Art History

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Art History

  1. 1. THE SECOND HALF OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY: A Multiplicity of Directions Responding to Art Chapter 19
  2. 2. Neo-dadaism - A style of art that emphasized freedom, non-rational creativity and the breaking down of barriers between art and life Minimalism emerges in the 1950s and 1960s. - Artists begin to move away from formalism to a more amplified and powerful form of art - Range and subject matter are expanded Neo-dadaists - Robert Rauschenberg - Jasper Johns - Allan Kaprow Historical Events World War II Cold War begins in 1946 <ul><li>Between Art & Life: Mixed Media and Happenings </li></ul><ul><li>The line between art and life becomes unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Minimalist’s reductionism produces impure, messy, expansive, and all-encompassing artwork </li></ul><ul><li>No clear distinction between form and subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion about this art as paintings, sculptures, art, Anti-art…just what were they? </li></ul><ul><li>New labels for this art was invented (combines, assemblages, mixed media, events, actions, performances, happenings) </li></ul>New Subjects, Media, and Art Form
  3. 3. <ul><li>Neo-Dadaism in Art Historical Context </li></ul><ul><li>Original Dadaists sought to differentiate daily life from high art </li></ul><ul><li>Marcel Duchamp’s infamous Fountain (a urinal exhibited in an art gallery) </li></ul><ul><li>The entrance of abstract expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Painterly brushwork, unbounded freedom , individualistic choice </li></ul><ul><li>sense of open-ended experimentation, action </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Striving for appreciation and understanding of the difficult works of neo-Dadaism </li></ul><ul><li>Stirred the senses and develops paradoxes that are mentally stimulating </li></ul><ul><li>Questioning societal norms </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Johns & Rauschenberg: A Study in Opposites </li></ul><ul><li>- Both worked closely together and productively together for a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>- Influenced one another but had respect for each other differing personalities and approach </li></ul><ul><li>- Their artwork reflective of their differing temperaments and m methods </li></ul><ul><li>- Johns – reclusive, meditative, and introverted </li></ul><ul><li>- Rauschenberg – amiable, impulsive, and extroverted </li></ul><ul><li>- Both at the forefront of “new realism” </li></ul><ul><li>Into Real Space & Time: Happenings and Kaprow </li></ul><ul><li>Happenings </li></ul><ul><li>A mixed media environmental art form that features theater-like activities in which people and/or objects interact in improvisational ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaprow </li></ul><ul><li>The oretician of the happenings movement </li></ul><ul><li>Saw the happenings as a synthesis of advanced painting, theater, and life </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated and witty; ritualistic and Zen-like; crude; lyrical; very spontaneous </li></ul><ul><li>No plot or obvious philosophy and improvisatory </li></ul>Robert Rauschenberg (1925 – 2008) Bed , 1955
  5. 5. Varieties of New Realism <ul><ul><li>Pop Art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Figurative art arising in the 1960s whose form and content derive from the imagery of the mass media and the products of consumer society. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop Culture and mass media integrated into art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were major figures in the happenings movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop Artists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claes Oldenburg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roy Lichtenstein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andy Warhol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam War continues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of the Cold War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Revolution begins </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Pop Art Claes Oldenburg Clothespin, 1976 <ul><li>Born January 28, 1929, in Stockholm and became an American citizen in December 1953 </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar objects made out of plaster, reflecting American society’s celebration of consumption </li></ul><ul><li>His art was disliked by established critics for its bigness, brashness, and vulgarity </li></ul><ul><li>Avant-garde values (independence and criticality) were being surrendered </li></ul><ul><li>Andy Warhol </li></ul><ul><li>Born in 1928 in Pittsburgh as the son of Slovak immigrants and became a Pop icon </li></ul><ul><li>Started painting daily objects of mass production like Campbell Soup cans and Coke bottles out of an obsession with reproduction and repetition </li></ul><ul><li>He started making silkscreen prints of famous personalities like Marilyn Monroe and Elizabeth Taylor. </li></ul><ul><li>In May 1994 the Andy Warhol Museum opened in his home town of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania </li></ul>Andy Warhol, Self-Portrait , 1986
  7. 7. <ul><li>Pop Art in Art Historical Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>New roles, previously taboo, now became acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Artists became: documenters of external reality; “commercial” in subject matter, style, and business goals; media stars </li></ul><ul><li>A break with the old, antiestablishment vanguard </li></ul><ul><li>Media images, mass-market products, commercial and industrial art styles become popular </li></ul><ul><li>Lichtenstein </li></ul><ul><li>Born into a middle class family on October 27, 1923 in New York City </li></ul><ul><li>Studies were interrupted by a three year stint in the army during World War II </li></ul><ul><li>adopted the Abstract Expressionism style </li></ul><ul><li>He began teaching at Rutgers University in 1960 where he was heavily influenced by Allan Kaprow </li></ul><ul><li>Used oil and Magna paint, thick outlines, bold colors and Benday Dots to represent certain colors, as if created by photographic reproduction </li></ul>Whaam!, 1963 1923 - 1997
