NAN Today we’ll cover Digital Rights Management, or DRM Metadata Schemes - their purposes, elements, and several well-known examples.
NAN How can rights to digital objects, like music, movies, e-books, etc. be managed by their creators, rights owners and publishers? With DRM, stakeholders can manage both access and use of protected digital resources. It’s important to clarify that DRM is the 'digital management of rights' and not the 'management of digital rights'. That is, DRM manages all rights, not only the rights applicable to permissions over digital content&quot; (Ianella, 2006, para. 2)
NAN This metadata, which sets out how digital resources may be used and accessed, provides the administrative information - including copyright, distribution, ownership and restrictions - that protect the resource according to applicable laws. In addition to protection, DRM also offers verification of a resources’ authenticity; some rights administrative metadata also includes descriptive information like the creator and date of creation. While some DRM schemes exist on their own, others are easily incorporated as a “rights section” in existing metadata schemes.
NAN Rights description defines the work’s copyright status, including the rights holder and definitions of legal use; Rights licensing outlines the contractual and licensing agreements of the resource; and Rights workflow languages exist to maintain control over how the work is accessed and used, including usage tracking and the enforcement of rights agreements - basically, any part of the workflow associated with a digital resource.
NAN Today we’ll discuss these four popular schemes; however, many more have been developed either specific collections, like Rutgers University Library, or PREMIS, specifically for preservation of digital resources
PAM ONIX is the first DRM metadata scheme we will discuss. It’s created by Editeur, released in 2000 It’s for booksellers selling digital books online to convey information about their products It has many data elements – and you’ll see an example shortly – 230, to be precise. It’s coded in XML, with linguistic tags and numeric tags to define the fields
PAM Indecs is created by a small consortium of organizations that put IP-protected content online It was established in 1998 It’s very complex – in fact, it’s ontology-based, meaning that it evolves. It maps to other schemes It provides a unique identification number for each digital object.
PAM OMA is for the mobile market – including devices and software. It’s made by the Open Mobile Alliance, and it was launched in 2002 It’s goal is interoperability across devices, geographic locations, providers and networks It’s XML-based and encrypted meaning that the device must have the matching rights object in order to access protected content.
PAM I’m sure you’re familiar with MPEG It’s made by the Moving Pictures Expert Group and goes back to 1988 The concepts of users and digital items are important with MPEG-21. It provides a framework in which one user interacts with another user, and the object of that interaction is a digital item. MPEG-21 has nine distinct parts, including the digital item declaration, digital item identification, intellectual property management and protection, a rights expression language and a rights data dictionary (MPEG-21, 2010).
PAM Now I’m going to compare two DRM metadata schemes: ONIX and indecs
PAM We’ll show you an example of ONIX metadata soon. It’s a widely-used format, used by the American Booksellers Association, Amazon and Barnes & Noble It’s convertible to MARC-21 and the only data that is lost is ONIX-only data. However, because it’s highly structured, there’s less flexibility for some fields, like the price and tax fields. But the structure makes it so that little manual intervention is needed and it also increases the speed of updates
PAM Indecs, of course, is for e-commerce of intellectual property. While researching, we found that several other metadata schemes are based on indecs (for example: MPEG-21). That is, they contain sections of indecs metadata. It’s a comprehensive metadata scheme that manages intellectual property at every stage of digital exchange. Each digital object is assigned an iids – an indecs identification number. Its weakness is also its strength: because indecs is so generic, many additional modifications may be needed in order to apply it to specific domains, such as coding legal judgments in different parts of the world.
PAM ONIX metadata is used by book publishers for digital objects This is only an excerpt of an ONIX metadata record It’s in XML In the header, there is the sender, the addressee, and the date sent In the product identifier section, there is a numeric id for the digital object Later on there are sections for descriptive details, measurements, title, contributor, subject, collateral (including any textual descriptions), publisher, market, suppliers, price, and tax.
PAM I’m sure you’re all familiar with what DRM means for downloading media, proprietary file formats, jailbreaking, etc. Using DRM-protected media illegally is common and usually not enforced well Many consumers—including myself—are concerned with how DRM will affect digital media that we use, and how digital media will be preserved or stored in archives and libraries DRM is regulated in many countries, to different extents, and covered usually under copyright law Right now, in Canada, Bill C-32 An Act to Amend the Copyright Act, is being discussed in the House of Commons Michael Geist, an Internet law expert (who has a very interesting Web site, by the way: MichaelGeist.ca) has written extensively about the harm that could be done through this legislation if it becomes law If this bill becomes law, libraries will be forced to implement DRM in their inter-library digital loans and would require that digital loans self-destruct within five days of first use and limit any copying or distribution In addition, there is no exception in Bill C-32 for archives preserving digital materials (yet other countries have this exception) Ideally, there should be an exception for libraries, school, museums, archives, etc. This is our digital heritage! Even if locks become obsolete or broken, there is no legal way of circumventing them under this Bill
PAM Does anyone have any questions about Digital Rights Management Metadata schemes?
