A Beginners guide to Quality Management

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This presentation is aimed at helping small and medium businesses in their Quality Management. The module starts with an introduction to the function, Roles and Responsibilities of executives in the …

This presentation is aimed at helping small and medium businesses in their Quality Management. The module starts with an introduction to the function, Roles and Responsibilities of executives in the function, Key tools and methodologies,ISO9001 clauses, 7QC tools and various templates for MIS analysis.
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  • 1. QUALITYMODULEAn initiative of Hash Management Services LLPA Business Sense PublicationFor more free resources visit www.businessense.in
  • 2. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Overview ‘The Essentials’ series from Business Sense is an initiative to empower the professionals and students in performing moreefficiently and effectively in the organization This publication is aimed at bridging the gap between the institutions and the industry by providing the fundamentals ofmanufacturing management which are not offered by any of our institutions/curriculum This course would immensely benefit professionals and students who are joining manufacturing organizations At Business Sense, we help medium scale manufacturing units improve their operational efficiency through consultingengagements focusing on improving their Operations through Lean Manufacturing Implementation covering 5S, SMED,Kaizen and other tools We promise to double the productivity in less than 33 days of our effort In addition, our web application would help the senior management in monitoring the important business updates every dayand provide them analytics and enable them better decision making. Useful if your organization do not have an ERP For more details, please visit www.businessense.in You can subscribe to our bi-weekly newsletter here. Follow us:
  • 3. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Contents Section 1 – Introduction to Quality Function Section 2 – QMS and ISO 9001 Standard Section 3 – NC, Corrective and Preventive Actions Section 4 – 7 QC tools Section 5 – MIS Reports and Analyses Points Section 6 – Templates
  • 4. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Section 1 : What is Quality? “Quality is fitness for use” – Deming In an organisation, Quality function means thedepartment which independently works on attainingspecified levels of product / process quality of the corebusiness Quality Department can either be a quality controldepartment or a Quality Assurance department Quality Department is the final In-Charge of the qualityat the customer’s endQuality Control Quality AssuranceFocus on Product Focus on ProcessesAnalysis afterCompletion of workPrevention is betterthan cureOperation specific Core value;Organisation-wideIndividual/departmentorientedLeads to team work
  • 5. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited. Head of Quality Assurance reports to the CEOof the company Normally there would be In-Charges for thethree focus areas of Quality: Incoming Inspection In-process or online inspection and Final Inspection or Finished Goods Testing orBatch Release Testing – previously done as QC In Manufacturing Industries, TestingLaboratories comes under the QA.Head - QualityAssuranceIn-ChargeIncomingInspectionIn-chargeIn-processInspectionIn-ChargeFinal InspectionOrganisation Structure*CEO* - We have explained a typical functional hierarchy. It may varyaccording to each organization
  • 6. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Responsibilities of QA In-charges•Ensuring the Raw Materials used in production are as expectedand fit for use.Incoming Inspection•Asserting the suppliers of their ability to supply consistentlygood quality and improve themSupplier DevelopmentIn-process InspectionFinal Inspection•Identify the parameters of the machines and/or intermediateswhich are critical to quality of the Final Product and helpproduction to avoid problems in those parametersCustomer Feedback•Check the conformance of final products to the customers’requirements and ensure that the customer who is going toreceive them get satisfied with the products.•Get the feeling of customers upon using our products and developour internal product specificationsIn-ChargeIncomingInspectionIn-ChargeFinal InspectionIn-ChargeIn-ProcessInspection
  • 7. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Quality Plan All the five major aspects are covered in the Quality plan Document in thefollowing manner: Specification for Raw Materials and Parameter to be checked upon receipts Critical To Quality (CTQ) parameters of machine settings or intermediate products andchecking or verification points Final product specifications and parameters to be tested for the conformance tocustomers’ requirements. Sampling and Testing methods along with the action to be taken in case of any deviationfor all the above In a nutshell, the quality plan describes how the quality of product / process ismanaged in an organisation.
