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culture studies, cultural materialism, culture and personality, material culture, nature and culture explained from routledge encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology

culture studies, cultural materialism, culture and personality, material culture, nature and culture explained from routledge encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology

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Terms related to culture Terms related to culture Presentation Transcript

  • Terms  Related  to  Culture  from  social  and  anthropological  points  of  view   Nur  Yıldırım  
  • Overview  •  Cultural  Materialism  •  Cultural  Studies  •  Culture  and  Personality  •  Material  Culture  •  Nature  and  Culture  
  • Cultural  Materialism  •  materialist  approach  advocated  by  Marvin  Harris,  Cultural   Materialism  (1979)material  world  exhibits  determinisJc  influence   over  the  non-­‐material  world.  Thus  culture  is  a  product  of  relaJons   between  things.  •  FuncJonalist  approach,  Hindu  taboo,  killing  caPle;  maximizing   economic  uJlity  of  caPle.  (factors  external  to  society,  material   ones)  ecological  anthropology,  similar  in  factors  that  are  seen  as   determinant:  environmental  condiJons  and  subsistence   techniques:  determine  or  limit  development  of  many  other  aspects   of  culture.  •  cogniJve  and  ideological  aspects  of  culture  must  take  second  place   to  technological  ones.  •  vulgar  materialism,  crude  and  simplisJc  to  take  adequate  account   of  embededness  of  the  material  world  within  ideological  world.  
  • Cultural  Studies  •  BriJsh  University  System,  introduced  in   1963Contemporary  Cultural  Studies  at  Birmingham,   Richard  Hoggart,  Raymond  Williams  •  need  to  move  beyond  canonical  definiJons  of   textuality,  in  order  to  locate  the  culture  of  literacy  in  a   wider  social  context’  •  counter  the  eliJsm  of  high  culture,  more  inclusive  •  referring  anthropological  definiJon,  culture  as  a  way   of  life  in  contrast  to  its  more  eliJst  literary  rendering  as   aestheJcs  or  appreciaJon’  •  poliJcize  the  producJon  of  academic  knowledge   within  university  system,  collaboraJve  work.  
  • Cultural  Studies  •  Class  inequality,  Ideology  •  70s,  cultural  studies  sought  to  document   culture  as  ordinary,  popular  and  ubiquitous  •  80s,  growing  impact  of  poststructuralist,  later   psychoanalyJc  theory.  racism  and  imperialism   -­‐  maintenance  of  state  power  •  concerns:  gender,  race,  class  
  • Cultural  Studies  •  InternaJonally:  poliJcal  approach  to  scholarship,   aPenJon  to  the  intersecJons  of  gender,  race  and   class,  criJcal    •  theoreJcal  perspecJves  from  Marxism  •  Postmodernism  •  posiJon  rather  than  context:  a  space  in  which   criJcal,  theoreJcal  and  interdisciplinary  research   and  teaching  broadly  organized  under  the  rubric   of  the  cultural  analysis  within  developed   industrialized  socieJes  
  • Cultural  Studies  •  comparisons  with  anthropology:  •  cultural  studies  remained  more  concerned  with  the   analysis  of  mass,  public,  dominant  popular  or   mainstream  culture,  rather  than  cross-­‐cultural   comparison.  •  ant.:  represenJng  other  cultures,  different  from  the   anthropologists  own.  •  making  visible  cultural  tradiJons  that  are  muted,   marginal,  under-­‐represented  or  devalued  within  the   society  which  the  researcher  is  a  part.  •  criJcal  perspecJves  on  the  producJon  of  knowledge   itself,  way  of  life  within  parJcular  subject  fields.  
  • Cultural  Studies  •  comparisons  with  anthropology:  •  cultural  studies  is  above  all  concerned  with  the  creaJon  of   new  kinds  of  spaces  for  consideraJon  of  quesJons  which   do  not  fit  neatly  within  established  tradiJons  of  intellectual   exchange.’  •  range  of  culture  models  employed;  differenJaJng  cultural   studies  from  anthropology.  Anthropologic  view:  cross-­‐ cultural  comparisons:  wide  range  of  cultural  theory,   sociology  of  culture,  its  concern  with  mass  media,  culture   industries,  cultural  theories  derivaJve  ;  semioJcs,   deconstrucJon  etc.  •  difference;  ant:  empirical  tradiJon,  ethnographic   observaJon.  goals  of  social  science,  documentaJon  and   representaJon  of  other  cultures.  
