Art History
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Art History






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Art History Art History Presentation Transcript

  • THE SECOND HALF OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY: A Multiplicity of Directions Responding to Art Chapter 19
  • Neo-dadaism - A style of art that emphasized freedom, non-rational creativity and the breaking down of barriers between art and life Minimalism emerges in the 1950s and 1960s. - Artists begin to move away from formalism to a more amplified and powerful form of art - Range and subject matter are expanded Neo-dadaists - Robert Rauschenberg - Jasper Johns - Allan Kaprow Historical Events World War II Cold War begins in 1946
    • Between Art & Life: Mixed Media and Happenings
    • The line between art and life becomes unclear
    • Minimalist’s reductionism produces impure, messy, expansive, and all-encompassing artwork
    • No clear distinction between form and subject matter
    • Confusion about this art as paintings, sculptures, art, Anti-art…just what were they?
    • New labels for this art was invented (combines, assemblages, mixed media, events, actions, performances, happenings)
    New Subjects, Media, and Art Form
    • Neo-Dadaism in Art Historical Context
    • Original Dadaists sought to differentiate daily life from high art
    • Marcel Duchamp’s infamous Fountain (a urinal exhibited in an art gallery)
    • The entrance of abstract expressionism
    • Painterly brushwork, unbounded freedom , individualistic choice
    • sense of open-ended experimentation, action
    • Critical Responses
    • Striving for appreciation and understanding of the difficult works of neo-Dadaism
    • Stirred the senses and develops paradoxes that are mentally stimulating
    • Questioning societal norms
    View slide
    • Johns & Rauschenberg: A Study in Opposites
    • - Both worked closely together and productively together for a period of time
    • - Influenced one another but had respect for each other differing personalities and approach
    • - Their artwork reflective of their differing temperaments and m methods
    • - Johns – reclusive, meditative, and introverted
    • - Rauschenberg – amiable, impulsive, and extroverted
    • - Both at the forefront of “new realism”
    • Into Real Space & Time: Happenings and Kaprow
    • Happenings
    • A mixed media environmental art form that features theater-like activities in which people and/or objects interact in improvisational ways.
    • Kaprow
    • The oretician of the happenings movement
    • Saw the happenings as a synthesis of advanced painting, theater, and life
    • Sophisticated and witty; ritualistic and Zen-like; crude; lyrical; very spontaneous
    • No plot or obvious philosophy and improvisatory
    Robert Rauschenberg (1925 – 2008) Bed , 1955 View slide
  • Varieties of New Realism
      • Pop Art
      • Figurative art arising in the 1960s whose form and content derive from the imagery of the mass media and the products of consumer society.
      • Pop Culture and mass media integrated into art
      • Some were major figures in the happenings movement
      • Pop Artists
      • Claes Oldenburg
      • Roy Lichtenstein
      • Andy Warhol
      • Historical Events
      • Vietnam War continues
      • End of the Cold War
      • Digital Revolution begins
  • Pop Art Claes Oldenburg Clothespin, 1976
    • Born January 28, 1929, in Stockholm and became an American citizen in December 1953
    • Familiar objects made out of plaster, reflecting American society’s celebration of consumption
    • His art was disliked by established critics for its bigness, brashness, and vulgarity
    • Avant-garde values (independence and criticality) were being surrendered
    • Andy Warhol
    • Born in 1928 in Pittsburgh as the son of Slovak immigrants and became a Pop icon
    • Started painting daily objects of mass production like Campbell Soup cans and Coke bottles out of an obsession with reproduction and repetition
    • He started making silkscreen prints of famous personalities like Marilyn Monroe and Elizabeth Taylor.
