outstanding for only 6 months, so accrued interest is only 50,000. Answer (B) is incorrect because the debt pays annual interest on July 1, and no cash outlay is required at year-end. Answer (C) is incorrect because accrued interest is 50,000. Also, interest expense is debited and interest payable is credited. Answer (D) is correct. The debt was issued on July 1 and has been outstanding for only 6 months. Interest expense equals the face amount of the debt multiplied by the interest rate and the fraction of the year the debt was outstanding [1,000,000 × 10% × (6 ÷ 12) = 50,000]. Because interest is payable on July 1, 6 monthsrsquo; interest is accrued and expensed in the current period. The payable is also recognized in the current period. Thus, the adjusting entry should be Interest expense 50,000 Interest payable 50,000[350] Gleim #: 3.89 -- Source: CIA 594 IV-6 (Refers to Fact Pattern #21) Assume that the enterprise reports cost of goods sold of 200,000 and interest expense of 10,000 for the current period. Also assume a 50% tax rate on corporate earnings. The final closing entry required to ensure that current earnings are incorporated into year-end retained earnings is A. Income summary 140,000 Retained earnings 140,000 B. Retained earnings 280,000 Income summary 280,000 C. Income summary 240,000 Retained earnings 240,000 D. Retained earnings 240,000 Income summary 240,000 Answer (A) is correct. Current period pretax net income equals 280,000 (750,000 sales – 200,000 CGS – 60,000 depreciation – 10,000 interest – 200,000 administrative expenses). Thus, after-tax net income credited to retained earnings equals 140,000 [(1.0 – .5) × 280,000]. Answer (B) is incorrect because income taxes are omitted and the journal entry is reversed. Answer (C) is incorrect because administrative expenses were omitted. Answer (D) is incorrect because administrative expenses were omitted and the journal entry is reversed.[351] Gleim #: 4.1 -- Source: CIA 1191 IV-34 An enterprise offers its customers credit terms of a 2% discount if paid within 10 days, or the full balance is due within 30 days (2/10, n/30). If some customers take advantage of the cash discount and others do not, which of the following accounts will appear on the income statement if the net method of recording receivables is employed? Sales Discounts Sales Discounts Forfeited A. Yes Yes B. Yes No C. No No D. No Yes Answer (A) is incorrect because the net method requires a sales discount forfeited but not a sales discount account. Answer (B) is incorrect because the net method requires a sales discount forfeited but not a sales discount account. Answer (C) is incorrect because the net method requires a sales discount forfeited. Answer (D) is correct. The gross method accounts for receivables at their face value. If a discount is taken, a sales discount is recorded and classified as an offset to sales in the income statement to yield net sales. The net method records receivables net of the applicable discount. If the payment is not received during the discount period, an interest revenue account, such as sales discounts forfeited, is credited at the end of the discount period or when the payment is received. Accordingly, the application of the net method requires a sales discount forfeited but not a sales discount account. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 131 Printed for g j
  • 132. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[352] Gleim #: 4.2 -- Source: CIA 1193 IV-41 An internal auditor is deriving cash flow data based on an incomplete set of facts. Bad debt expense was 2,000. Additional data for this period follows: Net profit 100,000 Accounts receivable beginning balance 5,000 Allowance for bad debts beginning balance (500) Accounts receivable written off 1,000 Increase in net accounts receivable (after subtraction of allowance for bad debts) 30,000 How much cash was collected this period? A. 67,000 B. 68,500 C. 68,000 D. 70,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because 67,000 results from subtracting the write-offs and the bad debt expense from the sum of net income and beginning net accounts receivable. Answer (B) is incorrect because 68,500 assumes a zero balance in the beginning allowance account and deducts bad debt expense from the sum of net profit and beginning net accounts receivable. Answer (C) is incorrect because 68,000 deducts bad debt expense from the sum of net profit and beginning net accounts receivable. Answer (D) is correct. The cash collected equals net profit adjusted for the change in net accounts receivable (gross A/R – allowance for bad debts). An increase in net accounts receivable implies that cash collected was less than net profit. Hence, cash collected was 70,000 (100,000 – 30,000 increase in net A/R). Write-offs (debit the allowance, credit A/R) do not affect the computation of cash collected because the allowance and gross accounts receivable are reduced by the same amount. Moreover, recognition of bad debt expense (debit bad debt expense, credit the allowance) is not included in this calculation because it is already reflected in the net accounts receivable balance.