  • Cultural  Studies  •  Cultural  studies;  objecJvist.  Seen  by  anthropologists  as   reducJonist,  eliJst,  overly  theoreJcal  and  speculaJve   or  journalisJc  methods.  Anthropologic  separaJon  of   cultural  logics  from  their  lived  embodied  social  milieu   is  unacceptable  methodology.  •  challenges  to  tendency,  consJtute  an  even  dominant   culture  as  monolithic,  totalizing  or  determining.  •  anthropological  and  cultural  studies  overlap  and   inform  one  another.  highly  theoreJcal  and  criJcal   perspecJves  within  cultural  studies,  empirical   tradiJons  of  cultural  analysis  within  anthropology,  two   fields  will  remain  disJnct.  
  • Cultural  Studies  •  Kuper:  •  cannot  be  reduced  to  the  study  of  popular  culture,  it  is  certainly  the   case  that  the  study  of  popular  culture  is  central  to  the  project  of   cultural  studies.  •  understand  meanings  of  culture  we  must  analyze  it  in  relaJon  to   the  social  structure  and  its  historical  conJngency.  Social  structure   and  history  -­‐  culture  is  important  and  shapes  them,  not  studies  as  a   reflecJon  of  them  •  capitalist  industrial  socieJes  divided  unequally  along  ethnic,   gender,  generaJonal  and  class  lines.  culture  is  where  this  division   established  and  contested.  Struggle  over  meaning,  dominant  group   impose  meaning  over  subordinate  groups:  that  makes  culture   ideological.  
  • Cultural  Studies  •  Kuper:  •  Ideology  (Hall,  1982),  arJculaJon  (express  and  join  together),   cultural  texts  and  pracJces  comes  into  meaning  with  an  act  in  a   specific  context,  history  or  discourse.  Expression  is  always   connected  and  condiJoned  by  context.  •  CriJcized:  celebraJon  of  the  popular  culture.    •  Cultural  studies  insists  that  popular  culture  is  liPle  more  than  a   degraded  culture,  successfully  imposed  from  above,  to  make  profit   and  secure  ideological  control.  The  best  of  cultural  studies  insists   that  to  decide  these  maPers  requires  vigilance  and  aPenJon  to  the   details  of  the  producJon,  distribuJon  and  consumpJon  of  culture.  •  They  should  be  read  off  from  the  moment  of  producJon  in   (meaning,  pleasure,  ideological  effect  etc.)  contexts.  
  • Culture  and  Personality  •  Subdisciplinary  field  of  psychological   anthropology.  American  linguist  and   anthropologist  Edward  Sapir  •  influence  of  Gestalt;  percepJon  could  be   understood  only  when  the  thing  perceived  was   viewed  not  as  an  assemblage  of  separate   elements,  but  as  an  organized  paPern.  Whole   may  be  more  than  the  sum  of  its  parts.  •  Meaning  was  a  funcJon  of  organized  paPerns,   Sapir  applied  this  idea  to  his  analyses  of  language   and  culture  and  personality.  
  • Culture  and  Personality  •  Cultural  PaPerns:  contemporary  concept  of  culture;  Jdy  tables  of   contents  aPached  to  parJcular  groups  of  people.  •  culture  can  be  made  to  assume  the  appearance  of  a  closed  system   of  behavior’  •  vast  reaches  of  culture  are  discoverable  only  as  the  peculiar   property  of  certain  individuals’  •  Ruth  Benedict:  cultural  whole  determined  the  nature  of  its  parts   and  the  relaJons  between  them  from  ethnographic  data   concerning  kinship,  religion,  economy  etc,  aimed  to  derive    •  more  or  less  consistent  paPern  of  thought  and  acJon  that   informed  and  integrated  all  the  pracJced  of  daily  life  in  four   different  cultures’  •  Margaret  Mead:  dominant  cultural  configuraJons,  adolescence,   gender  
  • Culture  and  Personality  •  early  work  on  culture  and  personality  rested  on  five   assumpJons:  •  childhood  experience  determined  adult  personality  •  single  personality  type  characterized  each  society  •  parJcular  shared  basic  or  modal  personality  gave  rise   to  a  parJcular  cultural  insJtuJon  •  projecJve  test  in  west  could  not  be  used  elsewhere  •  anthropologists  were  objecJve  •  what  if  personality  varies  much  more  within  society  as   it  does  across  socieJes  
  • Culture  and  Personality  •  Le  Vine,  80s,  culture  and  personality  research  as  follows:   interrelaJon  between  the  life  cycle,  psychological  funcJoning  and   malfuncJoning  and  social  and  cultural  insJtuJons.  cultural   influence  in  individual  experience:  emic  views  of  normal  and   abnormal  behavior’  •  psychological  anthropology,  Spiro:  person  is  not  merely   condiJoned  by  culture,  rather  culture  is  incorporated  into  the   individual  via  the  psychodynamic  processes  of  idenJficaJon  and   internalizaJon.    •  child  will  unconsciously  accept  various  elements  of  culture  with   different  meanings,  according  to  biological  condiJons,  •  consJtuted  by  children,  and  will  be  transformed.  How  they   consJtute  ideas  of  themselves  and  world  -­‐-­‐  answer  of  this  quesJon;   to  understand  conJnuity  and  change  in  culture  over  Jme.  