  • 8. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Quality Plan - Example Let us assume the Customer requirement is metal sheets for fabrication which measures 10x 5 inch metal plate in Green color with two holes Upon accepting the Purchase order from the customer, the company works on defining theproduct requirements as per the internal understanding. This becomes the productspecification and the target output quality. The customer requirement of 10 x 5 inch metal plate in Green color has translated in to: MS / SS / Aluminium sheet of 252 mm length,126 mm width and 0.4 mm thickness (not given in the product requirement anddeveloped internally based on factors such as strength, pricing, etc) Powder coated with Green color of Standard Color (with code - abcd) with Two holes of 2 mm diameter as per the drawing
  • 9. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Drawing based on the customer requirement252 +/- 2 mm126+/-2mm2 mm dia10 mm62+/-1mmColor Code : Green (abcd)
  • 10. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited. This final requirement/drawing is worked backward - the internalrequirements needed are listed and those become our in-processspecifications. At Painting Section, Painting Color (abcd) and the coat thickness are internal parameters. At Cutting section, Size specifications are – L : 256 +/- 2 mm W : 130 +/- 2 mm (4 mm extension is made for bending) The holes as per the drawing For inward inspection, the sheet thickness, dimensions and paint colorforms a specificationInternal Specification
  • 11. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Contents Section 1 – Introduction to Quality Function Section 2 – QMS and ISO 9001 Standard Section 3 – NC, Corrective and Preventive Actions Section 4 – 7 QC tools Section 5 – MIS Reports and Analyses Points Section 6 – Templates
  • 12. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.A quality management system is a set of co-ordinated activities todirect and control an organisation ensuring that the organisation iscontinually improving its performance. Quality Plan is an integrated component in the Quality ManagementSystem A QMS enables an organisation to achieve the goals and objectives set outin its policy and strategy. It provides consistency and satisfaction in terms of methods, materials,equipment, etc, and interacts with all activities of the organisation,beginning with the identification of customer requirements and endingwith their satisfaction, at every transaction interface. It can be envisaged as a “wedge” that both holds the gains achieved alongthe quality journey, and prevents good practices from slippingQuality Management System - QMS
  • 13. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Benefits of QMS Improved business planning Enhanced awareness on quality throughout the organisation Improved Customer Satisfaction Reduced cost of poor qualityAbove all, an effective QMS provides the confidence to both the organisation and its customersthat the organisation can provide good quality of product / service consistently.If the Quality Management System of a company is inline with the set requirements of ISO 9001,the company may be certified as a quality assured company by a certification agency and thecompany will be declared an ISO 9001 certified company.Quality Management System
  • 14. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.What is ISO? ISO (International Organization for Standardization) - a non-governmentalorganization is the worlds largest developer and publisher of InternationalStandards. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 162 countries, onemember per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, thatcoordinates the system. According to ISO, "ISO" is not an abbreviation. It is a word, derived from theGreek isos, meaning "equal“.Quality Management System – ISO 9001
  • 15. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited. ISO 9001 is an international quality certification that definesminimum requirements for a companys Quality ManagementSystem (QMS) Applies to the processes that create and control the products andservices an organisation supplies Prescribes systematic control of activities to ensure that the needsand expectations of customers are met Is designed and intended to apply to virtually any product orservice, made by any process anywhere in the world.Quality Management System – ISO 9001Level 1QualityManualLevel 2ProcessesLevel 3Work Instructions
  • 16. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Quality Management System – ISO 9001 The requirements of a Quality Management System are defined inthe Standard (ISO 9001: 2008) in 8 clauses. Clause 1 – Scope 1.1 General Requirements 1.2 Application Clause 2 - Normative Reference Clause 3 – Terms and Definitions The clauses 1, 2 and 3 explain about the aim of this standard, wherethis standard is applicable (Clause 1), reference to the standard ISO9000 : 2005, Quality Management System – Fundamentals andVocabulary (Clause 2) and Terms and Definitions (Clause 3)PlanDoCheckAct
  • 17. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Quality Management System – ISO 9001ISO 9001:2008ClauseClause Title Explanation4.1 QMS (Quality Management System)Define your working system as a series of processes and identify the criteria to measurethe effectiveness of each process. (E.g. Timely delivery etc)4.1 QMS (Quality Management System)Proper controls like supervision, inspection, training, documentation etc. should beexercised on outsourced (Subcontracted) processes to ensure acceptable results.4.2 Documentation RequirementsSay what you do – in your documents. (E.g. methodology, Procedures, Drawings,Specifications)4.2 Documentation requirements Document your working system as quality manual, procedures and work instructions.4.2.3 Document ControlOnly approved current documents should be made available for work. (E.g.. Drawings,Specification, Procedures etc.)This includes external standards also. The organisation willneed to control other external origin documents necessary for planning and operation ofQMS. This can even include excise regulations.4.2.4 Control of records Prove that you are following the system by maintaining appropriate records.
