SCHIZOPHRENIA
2nd
most frequent diagnosis of patients
14-64 y/o
Pamela M. Veroy RN, MAN
Retrieved sources from: CRH (2008)
Last update 6/25/09 ajj
In this module we will cover
• What is schizophrenia
• Symptoms of schizophrenia
• Types of schizo...
What is schizophrenia?
• A chronic severe brain disorder; often they
hear voices, believe media are
broadcasting their tho...
Diagnosis
• Currently there is no physical or lab test
that can absolutely diagnose
schizophrenia.
• A psychiatrist usuall...
Misdiagnosis
• This is a common problem since
schizophrenia shares a significant number
of symptoms with other disorders.
...
Disorders that may appear like
Schizophrenia
• Schizoid personality
• Schizophreniform disorder
• Schizotypal personality
...
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
• Profound disruption in cognition and
emotion, affecting the most fundamental
human attributes:...
Positive Symptoms
• Those that appear to reflect an excess or
distortion of normal functions.
Positive Symptoms
• Delusions. Those where the patient thinks
he is being followed or watched are
common; also the belief ...
Positive Symptoms
• Hallucinations. Distortions or
exaggerations of perception in any of the
senses.
• Often they hear voi...
Positive Symptoms
• Disorganized thinking/speech.
• AKA loose associations; speech is
tangential, loosely associated or
in...
Positive Symptom
• Grossly disorganized behavior.
• Difficulty in goal directed behavior (ADLs),
unpredictable agitation o...
Positive Symptom
• Catatonic behavior.
• Marked decrease in reaction to immediate
environment, sometimes just unaware of
s...
Other Positive Symptoms
• Inappropriate response
to stimuli
• Unusual motor behavior
(pacing, rocking)
• Depersonalization...
Summary of Positive Symptoms
• Delusions
• Hallucinations
• Disorganized thinking
• Disorganized behavior
• Catatonic beha...
FYI: Positive Symptoms
• Positive symptoms are those that have a
positive reaction from some treatment.
• In other words, ...
Negative Symptoms
• Those that appear to reflect a decline or
loss of normal functions.
• May be difficult to evaluate bec...
Negative Symptoms
• Affective flattening.
• Reduction in the range and intensity of
emotional expression, including facial...
Negative Symptom
• Alogia (poverty of speech)
• Lessening of speech fluency and
productivity, thought to reflect slowing o...
Negative Symptom
• Avolition
• The reduction, difficulty or inability to
initiate and persist in goal-directed
behavior. O...
Examples of Avolition
• No longer interested in going out with
friends
• No longer interested in activities that the
perso...
Disorganized Symptoms
• This one is somewhat new and may not
be considered valid.
• It is thought disorder, confusion,
dis...
Summary of Negative Symptoms
• Lack of emotion
• Low energy
• Lack of interest in life
• Affective flattening
• Alogia
• I...
Cognitive Symptoms
• Difficulties in concentration and memory:
– Disorganized thinking
– Slow thinking
– Difficulty unders...
FYI: Negative Symptoms
• Currently there is no treatment that has a
consistent impact on negative symptoms.
Types of Schizophrenia
• Paranoid
• Hebephrenic
• Catatonic
• Residual
• Schizoaffective
• Undifferentiated
Paranoid Schizophrenia
• Persons are very suspicious of others and
often have grand schemes of persecution
at the root of ...
Hebephrenic Schizophrenia
• AKA disorganized schizophrenia; characterized
by emotionless, incongruous, or silly behavior,
...
Catatonic Schizophrenia
• Person is extremely withdrawn, negative
and isolated.
• May have marked psychomotor
disturbances.
Residual Schizophrenia
• Lacks motivation and interest in day-to-
day living.
• Person is not usually having delusions,
ha...
Schizoaffective Disorder
• There will be symptoms of schizophrenia
as well as mood disorder (depression,
bipolar, mixed ma...
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
• Conditions meeting the general diagnostic
criteria for schizophrenia but not
conforming t...
Summary
• Before a diagnosis the psychiatrist must
make a thorough evaluation including a
physical/medical exam, a mental ...
Medications
• In general it may take up to 6 months for
medications to show consistent effects.
• The newest medication is...
• These medications may have such
intolerable side effects that the patient will
stop the drugs.
• One study showed the av...
Treatments
• Psychotherapy - an adjunct to meds and is very
useful to keep the patient on the meds.
• Group therapy
• Fami...
• Early detection and treatment has the best
results/response to treatment.
• Per patients, once you have schizophrenia
yo...