  • Material  Culture  •  Material  culture  had  been  an  integral  part  of  nineteenth-­‐ century  anthropology.  •  museums  and  material  objects  -­‐  customs  and  cultural   traits.  lack  of  methodology,  social  and  cultural  traits,   material  arJfacts  •  fieldwork,  study  of  culture  and  society  in  context.  -­‐   behavior  and  social  organizaJon  rather  than  traits.   american  definiJon,  from  traits,  to  ideas  and  bodies  of   knowledge.  •  two  terms:  material  and  ideaJonal,  neglected  to  include   social,  re-­‐inclusion  of  ideaJonal  and  the  social.  •  neglecJng  material  culture,  anthropologists  disconnected  it   from  rest  of  human  life;  integral  part  of  value  creaJon   processes  
  • Material  Culture  •  60s,  material  culture  to  the  fore  in  the  study  of   symbolism  •  Levi  Strauss,  material  culture  and  world  of   thought  •  Marxist  theory  and  environmental  anthropology  -­‐   understanding  long-­‐term  social  processes  •  archeology:  abstract  data  about  social  structure   and  ideaJonal  systems  •  regional  systems  of  trade,  exchange,  gender   relaJons  and  value  creaJon  processes  (Munn   1986)  
  • Material  Culture  •  Now  it  is  a  Form  of  evidence  •  In  connecJng  material  culture  to  the  person  and  to  social  life  the   sensual  properJes  of  form  –  surface,  texture,  colour,  smell,  sound  –   and  the  means  of  percepJon  become  central  topics.  Style  in   material  culture  is  recognized  as  being  an  important  marker  of   idenJty  and  status.    Fashion  –  what  people  wear,  expressing   individual  idenJty  •  DisJncJons  between  objects  ojen  reflect  factors  such  as  class,   religious  affiliaJon,  group  idenJty,  age  status  or  occupaJon  •  An  important  area  of  the  study  of  material  culture  that  links  the   material  with  the  social  is  researching  how  objects  gain  in  value  and   processes  of  value  transformaJon  in  space  and  Jme.  Such  studies   of  paPerns  of  material  consumpJon  have  proved  a  rich  vein  in  the   study  of  complex  socieJes.  
  • Material  Culture  •  Methodologically  the  study  of  material  culture  adds  an  important   dimension  to  anthropological  research.  The  form  of  the  object  can  be   interrogated  in  an  aPempt  to  uncover  material  composi-on,   manufacturing  processes,  and  func-onal  and  seman-c  a4ributes  which   can  then  be  explored  with  members  of  the  producing  socie-es  to   document  systems  of  knowledge,  trading  pa4erns  or  semiologic   systems.  •  CollecJons  of  material  culture  objects  from  the  past  in  museum   collecJons  can  provide,  retrospecJvely,  vital  sources  of  informaJon  about   processes  of  social  change,  pa4erns  of  trade  and  colonial  histories.  •  dialogical  rela-onship  makes  material  culture  a  rich  resource  for  studies   across  the  humani-es  and  social  sciences.  •  such  an  intellectual  field  of  study  is  inevitably  eclecJc:  relaJvely   unbounded  and  unconstrained,  fluid,  dispersed  and  anarchic  rather  than   constricted.  In  short  undisciplined  rather  than  disciplined.  Materiality  is   the  fulcrum,  the  locus  of  the  nexus  of  interconnec-ons  that  creates  the   links  across  disciplinary  boundaries.  
  • Material  Culture  •  Kuper;  •  history  of  things,  human  construcJon  of  the  environment  as  a  cultural  and   economic  landscape  •  trace  the  origins  of  ideas,  also  used  material  culture  as  a  major  source  of  evidence.    •  study  of  material  culture  was  missing  from  the  fieldwork  revoluJon  BriJsh   anthropology  In  the  USA  the  situaJon  was  more  complex.  Material  culture  was  an   integral  part  of  culture-­‐area  theory  and  the  ecological  evoluJonary  anthropology   of  White  and  Steward.  The  separaJon  of  material  culture  from  other  social  and   cultural  data  is  now  recognized  to  be  arbitrary,  and  objects  have  been  reintegrated   within  social  theory.  a  previously  neglected  body  of  data  that  provides  insight  into   social  processes,  and  a  bePer  understanding  of  the  artefacts  themselves.  •  social  historians,  psychologists  and  exponents  of  cultural  studies.  •  the  ideaJonal  systems  that  underlie  the  producJon  and  consumpJon  of  artefacts,   to  abstract  from  the  surface  correctness  of  their  form  by  connecJng  them  to   history  and  relaJng  them  to  the  diversity  of  social  processes.  Analysis  has  ojen   been  framed  in  terms  of  semioJcs  or  meaning  other  dimensions  of  its  value  which   may  include  such  factors  as  aestheJcs,  style,  symbolism  and  economics.  