  • 18. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Quality Management System – ISO 9001ISO 9001:2008ClauseClause Title Explanation5.2 Customer FocusSet targets to enhance customer satisfaction. (E.g. better products, better delivery).Ensure that everyone focuses on satisfying customer needs (both internal and external).5.3 Quality PolicyExpress your overall intention and direction towards Quality Improvement and customersatisfaction.5.4.1 Quality ObjectivesSet measurable objectives & targets for improvement. (E.g. reduce complaints, reduceinventory) It should cover relevant functions5.4.1 Quality Objectives Targets for improvement should be time bound. (i.e. “before 31.03.2012 etc.)5.4.2 QMS planningPrepare your system so as to meet the requirements of 4.1 and also your qualityobjectives.In case you make changes in your system also ensure the above. Do not change youractual practise in ad hoc basis.5.5.1 Responsibility & AuthorityCommunicate limits of responsibility and authority what is expected from each post inyour organisation.
  • 19. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Quality Management System – ISO 9001ISO 9001:2008ClauseClause Title Explanation5.5.2 Management RepresentativeAppoint an internal co-ordinator for implementing & following up ISO 9001 QMS. MR shallbe a member of the organisation’s own management5.5.3 Internal communicationActivate top down and bottom up communication. Discuss about effectiveness of theorganisation.5.6 Management ReviewHow is your organisation performing as per your declared system? – Check. Makedecisions for improvement6 Resource Management Identify and provide necessary resources. (Manpower, equipment & other facilities)6.2.2 Competence awareness & trainingIdentify the education skill training and experience needed for each job. Put the rightperson on the right job. Ensure that everyone is aware of improvement targets.Competence requirements shall be relevant for any personal who are included inimplementation of QMS.Identify training needs based on skill gap, carry out training, verify effectiveness of training6.3 InfrastructureGive necessary building, work space, utilities transport, information system andcommunication facilities and maintain them properly
  • 20. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Quality Management System – ISO 9001ISO 9001:2008ClauseClause Title Explanation6.4 Work EnvironmentPhysical, Environmental and other factors such as noise, temperature, lighting or weatherSanitation, dust free conditions, ventilation, humidity control, safety etc as needed for thework to be done properly7.1 Planning of product realisation Define your SPECIFICATION, MANUFACTURING METHODS, And TESTING METHODS.7.2.2 Customer requirement review Query your customer at your threshold. Do not accept impossible orders.7.3 Design control Plan, review, verify and validate your product design.7.4 PurchasingSelect suitable suppliers and subcontractors. Carry out rating of subcontractors /suppliers.Ensure that they are informed about the controls they are expected to follow whileexecuting your requirements.7.5.1 Control of production Do what you say – follow your documents while doing your work
  • 21. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Quality Management System – ISO 9001ISO 9001:2008ClauseClause Title Explanation7.5.2 Validation of processesCarry out special processes (whose results are difficult to verify immediately) undercontrolled conditions.7.5.3 Identification & Traceability A place for everything and everything in its place. Allot batch number for traceability7.5.3 Identification & TraceabilityTemplates, Jigs & fixtures should bear proper identification. Use tags labels and boards toshow inspection status of the material7.5.4 Customer propertyTake care of customer’s belongings. (E.g. tools, packing material, labels, personal data (forBPOs & IT companies) etc.) servicing items also7.5.5 Preservation of productEnsure conformity to requirements, Proper handling and storage practices otherwisedefects will arise.7.6Control of monitoring & measuringequipmentsAre your instruments telling the truth? (Proper Instrument Selection & Calibration).Calibrate your instruments against gauges that are traceable to national and internationalstandards.