[353] Gleim #: 4.3 -- Source: CIA 1196 IV-33 An analysis of an enterprise’s 150,000 accounts receivable at year-end resulted in a 5,000 ending balance for its allowance for uncollectible accounts and a bad debt expense of 2,000. During the past year, recoveries on bad debts previously written off were correctly recorded at 500. If the beginning balance in the allowance for uncollectible accounts was 4,700, what was the amount of accounts receivable written off as uncollectible during the year? A. 1,200 B. 1,800 C. 2,200 D. 2,800 Answer (A) is incorrect because 1,200 results from subtracting the recoveries instead of adding them. Answer (B) is incorrect because 1,800 results from subtracting bad debt expense from the allowance account. Answer (C) is correct. Under the allowance method, uncollectible accounts are written off by a debit to the allowance account and a credit to accounts receivable. The 500 of recovered bad debts is accounted for by a debit to accounts receivable and a credit to the allowance account. The 2,000 bad debt expense is also credited to the allowance account. The amount of accounts receivable written off as uncollectible is 2,200 [5,000 ending allowance – (4,700 beginning allowance + 500 recoveries + 2,000 bad debt expense)]. Answer (D) is incorrect because 2,800 results from subtracting the recoveries and bad debt expense from the allowance account. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 132 Printed for g j
  • 133. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[Fact Pattern #22]An enterprise sells goods on an installment basis. The table below includes information about the level of installment sales, thecost of the goods sold on installment, and the cash receipts on installment sales for 2003 through 2005. All cash receipt amountsshown are net of any interest charges. 2003 2004 2005Installment sales 10,000 5,000 20,000Cost of installment sales 6,000 4,000 10,000Cash receipts on 2003 sales 2,000 4,000 4,000Cash receipts on 2004 sales 1,000 2,000Cash receipts on 2005 sales 4,000[354] Gleim #: 4.4 -- Source: CIA 596 IV-1 (Refers to Fact Pattern #22) The rate of gross profit on 2004 installment sales is A. 20% B. 40% C. 50% D. 80% Answer (A) is correct. The rate of gross profit on 2004 installment sales is 20% [(5,000 of 2004 installment sales – 4,000 cost of 2004 installment sales) ÷ 5,000 of 2004 installment sales]. Answer (B) is incorrect because 40% is the gross profit on 2003 installment sales. Answer (C) is incorrect because 50% is the gross profit on 2005 installment sales. Answer (D) is incorrect because 80% is the ratio of the cost of 2004 installment sales to 2004 installment sales.[355] Gleim #: 4.5 -- Source: CIA 596 IV-2 (Refers to Fact Pattern #22) The amount of gross profit to be recognized in 2003 on 2003 installment sales is A. 800 B. 2,000 C. 3,200 D. 4,000 Answer (A) is correct. In 2003, cash receipts were 2,000 from 2003 installment sales. The gross profit realized is the gross profit on the portion of sales for which payment has been received. This amount equals the 2003 gross profit percentage multiplied by the cash receipts, or 800 {[(10,000 – 6,000) ÷ 10,000] × 2,000}. Answer (B) is incorrect because 2,000 is the amount of cash receipts during 2003 on 2003 installment sales. Answer (C) is incorrect because 3,200 is the amount of the total gross profit on 2003 installment sales that is deferred to future periods. Answer (D) is incorrect because 4,000 is the total gross profit on 2003 installment sales.[356] Gleim #: 4.6 -- Source: CIA 596 IV-3 (Refers to Fact Pattern #22) The gross profit amount from 2005 sales to be deferred to future years would be A. 2,000 B. 3,000 C. 8,000 D. 10,000 Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 133 Printed for g j