  • Material  Culture  •  Kuper;  •  The  analysis  of  material  culture  provides  informaJon  on  value   creaJon,  on  the  expression  of  individual  idenJty  and  on  the   moJvaJons  underlying  consumer  behaviour.  Increasingly  material   culture  is  being  used  as  a  source  of  informaJon  in  the  study  of   complex  socieJes  and  global  paPerns  and  processes  (Miller  1987).  •   transformaJons  in  the  value  and  meaning  of  objects  as  they  move   from  context  to  context,  either  as  part  of  local  exchange  systems  or   global  trading  processes  (Thomas  1991).  •  The  study  of  material  culture  encompasses  the  analysis  of   ideological  restructurings  •  Material  culture  not  only  creates  potenJal  for  but  also  constrains   human  acJon,  and  it  is  subject  to  human  agency;  people  make   meaningful  objects  but  they  can  also  change  the  meaning  of   objects.  
  • Nature  and  Culture  •  human  cogniJon  and  acJon  are  mediated  by  learned  and  therefore   cultural,  rather  than  by  insJncJve  or  inborn,  responses.  Since  this  is  so,   culture  is  a  separate  object  of  study,  cultural  varia-on  is  different  in  kind   from  biological  varia-on,  and  cultural  anthropology  is  an  autonomous   discipline,  separate  from  the  biological  sciences.  •   It  is  impossible  to  understand  the  concept  ‘culture’  clearly  without   reference  to  its  opposing  concept,  ‘nature’.  •  A  theory  that  explains  the  different  varieJes  of  people,  their  customs,  and   their  apparently  different  mental  capaciJes  by  reference  to  race   (measured  each  race  against  the  supposedly  most  advanced,  the   Northern  Europeans)  •  Franz  Boas,  cultural  anthropology,  (The  Mind  of  PrimiJve  Man  in  1911)   showed  that  bodily  form  is  not  linked  to  language  or  to  any  of  the  maPers   we  associate  with  culture:  altudes  and  values,  customs,  modes  of   livelihood  and  forms  of  social  organizaJon.  He  argued  that  there  is  no   reason  to  think  that  other  ‘races’  (or,  more  accurately,  other  ways  of  life)   are  less  moral  or  less  intelligent  than  Northern  Europeans,  and  so  there  is   no  single  standard  for  evaluaJon.  
  • Nature  and  Culture  •  Different  paPerns  in  human  life;  they  could  not  have  arisen  from  a   uniform  process  of  social  or  cultural  evoluJon  but  must  rather  be   the  fruit  of  complex  local  historical  causes.  •  Levi  Strauss,  argued  that  the  nature/culture  divide  is  to  be  found   among  all  socieJes  in  some  form  as  a  cogniJve  device  for   understanding  the  world.  Indeed  he  went  further,  suggesJng  that  it   is  the  very  making  of  a  dis-nc-on  between  nature  and  culture   that  dis-nguishes  humans  from  animals.  •  nature  versus  culture  as  an  interpre-ve  device  throughout   anthropology.  (  men  and  women,  such  that  women,  or  perhaps  the   processes  of  childbirth,  are  natural,  whereas  men,  or  the  ritual  and   poliJcal  processes  they  control,  are  cultural)  •  the  temperature  of  the  conJnuing  conflict  between  the  parJes  of   biological  and  cultural  determinism  remains  high.  This  conflict  has   ranged  in  the  twenJeth  century  across  race,  sexuality,  gender,   aggression,  intelligence,  nutriJon  and  many  more  issues  besides.  
  • Nature  and  Culture  •  Synthesis;  CooperaJve  effort,  by  behavioural  biologists,   psychologists  and  anthropologists,  not  so  much  to  reconcile  the   disciplines  as  to  channel  their  conflicJng  energies  into  a  greater   project.  •  Beneath  and  around  the  stuff  of  culture  there  stands  a  scaffolding   of  social  abiliJes  and  disJnctly  social  intelligence.  
  • •  The  Social  Science  Encyclopedia  •  The  Routledge  Encyclopedia  of  Social  and   Cultural  Anthropology