  • 22. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Quality Management System – ISO 9001ISO 9001:2008ClauseClause Title Explanation8.2.1 Customer satisfactionWhat does the customer think / feel about us? Does the customer feel satisfied?Listen to your customer’s voice. What are the changes in customer needs?8.2.2 Internal auditAre procedures / defined processes followed and objectives achieved? Report lapses inaudit report.8.2.3Monitoring & Measurement ofprocessMonitor and control your processes to achieve desired results.In case results are not ok, take action for improvement8.2.4Monitoring & Measurement ofproductIs the material / product acceptable? (As per our own specifications or as agreed with thecustomer) Check against the quality plan and record it. Do not allow non-conformingproduct to the next stage.8.2.4Monitoring & Measurement ofproductProduct / service delivery should be carried out only after ensuring that all specificationsare met.8.2.4Monitoring & Measurement ofproductOnly authorised persons should inspect and certify product’s / service acceptance.
  • 23. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Quality Management System – ISO 9001ISO 9001:2008ClauseClause Title Explanation8.3 Control of non conforming productSegregate & REGRADE, SCRAP, ACCEPT CONCESSIONALLY OR REWORK defects wherepracticable. Market returns are also to be treated in the same way8.4 Analysis of dataHow well (or how badly) are we doing? Measure your performance (timely delivery,productivity, customer complaints etc), as an aid for improvement Is the level of defectsincreasing? Monitor supplier and subcontractor performance trends.8.5 ImprovementImprove your performance through systematic analysis and action. Make improvementtime-bound8.5.2 Corrective actionFind out why you have failed and ensure that it is not repeated. Take action on the rootcause of nonconformities, which have occurred. Verify effectiveness of corrective action.8.5.3 Preventive actionFind out how you may fail and ensure that failure is avoided. Take action on the rootcause of probable nonconformities. Verify effectiveness of preventive action.
  • 24. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.ISO 9001 – Is it all about Documentation? A modern QMS / ISO9001 is more than documentation. It should befollowed as a culture through-out the organization In reality, ISO 9001 standard needs the procedures and records to supportand make evidence for its objectives which are Customer Focus Continual Improvements and Reduced Waste
  • 25. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Contents Section 1 – Introduction to Quality Function Section 2 – QMS and ISO 9001 Standard Section 3 – NC, Corrective and Preventive Actions Section 4 – 7 QC tools Section 5 – MIS Reports and Analyses Points Section 6 – Templates
  • 26. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Defects and Non-conformance Defective When an item fails to meet its specification and / or known to fail to meet its intended use, theitem is called a defective. E.g. A casting with a blowhole Defect The exact reason / cause for the problem is called the defect. i.e. the blowhole Nonconformity Any non fulfillment of requirement is called nonconformity. E.g. A casting with out blowholesis required. But the process produced a casting with blowhole. This is a non-conformity
  • 27. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Corrective and Preventive Actions Correction An action to eliminate a detected nonconformity is called a correction. A correction can be a rework, reprocess, repair, degrade, replacement or rejection. Corrective Action (CA) Actions to eliminate the cause of detected nonconformities are called corrective actions. (Actions to eliminate therecurrence of nonconformity). Timely Solution – Can be one-time solution – reactive – after the problem has occurred Preventive Action (PA) Actions to eliminate the causes of a potential nonconformities or other undesirable potential situations are calledpreventive actions. (Actions to eliminate the occurrence of nonconformity). Proactive solution – before the problem has occurred Quality tools can be used (Pareto charts, Fish bone analysis, etc. / 5 Why analysis / other tools) for takingCA&PA
  • 28. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Contents Section 1 – Introduction to Quality Function Section 2 – QMS and ISO 9001 Standard Section 3 – NC, Corrective and Preventive Actions Section 4 – 7 QC tools Section 5 – MIS Reports and Analyses Points Section 6 – Templates
  • 29. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.7 QC Tools Seven QC tools are fundamental instruments to improve the quality of theproduct Seven QC tools are utilized to organize the collected data in a way that is easyto understand and analyze They are used to analyze the production process, identify the major problems,control fluctuations of product quality, and provide solutions to avoid futuredefects
  • 30. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.7 QC Tools – Check Sheet A check sheet is a pre-designed format for collection of data that encourages organizedcollection and groups data into categories. Categories are created in advance and may be added as needed. A check mark is added foreach example of a category. The marks are added to determine subtotals. When to use it? To keep track of the parameters of an on going process. It can be used totrack events by such factors as timeliness (on time, one day late, two days late, etc.); reasonfor inspection failure (appearance, performance, etc.); person accomplishing the task (salescalls per representative) etc...