    • In May 1994 the Andy Warhol Museum opened in his home town of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania
    Andy Warhol, Self-Portrait , 1986
    • Pop Art in Art Historical Perspective
    • New roles, previously taboo, now became acceptable
    • Artists became: documenters of external reality; “commercial” in subject matter, style, and business goals; media stars
    • A break with the old, antiestablishment vanguard
    • Media images, mass-market products, commercial and industrial art styles become popular
    • Lichtenstein
    • Born into a middle class family on October 27, 1923 in New York City
    • Studies were interrupted by a three year stint in the army during World War II
    • adopted the Abstract Expressionism style
    • He began teaching at Rutgers University in 1960 where he was heavily influenced by Allan Kaprow
    • Used oil and Magna paint, thick outlines, bold colors and Benday Dots to represent certain colors, as if created by photographic reproduction
    Whaam!, 1963 1923 - 1997
    • From Modernism to Postmodernism
    • American painting and sculpture reached a dividing line between modern and postmodern art
    • Older art critics clearly bemoaned this shift in artistic attitude and direction
    • The landscaped was transformed into skyscrapers, billboards, supermarket aisles and television
    • Introduction of the “new realists” (Superrealists and Photorealists)
    • Though there are was literal or psychological they always emphasized its formal content
    • Superrealism & Photo-realism
    • Superrealism
    • A Style of sculpture characterized by extreme realistic detail.
    • Duane Hanson
    • George Segal
    • Photorealism
    • A style of realistic painting based on photographs of a person, object or scene. Characterized by extraordinary detail, a tremendously subtle range of values and objective physical accuracy.
    • Richard Estes
    • Chuck Close
    • Segal: Between Pop Art & Superrealism
    Hanson: Superrealism Sculpture
    • Represented real people and things, not media images of people or things
    • Props
      • movie marquees
      • kitchen and bathroom items
      • counter and cooking equipment from an actual diner
    • His work projected human immediacy lacking in the mediated images of pop art
    • Used naturalistic colors or a particular monochrome to evoke mood
    George Segal (1924- 2000) Tightrope, 1969
    • Sculptures are warmer in tone and far more naturalistic
    • Strives for extreme naturalism in figures and settings
    • Lifelike quality
    • Focused on ordinary people in their ordinary surroundings
    • Concerned with actual life vs. media versions of it
    • Championed art representative of dissatisfaction with the world
    Duane Hanson (1925 – 1996) Housepainter, 1988
  • Close & Estes: Photo-realist Painting Chuck Close
    • Working from photographic prints or slide projections
    • Photo-realist meticulously select from and imitate the visual reality that comes to us through the camera
    • Illusionistic paintings of commonplace scenes and people
    • Received mixed reviews in the early 1970s
    • Viewers and reviews judged as more imitation than art
    • Critics - looked strangely mechanical, impersonal, and absent of feeling
    • Photo-realists - paintings as cool, exacting, and revealing as the all-seeing machine eye of the camera
    • Characterized by immense detail, infinitely subtle values, fleeting reflections, and the lighting of the moment.
    • More interested in formal than human concerns
    • Surface and depth, clarity and sparkle, order and balance, and compositional organization
    • Urban environment, as visual structure, is both the subject and the object of the work
    Self-Portrait , 2004-2005 34th Street, Manhattan, Looking East Richard Estes
  • - The 1980s usher in the return of figurative (representational) art. - Abstract art becomes more favored by numerous sculptors, craft artist, architects, paintmakers and painters. Major Artists *Richard Estes *Sylvia Lark *Bill Reid *Keith Haring *Leon Golub *Friz Scholder *Lucien Freud *May Stevens *Jean-Michael Basquiat *Luis Jimenez *Anslem Kiefer *Eric Fischl *Cheri Samba The Return of Figurative Art
  • New Images & Neo-Expressionist Art The Interrogation II , 1981 Leon Golub ( 1922-2004) with wife and fellow artist Nancy Spero
    • Neo-expressionism
    • A revival of expressionism in art characterized by intense colors, dramatic and unusually figural forms, and emotive subject matter.
    • Diverse art movement (chiefly of painters)
    • Rejection of traditional standards of composition and design
    • Ambivalent and often brittle emotional tone
    • Reflected contemporary urban life and values
    • General lack of concern for pictorial idealization
    • Distortion of natural form, space, color, and composition
    • Simultaneously tense and playful presentation of objects in a primitivist manner
    • Communicated a sense of inner disturbance, tension, alienation, and ambiguity
    • Multicultural & Intercultural Expressions
    • Multiculturalism
    • Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture.
    • Period Context
    • Greater study and appreciation of cultural diversity and feminist perspectives in art
    • Veteran artists of diverse cultural backgrounds receive recognition
    • Intercultural complexities and expressions of heritage
    • Introduction of unconventional media and material in sculpting
    • Art becomes morally, psychologically, and socially conscious with a mix of realism and expressionism
    • Art world becomes more internationalized, multiculturalized, and regionally dispersed.