  8. 8. <ul><li>From Modernism to Postmodernism </li></ul><ul><li>American painting and sculpture reached a dividing line between modern and postmodern art </li></ul><ul><li>Older art critics clearly bemoaned this shift in artistic attitude and direction </li></ul><ul><li>The landscaped was transformed into skyscrapers, billboards, supermarket aisles and television </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of the “new realists” (Superrealists and Photorealists) </li></ul><ul><li>Though there are was literal or psychological they always emphasized its formal content </li></ul><ul><li>Superrealism & Photo-realism </li></ul><ul><li>Superrealism </li></ul><ul><li>A Style of sculpture characterized by extreme realistic detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Duane Hanson </li></ul><ul><li>George Segal </li></ul><ul><li>Photorealism </li></ul><ul><li>A style of realistic painting based on photographs of a person, object or scene. Characterized by extraordinary detail, a tremendously subtle range of values and objective physical accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Estes </li></ul><ul><li>Chuck Close </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Segal: Between Pop Art & Superrealism </li></ul>Hanson: Superrealism Sculpture <ul><li>Represented real people and things, not media images of people or things </li></ul><ul><li>Props </li></ul><ul><ul><li>movie marquees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kitchen and bathroom items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>counter and cooking equipment from an actual diner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>His work projected human immediacy lacking in the mediated images of pop art </li></ul><ul><li>Used naturalistic colors or a particular monochrome to evoke mood </li></ul>George Segal (1924- 2000) Tightrope, 1969 <ul><li>Sculptures are warmer in tone and far more naturalistic </li></ul><ul><li>Strives for extreme naturalism in figures and settings </li></ul><ul><li>Lifelike quality </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on ordinary people in their ordinary surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with actual life vs. media versions of it </li></ul><ul><li>Championed art representative of dissatisfaction with the world </li></ul>Duane Hanson (1925 – 1996) Housepainter, 1988
  10. 10. Close & Estes: Photo-realist Painting Chuck Close <ul><li>Working from photographic prints or slide projections </li></ul><ul><li>Photo-realist meticulously select from and imitate the visual reality that comes to us through the camera </li></ul><ul><li>Illusionistic paintings of commonplace scenes and people </li></ul><ul><li>Received mixed reviews in the early 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Viewers and reviews judged as more imitation than art </li></ul><ul><li>Critics - looked strangely mechanical, impersonal, and absent of feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Photo-realists - paintings as cool, exacting, and revealing as the all-seeing machine eye of the camera </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by immense detail, infinitely subtle values, fleeting reflections, and the lighting of the moment. </li></ul><ul><li>More interested in formal than human concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Surface and depth, clarity and sparkle, order and balance, and compositional organization </li></ul><ul><li>Urban environment, as visual structure, is both the subject and the object of the work </li></ul>Self-Portrait , 2004-2005 34th Street, Manhattan, Looking East Richard Estes
  11. 11. - The 1980s usher in the return of figurative (representational) art. - Abstract art becomes more favored by numerous sculptors, craft artist, architects, paintmakers and painters. Major Artists *Richard Estes *Sylvia Lark *Bill Reid *Keith Haring *Leon Golub *Friz Scholder *Lucien Freud *May Stevens *Jean-Michael Basquiat *Luis Jimenez *Anslem Kiefer *Eric Fischl *Cheri Samba The Return of Figurative Art
  12. 12. New Images & Neo-Expressionist Art The Interrogation II , 1981 Leon Golub ( 1922-2004) with wife and fellow artist Nancy Spero <ul><li>Neo-expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>A revival of expressionism in art characterized by intense colors, dramatic and unusually figural forms, and emotive subject matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse art movement (chiefly of painters) </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of traditional standards of composition and design </li></ul><ul><li>Ambivalent and often brittle emotional tone </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected contemporary urban life and values </li></ul><ul><li>General lack of concern for pictorial idealization </li></ul><ul><li>Distortion of natural form, space, color, and composition </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously tense and playful presentation of objects in a primitivist manner </li></ul><ul><li>Communicated a sense of inner disturbance, tension, alienation, and ambiguity </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Multicultural & Intercultural Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Multiculturalism </li></ul><ul><li>Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Period Context </li></ul><ul><li>Greater study and appreciation of cultural diversity and feminist perspectives in art </li></ul><ul><li>Veteran artists of diverse cultural backgrounds receive recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural complexities and expressions of heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of unconventional media and material in sculpting </li></ul><ul><li>Art becomes morally, psychologically, and socially conscious with a mix of realism and expressionism </li></ul><ul><li>Art world becomes more internationalized, multiculturalized, and regionally dispersed. </li></ul>American Contemporary Realist, Painter, and Sculptor, born in 1948 A Brief History of North Africa , 1985