  • 31. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.7 QC Tools – Check SheetExample: A company wants to check the weight of bags of sugar thatare supposed to weigh 100 kg. The resulting checklist is shown in thefollowing Table. The checklist indicates that the machine is not fillingall the bags within the specification.Sugar Bag Weight Check Sheet - (Specification : 100kg. ± 2 Kg.)Weight (Kg.) Check Sheet Total98 098.25 II 298.5 IIII 498.75 IIIII III 899 IIIII IIII 999.25 IIIII 599.5 IIIII III 899.75 IIIII IIII IIII II 17100 IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII III 23100.25 IIIII IIII II 12100.5 IIIII III 8100.75 IIIII IIII 9101 IIII 4101.25 III 3101.5 IIII 4101.75 II 2102 I 1
  • 32. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.7 QC Tools – Graphs Graphs are used for the purpose of comparison of visual representation of data collected. The most commonly used graphs are in the form of Bar charts, Line charts and Pie charts. Bar charts can be used to compare revenue projections , growth in sales volume over a time period Pie Charts can be used to represent the region-wise revenue share / category-wise contribution to the profits etcYear-wise sales trend
  • 33. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.7 QC Tools – Histogram A display of the distribution of data by category. It is a more effective way of displaying data than a table offigures ( Check Sheet) because it gives a visual indicationof relationships. When to use it? Use a histogram to observe whether datafalls into a specific pattern. The chart will indicate theextent of variation. Example shown here is the same data shown in the checksheet. Observe how the histogram visually creates an impact 0510152025
  • 34. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.7 QC Tools – Pareto Analysis “ 80% of the problems are caused by 20% of thecauses” Focus on ‘Vital Few’ – Leave out the ‘Trivial Many’ It is a principle discovered by Pareto This is an universal philosophy and can be applied anywhere ! In a nation, 80% of the wealth is owned by 20% of the people )and the remaining 20% of the wealth belongs to the 80% of thepeople In Purchase department, 80% of the total purchase value would becontributed by the top 20% of the itemsFocus :Vital Few
  • 35. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.7 QC Tools – Cause and Effect Diagram Cause & Effect Diagram is an analysis technique for identifying the possible causes of anobserved problem or effect. It aims to trace process problems upstream in order to identifytheir root causes and to enable action to remove them This is also called Fish Bone diagram (or) Ishikawa Diagram Cause & Effect diagram is a simple but powerful tool for getting, objectively, to the bottomof the problem. It can be used to: Define a problem Break problems down into their constituent elements Help generate ideas / add structure to brainstorming Identify relationships between causes (which are often present but hidden) Assist decision making
  • 36. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.7 QC Tools – Cause and Effect DiagramEffectMachineMaterialMethodManHow to use Fish Bone diagram Name the Head of the fish with exact problem Draw minimum of four branches as shown infigure depicting 4Ms – Machine, Material,Method and Man Brainstorm: What can be the possible causes Search causes among machine first, then material,method, and man. Do it as group activity.