  • 134. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) Answer (A) is incorrect because 2,000 is the realized gross profit on 2005 sales. Answer (B) is incorrect because 3,000 equals total receipts for 2004 and 2005 on 2004 sales. Answer (C) is correct. The total gross profit on 2005 sales is 10,000 (20,000 sales – 10,000 cost), and the amount realized is 2,000 {[(20,000 – 10,000) ÷ 20,000] × 4,000 of 2005 cash receipts}. Accordingly, the amount deferred is 8,000 (10,000 – 2,000). Answer (D) is incorrect because 10,000 is the total gross profit on 2005 sales.[357] Gleim #: 4.7 -- Source: CIA 1196 IV-42 At the end of September, an enterprise has outstanding accounts receivable of 350 on third-quarter credit sales, composed as follows: Still Outstanding at the End of Month Credit Sales September July 600 100 August 900 170 September 500 80 The percentage of receivables in the 31-to-60-day age group at the end of September is A. 22.86% B. 28.57% C. 48.57% D. 71.43% Answer (A) is incorrect because 22.86% is the proportion of receivables in the 0-to-30-day age group at the end of September. Answer (B) is incorrect because 28.57% is the proportion of receivables in the 61-to-90-day age group at the end of September. Answer (C) is correct. Receivables from August sales still outstanding at the end of September are in the 31-to-60- day age group. This group represents 48.57% of total receivables [170 ÷ (100 + 170 + 80)]. Answer (D) is incorrect because 71.43% is the proportion of outstanding receivables that are from 0 to 60 days old at the end of September.[358] Gleim #: 4.8 -- Source: CIA 595 IV-12 An enterprise sells inventory for 80,000 that had an inventory cost of 40,000. The terms of the sale involve payments receivable of 10,000 in the first year, 45,000 in the second year, and 25,000 in the third year. The buyer of the inventory is a new firm with no credit history. If the cost-recovery method of revenue recognition is used, the amount of gross profit to be recognized in the second year is A. 0 B. 5,000 C. 15,000 D. 45,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because under the cost-recovery method, profit is recognized in the second year when cash payments by the buyer exceed the seller’s cost of merchandise. Answer (B) is incorrect because 5,000 is the profit to be recognized without consideration of the payment received in the first year. Answer (C) is correct. The profit recognized in the second year equals the cumulative payments received minus the seller’s cost, or 15,000 [(10,000 + 45,000) – 40,000]. Answer (D) is incorrect because 45,000 is the payment received in the second year.[359] Gleim #: 4.9 -- Source: CIA 1195 IV-15 When a right of return exists, an enterprise may recognize revenue from a sale of goods at the time of sale only if Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 134 Printed for g j
  • 135. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions) A. The amount of future returns can be reliably estimated. B. The seller retains the risks and rewards of ownership. C. The buyer resells the goods. D. The seller believes returns will not be material. Answer (A) is correct. One condition for recognition of revenue from the sale of goods is the transfer of the significant risks and rewards of ownership. Retention of significant risk may occur when, for example, the buyer may rescind the purchase for a reason stipulated in the contract, and the buyer is uncertain about the probability of return. However, if the enterprise can reliably estimate future returns and recognizes a liability for returns based on experience and other pertinent information, revenue may be recognized at the time of sale if the other conditions for revenue recognition are also met. Answer (B) is incorrect because the risks and rewards of ownership must be transferred. Answer (C) is incorrect because this contingency is an example of retention of significant risk. Answer (D) is incorrect because returns may be material if they can be reliably estimated.[360] Gleim #: 4.10 -- Source: CMA 1287 3-26 If a transfer of receivables with recourse qualifies to be recognized as a sale, the proceeds from the sale are A. Accounted for as a collateralized borrowing. B. Recorded at fair value for the assets obtained and liabilities incurred. C. Recorded at the historical cost of the assets obtained. D. Reduced by the fair value of the recourse obligation. Answer (A) is incorrect because the proceeds of the sale are reduced by the fair value of the recourse obligation. Answer (B) is incorrect because the proceeds of the sale are reduced by the fair value of the recourse obligation. Answer (C) is incorrect because the proceeds of the sale are reduced by the fair value of the recourse obligation. Answer (D) is correct. When a transfer of receivables with recourse meets the criteria to be accounted for as a sale, the enterprise derecognizes the financial assets it no longer controls. After derecognition, periodic net profit or loss will include the difference between the carrying amount transferred and the proceeds, plus or minus any prior adjustment reflecting the fair value of the asset that had been reported in equity. If a new financial asset is created or a new financial liability is assumed, the calculation is adjusted for the fair value of the asset or liability. Thus, the proceeds of the sale are reduced by the fair value of the recourse obligation (a new financial liability). When the transfer does not meet these criteria, the transfer is accounted for as a collateralized borrowing.