  14. 14. <ul><li>MEDIAS & METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Rauschenberg - Mediums: Acrylic, Aluminum, Assemblage, Ceramic/Porcelain, Collage, Enamel, Gouache, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Metal, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Pottery, Printmaking Specialty, Steel, Watercolor - Methods: Illustration, Painting, Palette Knife, Potter/Ceramist, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture Jasper Johns - Mediums: Assemblage, Bronze, Charcoal, Collage, Crayon, Encaustic, Graphite/Pencil, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Metal, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Printmaking Specialty, Watercolor - Methods: Painting, Palette Knife, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture Allan Kaprow - Medium: Assemblage, Audio, Collage, Found Objects, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Video/Film Art - Method: Printmaking/Graphics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claes Oldenburg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Mediums: Aluminum, Assemblage, Bronze, Ceramic/Porcelain, Chalk, Charcoal, Collage, Crayon, Earthworks, Enamel, Fiberglass, Gouache, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Magic Marker/Felt-Tip Pen, Metal, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, oil Paint, Pastel Painting, Plaster, Pottery, Printmaking Specialty, Resin, Steel, Watercolor, Wire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Methods: Drawing, Painting, Potter/Ceramist, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roy Lichtenstein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Mediums: Acrylic, Aluminum, Bronze, Ceramic/Porcelain, Collage, Crayon, Enamel, Fresco, Glass/Neon, Light Sculpture, Graphite/Pencil, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Magic Marker/Felt-Tip Pen, Metal, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Pastel Painting, Plexiglas, Pottery, Printmaking Specialty, Silver, Steel, Watercolor, Wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Methods: C omic Book/Strip Illustration, Illustration, Kinetic Sculpture, Mural Painting, Painting, Palette Knife, Potter/Ceramist, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Andy Warhol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Medium: Acrylic, Casein, Chalk, Charcoal, Collage, Enamel, Fiberglass, Gouache, Graphite/Pencil, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Magic Marker/Felt-Tip Pen, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Pastel Painting, Printmaking, Specialty, Watercolor, Wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Method: Illustration, Painting, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Duane Hanson - Mediums: Bronze, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Resin, Wood - Methods: Sculpture George Segal - Mediums: Bronze, Chalk, charcoal, collage, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Metal, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Pastel Painting, Plaster, Watercolor - Methods: Installation Sculpture, Painting, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture, Sketch Artist Richard Estes - Mediums: Acrylic, Gouache, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Printmaking Specialty, Watercolor - Methods: Advertising/Commercial Art, Commercial Artist, Painting, Printmaking/Graphics, Chuck Close - Mediums: Airbrush, Collage, Graphite/Pencil, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Pastel Painting, Printmaking Specialty, Silver, Watercolor, - Methods: Painting, Printmaking/Graphics
  16. 16. Works Cited <ul><li>Bersson, R. Responding to art: Form, content, and context . New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Steve Reich. “Six Marimbas”. Manhattan Marimba Quartet . Genre: Minimalist. Nonesuch, 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>“ neo-Expressionism.&quot; Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary . 2008. Merriam-Webster Online. </li></ul><ul><li>11 July 2008 <http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/neo-Expressionism> </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;multiculturalism.&quot; The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition . 2003. Houghton Mifflin Company 11 July 2008 <http://222.thefreedictionary.com/multiculturalism> </li></ul><ul><li>“ biography”. Eric Fischl . 2008. 13 July 2008 <http://www.ericfischl.com/bio/biography1.html> </li></ul><ul><li>“ pop art”. SlideShare, Inc . 2008. 12 July 2008 <http://www.slideshare.net/mickpork/computer-generated- art-part4> </li></ul><ul><li>“ methods” “mediums”. Ask Art . 2000. 13 July 2008 <http://www.askart.com/AskART/index.aspx> </li></ul>
  17. 17. LaSalle University <ul><li>Music, PowerPoint, Research, Graphic Design </li></ul><ul><li>Captions, Pictures , and Works Cited </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Pamela McClure </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Shawna Stern </li></ul><ul><li>Art 152 </li></ul><ul><li>Patricia Haberstroh </li></ul><ul><li>July 2008 </li></ul>

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