Psych Definitions
• Delusion = fixed beliefs that usually
involve a misinterpretation of experience.
“Client believes some...
Psych Definitions
• Hallucinations = perceptual experiences
that occur in absence of actual sensory
stimuli; involves the ...
Psych Definitions
• Illusions = person misperceives or
exaggerates stimuli that actually exist in
the external environment.
Defense Mechanism
• Affiliation =
Turning to others for help or support;
sharing problems with others without
implying tha...
Defense Mechanism
• Devaluation =
Attributing exaggerated negative qualities
to self or others.
Ex: A boy has been rejecte...
Defense Mechanism
• Displacement =
Transferring a feeling about, or a response
to, one object onto another (usually less
t...
Communication Technique
• Confrontation =
Presenting the patient with a different
reality of the situation.
Ex: My best fr...
Communication Technique
• Doubt =
Expressing or voicing doubt when a
patient relates a situation.
Ex: My best friend hates...
Thank you...
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Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia

  1. 1. SCHIZOPHRENIA 2nd most frequent diagnosis of patients 14-64 y/o Pamela M. Veroy RN, MAN Retrieved sources from: CRH (2008)
  2. 2. Last update 6/25/09 ajj In this module we will cover • What is schizophrenia • Symptoms of schizophrenia • Types of schizophrenia • Some of the more common treatments for schizophrenia
  3. 3. What is schizophrenia? • A chronic severe brain disorder; often they hear voices, believe media are broadcasting their thoughts to the world or may believe someone is trying to harm them. • In men it usually develops in teen years and early 20s; in women it usually develops in 20s and 30s.
  4. 4. Diagnosis • Currently there is no physical or lab test that can absolutely diagnose schizophrenia. • A psychiatrist usually comes to the diagnosis based on clinical symptoms.
  5. 5. Misdiagnosis • This is a common problem since schizophrenia shares a significant number of symptoms with other disorders. • Per the Nat’l Depression & Bipolar Support Alliance there is an average of 10 years from onset to correct diagnosis & tx.
  6. 6. Disorders that may appear like Schizophrenia • Schizoid personality • Schizophreniform disorder • Schizotypal personality • Bipolar Disorder • Asperger’s syndrome
  7. 7. Symptoms of Schizophrenia • Profound disruption in cognition and emotion, affecting the most fundamental human attributes: – Language – Thought – Perception – Affect – Sense of self
  8. 8. Positive Symptoms • Those that appear to reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions.
  9. 9. Positive Symptoms • Delusions. Those where the patient thinks he is being followed or watched are common; also the belief that people on TV, radio are directing special messages to him/her.
  10. 10. Positive Symptoms • Hallucinations. Distortions or exaggerations of perception in any of the senses. • Often they hear voices within their own thoughts followed by visual hallucinations.
  11. 11. Positive Symptoms • Disorganized thinking/speech. • AKA loose associations; speech is tangential, loosely associated or incoherent enough to impair communication.
  12. 12. Positive Symptom • Grossly disorganized behavior. • Difficulty in goal directed behavior (ADLs), unpredictable agitation or silliness, social disinhibition, or bizarre behavior. • There is a purposelessness to behavior.
  13. 13. Positive Symptom • Catatonic behavior. • Marked decrease in reaction to immediate environment, sometimes just unaware of surroundings, rigid or bizarre postures, aimless motor activity.
  14. 14. Other Positive Symptoms • Inappropriate response to stimuli • Unusual motor behavior (pacing, rocking) • Depersonalization • Derealization • Somatic preoccupations
  15. 15. Summary of Positive Symptoms • Delusions • Hallucinations • Disorganized thinking • Disorganized behavior • Catatonic behavior • Inappropriate responses
  16. 16. FYI: Positive Symptoms • Positive symptoms are those that have a positive reaction from some treatment. • In other words, positive symptoms respond to treatment.
  17. 17. Negative Symptoms • Those that appear to reflect a decline or loss of normal functions. • May be difficult to evaluate because they are not as grossly abnormal as positive symptoms.
  18. 18. Negative Symptoms • Affective flattening. • Reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression, including facial expression, voice tone, eye contact and body language.
  19. 19. Negative Symptom • Alogia (poverty of speech) • Lessening of speech fluency and productivity, thought to reflect slowing or blocked thoughts; often manifested as short, empty replies to questions.
  20. 20. Negative Symptom • Avolition • The reduction, difficulty or inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed behavior. Often mistaken for apparent disinterest.