[361] Gleim #: 4.11 -- Source: Publisher A transferor enterprise most likely should continue to recognize a transferred financial asset if A. The transferor may reacquire the asset, and the asset is readily obtainable in the market. B. The transferee may sell or pledge the full fair value of the asset. C. The transferor may reacquire the asset, and the reacquisition price is fair value. D. The transferor is entitled and obligated to repurchase the asset, and the transferee receives a lender’s return. Answer (A) is incorrect because a financial asset should be derecognized despite the transferor’s right to reacquire it if the asset is readily obtainable in the market. Answer (B) is incorrect because control is lost when the transferee has the ability to obtain the benefits of the asset, for example, when the transferee may sell or pledge the full fair value of the asset. Answer (C) is incorrect because a financial asset should be derecognized despite the transferor’s right to reacquire it if the price is fair value at the date of reacquisition. Answer (D) is correct. An enterprise derecognizes a financial asset if it loses control of the contractual rights the asset represents. Control is lost when the enterprise realizes the rights to the specified contractual benefits, the rights expire, or it surrenders the rights. A transferor has not lost control and does not derecognize the financial asset if it is entitled and obligated to repurchase or redeem the asset, and the terms of this transaction in effect allow the transferee to obtain a lender’s return on the assets it receives in exchange for the transferred financial asset. Copyright 2004 Gleim Publications, Inc. Page 135 Printed for g j
  • 136. Gleims CIA Test Prep: Part III: Business Analysis and Information Technology (1165 questions)[362] Gleim #: 4.12 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-15 A retail enterprise maintains a markup of 25% based on cost. The enterprise has the following information for the current year: Purchases of merchandise 690,000 Freight-in on purchases 25,000 Sales 900,000 Ending inventory 80,000 Beginning inventory was A. 40,000 B. 85,000 C. 110,000 D. 265,000 Answer (A) is incorrect because 40,000 is based on a 25% markup on sales. Answer (B) is correct. Cost of goods sold equals beginning inventory, plus purchases (including freight-in), minus ending inventory. Given that sales reflect 125% of cost, cost of goods sold must equal 720,000 (900,000 sales ÷ 1.25). Consequently, the beginning inventory must have been 85,000 (720,000 CGS + 80,000 EI – 690,000 purchases – 25,000 freight-in). Answer (C) is incorrect because 110,000 omits the freight-in from the computation of cost of goods available for sale. Answer (D) is incorrect because 265,000 uses the sales figure for cost of goods sold.[363] Gleim #: 4.13 -- Source: CIA 597 IV-16 Which inventory pricing method generally approximates current cost for each of the following? Ending Cost of Inventory Goods Sold A. FIFO FIFO B. LIFO FIFO C. FIFO LIFO D. LIFO LIFO Answer (A) is incorrect because LIFO approximates current cost of goods sold. Answer (B) is incorrect because FIFO approximates current cost for ending inventory, and LIFO approximates current cost of goods sold. Answer (C) is correct. FIFO assigns the most recent purchase prices to ending inventory and the earliest purchase prices to cost of goods sold. LIFO uses the earliest acquisition costs to price the ending inventory. Thus, FIFO approximates current cost for ending inventory, and LIFO approximates current cost of goods sold. Answer (D) is incorrect because FIFO approximates current cost for ending inventory.[364] Gleim #: 4.14 -- Source: CIA 596 IV-11 The cost of materials has risen steadily over the year. Which of the following methods of estimating the ending balance of the materials inventory account will result in the highest net profit, assuming all other variables remain constant? A. Last-in, first-out (LIFO). B. First-in, first-out (FIFO). C. Weighted average. D.