Drm metadata presentation fina lwith-notes
Digital Rights Management Metadata Schemes Jorge Espinosa, Adrienne Smith, Nan Zhang, & Pam Carson http://www.geekosystem.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/digital-rights-management-drm.jpg
What is DRM? <ul><li>DRM is the systems and services used </li></ul><ul><li>“ to manage the access and use of rights-protected digital resources ” </li></ul>Agnew, 2008, p. 1 http://www.phanart.net/blog/?m=20091207
How does it work? <ul><li>DRM allow rights-holders to protect their resources by setting out how the resources may be used and accessed </li></ul>http://www.gpsinc.com/intellectual-property.html — all through metadata!
What’s the purpose of DRM metadata? <ul><li>Rights description </li></ul><ul><li>Rights licensing </li></ul><ul><li>Rights workflow languages </li></ul>http://www.whatsnextblog.com/archives/2006/10/intellectual_property_issues_heatingup_in_social_media_and_virtual_reality.asp
What’s in DRM metadata? <ul><li>Provenance </li></ul><ul><li>Rights holder </li></ul><ul><li>Rights status </li></ul><ul><li>User and user roles </li></ul><ul><li>Rights or permissions </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints, requirements and conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement, contract or license </li></ul>Agnew, 2008, pp. 241-248 If an antelope is a document … http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1128646
What are the DRM metadata schemes? <ul><li>We’ll discuss: </li></ul><ul><li>ONIX </li></ul><ul><li>indecs </li></ul><ul><li>OMA </li></ul><ul><li>MPEG-21 </li></ul><ul><li>Others include: </li></ul><ul><li>CDL copyrightMD, RUCore Rights (Rutgers University), METSRights, PREMIS Rights, and more </li></ul>http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/img/2010/04/metadata.jpg
ONIX <ul><li>Version 1 released 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers needed a standard for supplying “rich” product information </li></ul><ul><li>to Internet booksellers </li></ul><ul><li>DTD contains over 230 data elements : </li></ul><ul><li>25 for product records </li></ul><ul><li>6 for main series records </li></ul><ul><li>7 for subseries records </li></ul><ul><li>Includes data elements for cover images , author photos, audio files and videos, among others </li></ul>Created by EDItEUR, the Book Industry Communication (UK), the Book Industry Study Group (US) ONIX, 2010
<ul><li>Established 1998, driven by music publishers and performers </li></ul><ul><li>Most complex system of defining DRM metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Created with belief that metadata should be created once and used many </li></ul><ul><li>times for different purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Provides mappings to other schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Generic metadata structure with dictionary for multimedia IP commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Part 1: commercial and descriptive terms </li></ul><ul><li>Part 2: legal terms </li></ul><ul><li>Unique indecs identification numbers: iids </li></ul>indecs created by BBC, RIAA, Content ID Forum (Japan) and Federation of European Publishers Cordis, 2001
<ul><li>OMA established 2002; DRM v 1 released September 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed to be the centre of all mobile application standardization work and to provide interoperability across </li></ul><ul><li>devices </li></ul><ul><li>geographies </li></ul><ul><li>services providers </li></ul><ul><li>operators </li></ul><ul><li>networks </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of an XML document specifying permissions and constraints </li></ul><ul><li>on resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Content distributed with cryptographic protection: protected content not usable without the associated rights object on a device </li></ul>OMA DRM created by Open Mobile Alliance (mobile/wireless industry) OMA, 2010
<ul><li>MPEG established 1988; MPEG-21 DRM launched 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to enable all-electronic creation, trade, delivery and </li></ul><ul><li>consumption of digital multimedia content </li></ul><ul><li>Makes no distinction between types of users : resource providers and </li></ul><ul><li>consumers are considered equal in terms of publishing, delivering and </li></ul><ul><li>consuming resources </li></ul><ul><li>Provides framework governing how users interact with other users </li></ul><ul><li>where the object of that interaction is a digital item </li></ul><ul><li>Provides both a rights expression language and a rights data dictionary </li></ul>MPEG-21 created by Moving Pictures Experts Group (ISO/IEC) MPEG, 2010
<ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive common data exchange format </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient and fast </li></ul><ul><li>Little manual intervention needed </li></ul><ul><li>Highly convertible to MARC-21 format </li></ul>Evaluation: ONIX <ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Inflexible: Single price information field prohibits setting multiple prices for varying rights </li></ul>
Evaluation: indecs <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperable </li></ul><ul><li>Manages IP at every step in the digital supply chain </li></ul><ul><li>Unique identifiers (iids) </li></ul><ul><li>Used by other schemes (MPEG-21) </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely generic: may require customization for specific domains/ applications (i.e., legal judgments in different jurisdictions) </li></ul>
Future Trends <ul><li>Consumer unrest - illegal use of digital resources </li></ul><ul><li>Canada: Bill C-32 An Act to Amend the Copyright Act </li></ul>https://secure.ewebspot.com/upload/v_lauriehawn/documents/speakers_chair.jpg