  • 37. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.7 QC Tools – Scatter Diagram A means for showing a relationship between two variables. The diagram creates a coordinate for each variable, then plotsthe occurrences where the values intersect. To find out whether there is a correlation between the variables. Establish vertical and horizontal axes with appropriate scales. Usually, the horizontal axis is the one over which you have control. Plot eachdata point. Look at the pattern. The more closely the dots group along an axis, the stronger the correlation.The more scattered they are, the weaker the correlation.Discount %ReadershipIncrease%
  • 38. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.7 QC Tools – Control Chart Control Chart is a means of monitoring a process according to tolerance limits. The chart allows you to track the normal variations that indicate a process is incontrol and to determine when it goes out of control. A control chart is closely related to Statistical Process Control. Its a visualmeans of representing whether a process is within statistical limits. When to use it: For any process with frequent and measurable outcomes. How to use it: Take a random sample of outcomes and determine upper andlower control limits. Once the control limits have been determined, plot the outcomes over time oroccurrence. If a value is obtained that is outside the control limits, its necessary toinvestigate the cause. If all the values are within the limits, then the process isunder control.Upper ControlLimitLower ControlLimitAnalyze the cause ofthe variation
  • 39. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Contents Section 1 – Introduction to Quality Function Section 2 – QMS and ISO 9001 Standard Section 3 – NC, Corrective and Preventive Actions Section 4 – 7 QC tools Section 5 – MIS Reports and Analyses Points Section 6 – Templates
  • 40. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.MIS Reports and Analyses PointsReport Name Key Parameters Nature of Report Frequency Prepared byIncoming Quality Report Quality trends of all items coming intothe storesProduct-wise / Supplier-wiseMonthly Quality ManagerIn-Process Inspection Report In-Process - Monthly Rejection /Rework status - Target Vs AchievedProduct-wise / Defectcategory-wise - paretoanalysisMonthly Quality ManagerFinal Inspection Report Final Inspection - Monthly Rejection /Rework status - Target Vs AchievedProduct-wise / Defectcategory-wise - paretoanalysisMonthly Quality ManagerCustomer Complaint / FeedbackreportTrend of Customer complaints/CA andPA takenProduct-wise / Defect-wise / Customer-wiseMonthly Quality ManagerAnalyses of the Quality Issues Consolidation of the defects /Corrective and Preventive Action /Usage of 7 QC toolsDefect-wise / Product-wiseMonthly Quality Manager The list below explains the various parameters to track, the reports to generate, the frequency and theperson-in-charge in the Quality function:
  • 41. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Analysis/questions to ask from the reports…Report Name Nature of Report Key Parameters Questions to AskIncoming QualityReportProduct-wise /Supplier-wiseQuality trends of all itemscoming into the storesWhat are the items that frequently arrive with quality issues ? What are thedefects found on them ? Are the defects clearly communicated to the suppliers ?Why is the supplier not able to improve the quality level ? What is the correctiveaction and Preventive Action? When is the problem expected to get solved ?In-ProcessInspection ReportProduct-wise /Defect category-wise - paretoanalysisIn-Process - MonthlyRejection / Rework status -Target Vs AchievedWhat are the defects occurring in-process ? Is there a trend ? What is the pareto ofdefects ?Cost involved in rework? What are the tools used for analysis ? What arethe Corrective and Preventive Action taken?Final InspectionReportProduct-wise /Defect category-wise - paretoanalysisFinal Inspection - MonthlyRejection / Rework status -Target Vs AchievedWhat are the defects and their frequency ? Is there a trend ? Why are the defectsnot controlled at the in-process inspection level ? What is the pareto of defects?Cost involved in rework? What is the rejection rate ? What are the tools used foranalysis ? What are the Corrective and Preventive Action taken?CustomerComplaint /Feedback reportProduct-wise /Defect-wise /Customer-wiseTrend of Customercomplaints/CA and PA takenWhat are the types of customer complaints ? What is the pareto analysis of defects? Why the defects are not identified before dispatch ? What are the corrective andPreventive Action taken to ensure this problem is not repeated ? How is our actioncommunicated to the customers ?Analyses of theQuality IssuesDefect-wise /Product-wiseConsolidation of the defects/ Corrective and PreventiveAction / Usage of 7 QC toolsTypes of defects? Pareto analysis ? Root cause and their effect on the product,processes and cost ? Summary of the corrective and preventive action taken.Results of the various actions taken ? Future action plan?