    American Contemporary Realist, Painter, and Sculptor, born in 1948 A Brief History of North Africa , 1985
    • Robert Rauschenberg - Mediums: Acrylic, Aluminum, Assemblage, Ceramic/Porcelain, Collage, Enamel, Gouache, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Metal, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Pottery, Printmaking Specialty, Steel, Watercolor - Methods: Illustration, Painting, Palette Knife, Potter/Ceramist, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture Jasper Johns - Mediums: Assemblage, Bronze, Charcoal, Collage, Crayon, Encaustic, Graphite/Pencil, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Metal, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Printmaking Specialty, Watercolor - Methods: Painting, Palette Knife, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture Allan Kaprow - Medium: Assemblage, Audio, Collage, Found Objects, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Video/Film Art - Method: Printmaking/Graphics
      • Claes Oldenburg
      • - Mediums: Aluminum, Assemblage, Bronze, Ceramic/Porcelain, Chalk, Charcoal, Collage, Crayon, Earthworks, Enamel, Fiberglass, Gouache, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Magic Marker/Felt-Tip Pen, Metal, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, oil Paint, Pastel Painting, Plaster, Pottery, Printmaking Specialty, Resin, Steel, Watercolor, Wire
      • - Methods: Drawing, Painting, Potter/Ceramist, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture
      • Roy Lichtenstein
      • - Mediums: Acrylic, Aluminum, Bronze, Ceramic/Porcelain, Collage, Crayon, Enamel, Fresco, Glass/Neon, Light Sculpture, Graphite/Pencil, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Magic Marker/Felt-Tip Pen, Metal, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Pastel Painting, Plexiglas, Pottery, Printmaking Specialty, Silver, Steel, Watercolor, Wood
      • - Methods: C omic Book/Strip Illustration, Illustration, Kinetic Sculpture, Mural Painting, Painting, Palette Knife, Potter/Ceramist, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture
      • Andy Warhol
      • - Medium: Acrylic, Casein, Chalk, Charcoal, Collage, Enamel, Fiberglass, Gouache, Graphite/Pencil, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Magic Marker/Felt-Tip Pen, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Pastel Painting, Printmaking, Specialty, Watercolor, Wood
      • - Method: Illustration, Painting, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture
  • Duane Hanson - Mediums: Bronze, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Resin, Wood - Methods: Sculpture George Segal - Mediums: Bronze, Chalk, charcoal, collage, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Metal, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Pastel Painting, Plaster, Watercolor - Methods: Installation Sculpture, Painting, Printmaking/Graphics, Sculpture, Sketch Artist Richard Estes - Mediums: Acrylic, Gouache, Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Printmaking Specialty, Watercolor - Methods: Advertising/Commercial Art, Commercial Artist, Painting, Printmaking/Graphics, Chuck Close - Mediums: Airbrush, Collage, Graphite/Pencil, Ink Drawing (Pen and Ink), Mixed-Media/Multi-Media, Oil Paint, Pastel Painting, Printmaking Specialty, Silver, Watercolor, - Methods: Painting, Printmaking/Graphics
  • Works Cited
    • Bersson, R. Responding to art: Form, content, and context . New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
    • Steve Reich. “Six Marimbas”. Manhattan Marimba Quartet . Genre: Minimalist. Nonesuch, 1992.
    • “ neo-Expressionism." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary . 2008. Merriam-Webster Online.
    • 11 July 2008 <>
    • &quot;multiculturalism.&quot; The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition . 2003. Houghton Mifflin Company 11 July 2008 <>
    • “ biography”. Eric Fischl . 2008. 13 July 2008 <>
    • “ pop art”. SlideShare, Inc . 2008. 12 July 2008 < art-part4>
    • “ methods” “mediums”. Ask Art . 2000. 13 July 2008 <>
  • LaSalle University
    • Music, PowerPoint, Research, Graphic Design
    • Captions, Pictures , and Works Cited
    • by
    • Pamela McClure
    • &
    • Shawna Stern
    • Art 152
    • Patricia Haberstroh
    • July 2008