  21. 21. Examples of Avolition • No longer interested in going out with friends • No longer interested in activities that the person used to show enthusiasm • No longer interested in anything • Sitting in the house for hours or days doing nothing
  22. 22. Disorganized Symptoms • This one is somewhat new and may not be considered valid. • It is thought disorder, confusion, disorientation and memory problems.
  23. 23. Summary of Negative Symptoms • Lack of emotion • Low energy • Lack of interest in life • Affective flattening • Alogia • Inappropriate social skills • Inability to make friends • Social isolation
  24. 24. Cognitive Symptoms • Difficulties in concentration and memory: – Disorganized thinking – Slow thinking – Difficulty understanding – Poor concentration – Poor memory – Difficulty expressing thoughts – Difficulty integrating thoughts, feelings, behaviors
  25. 25. FYI: Negative Symptoms • Currently there is no treatment that has a consistent impact on negative symptoms.
  26. 26. Types of Schizophrenia • Paranoid • Hebephrenic • Catatonic • Residual • Schizoaffective • Undifferentiated
  27. 27. Paranoid Schizophrenia • Persons are very suspicious of others and often have grand schemes of persecution at the root of their behavior. • During this phase they may have hallucinations and frequent delusions.
  28. 28. Hebephrenic Schizophrenia • AKA disorganized schizophrenia; characterized by emotionless, incongruous, or silly behavior, intellectual deterioration, frequently beginning insidiously during adolescence. • May be verbally incoherent and may have moods and emotions that are not appropriate to the situation. • Hallucinations not usually present.
  29. 29. Catatonic Schizophrenia • Person is extremely withdrawn, negative and isolated. • May have marked psychomotor disturbances.
  30. 30. Residual Schizophrenia • Lacks motivation and interest in day-to- day living. • Person is not usually having delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech.
  31. 31. Schizoaffective Disorder • There will be symptoms of schizophrenia as well as mood disorder (depression, bipolar, mixed mania).
  32. 32. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia • Conditions meeting the general diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia but not conforming to any of the previous types. • Exhibits more than one of the previous types without a clear dominance of one.
  33. 33. Summary • Before a diagnosis the psychiatrist must make a thorough evaluation including a physical/medical exam, a mental status exam, appropriate labs, and a full history. • History includes changes in thinking, behavior, movement, mood, etc. as seen by the family.
  34. 34. Medications • In general it may take up to 6 months for medications to show consistent effects. • The newest medication is Invega. • Meds include atypicals: Abilify, Geodon, Clozapine, Risperidone, Seroquel, Zyprexa. – [Remember: a giraffe can really see a zebra]
  35. 35. • These medications may have such intolerable side effects that the patient will stop the drugs. • One study showed the average time the meds were taken regularly was 3 months.
  36. 36. Treatments • Psychotherapy - an adjunct to meds and is very useful to keep the patient on the meds. • Group therapy • Family therapy • Community support groups
  37. 37. • Early detection and treatment has the best results/response to treatment. • Per patients, once you have schizophrenia you have it for life. The best you can hope for is control.
  38. 38. Psych Definitions • Delusion = fixed beliefs that usually involve a misinterpretation of experience. “Client believes someone is reading his thoughts” • Several types: grandiose, nihilistic, persecutory, somatic
  39. 39. Psych Definitions • Hallucinations = perceptual experiences that occur in absence of actual sensory stimuli; involves the 5 senses.
  40. 40. Psych Definitions • Illusions = person misperceives or exaggerates stimuli that actually exist in the external environment.
  41. 41. Defense Mechanism • Affiliation = Turning to others for help or support; sharing problems with others without implying that someone else is responsible. Ex: An individual has a fight with spouse and turns to their best friend for emotional support.
  42. 42. Defense Mechanism • Devaluation = Attributing exaggerated negative qualities to self or others. Ex: A boy has been rejected by his long time girlfriend. He tells his friends that he realizes that she is stupid and ugly.
  43. 43. Defense Mechanism • Displacement = Transferring a feeling about, or a response to, one object onto another (usually less threatening) substitute object Ex: A child is mad at her mother for leaving for the day, but says she is really mad at the sitter for serving her food she does not like.
  44. 44. Communication Technique • Confrontation = Presenting the patient with a different reality of the situation. Ex: My best friend never calls. She hates me. Nurse ‘I was in the room yesterday when she called.’
  45. 45. Communication Technique • Doubt = Expressing or voicing doubt when a patient relates a situation. Ex: My best friend hates me. Nurse ‘From what you have told me, that does not should like her. When did she last call you?’
  46. 46. Thank you...
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