  • 42. Role of the Senior Management All the above initiatives would work only if the senior management iscommitted to the change and continuously monitors the processes. There would be a lot of resistance initially for this and would take 2-3months for the initiatives to sustain. Regular interactions with the personnel are the key and a systematicfollow-up is vital for the initiatives to be successful. Meetings with the respective personnel can be scheduled for a pre-determined date every month/week. The minutes of the meetings (MOM) should be sent to the respectivepersonnel for further action. MOM should be precise with the action plan,responsibility and the target date for completion.Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.
  • 43. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Contents Section 1 – Introduction to Quality Function Section 2 – QMS and ISO 9001 Standard Section 3 – NC, Corrective and Preventive Actions Section 4 – 7 QC tools Section 5 – MIS Reports and Analyses Points Section 6 – Templates
  • 44. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Incoming Quality ReportS.No Item CodeItemDescriptionItemCategoryPurchaseOrder No PO date Quantity UoMSupplierCodeSupplierNameQualityProblemNo ofDefectiveitemsRepeatedIssue Corrective Action1 1008 Steel Rods A A2345 15-Jan 25.00 tons 1234ABCMetals cracks 25yesSent back tosupplier. Futuredispatches onlyafter 100% qualitychecks
  • 45. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.In-Process Inspection ReportDate ProcessQuantityProduced (nos)QuantityChecked(nos)Quality Issue 1 Quality Issue 2 Quality Issue 3 Quality Issue 4Accepted Rejection Rework Rejection Rework Rejection Rework Rejection Rework1-Feb Cutting 500 50 45 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 12-Feb Cutting 1000 100 92 1 3 1 2 0 1 0 03-Feb4-Feb5-Feb6-Feb7-Feb8-Feb9-Feb
  • 46. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Final Inspection ReportDate ProductQuantityProduced(nos)QuantityChecked(nos)Quality Issue 1 Quality Issue 2 Quality Issue 3 Quality Issue 4Accepted Rejection Rework Rejection Rework Rejection Rework Rejection Rework1-Feb X 500 50 45 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 12-Feb X 1000 100 92 1 3 1 2 0 1 0 03-Feb4-Feb5-Feb6-Feb7-Feb8-Feb9-Feb
  • 47. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Customer Complaints ReportDate Product Customer Name Date of DeliveryTotal dispatch(nos)No of itemswith complaintInvoice / DCNoProductionBatch NoDescription ofthe complaintRepeatedProblemCorrectiveActionRoot cause ofthe problemPreventiveAction taken1-Feb X Shree enterprises 17-Jan-12 500 23 P1945 130112 cracks YesNew itemssentMachineVibrationMachineVibrationarrested .PreventiveMaintenanceInitiated
  • 48. Property of Hash Management Services LLP. Unauthorized copying, circulating, modifying and using it without the knowledge / approval of Hash Management Services LLP is prohibited.Analyses of the Defects - ReportS.No DefectRoot Causeof defectTotalProduction(nos)Total defectiveitems in themonth (nos)% of defectLast monthrejection rate(%)Corrective Action Preventive Action1 BlowholesImproperpouring500 24 4.8% 5.02%Pouring laddle is rectified forproper pouringA weekly maintenance isplanned for the laddle2 CracksAlignment inmachine500 15 3.0% 2.50% machine alignment is rectifiedPreventive maintenance isinitiated3 Sand Drop Vibration 500 8 1.6% 3%Rails are cleaned andvibration is eliminatedA weekly maintenance isplanned for the rails
  • 49. QUALITYMODULEAn initiative of Hash Management Services LLPA Business Sense PublicationFor more free resources visit www.businessense.inFor any queries / suggestions / requestsCall us: +91 91766 13965orEmail us: support@businessense.in