Introduction of research


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Introductory concept on research

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Introduction of research

  1. 1. Introduction of Research Pamela M. Veroy, RN, MAN
  2. 2. Research Defined: • A systematic attempt to provide answers to general/abstract questions (as in basic research) and highly concrete, specific and practical ones as in applied research. • A systematic process of knowing or understanding in order to collect, analyze, interpret and use data to explain, describe, predict or control phenomena or events.
  3. 3. • The application of the scientific approach to discover answer to meaningful questions or to search for reliable knowledge by using different methods that are universally considered systematic and objective. • A process by which observable, verifiable data, are systematically collected and analyzed. • Nothing more than finding out what you need to know and “searching again” what others have written about the subject (secondary data)
  4. 4. The Goals of Science Theoretical Goals -Description (answering what? & how?) -Explanation (answering why?) Cognitive Goals Practical Goals Control (effective intervention to society, to alter the course of events in desired directions Manipulative goals
  5. 5. Objective of Research 1. Describing – the most basic use of social research is to provide a clear description of social phenomena. • We often observe in every life without “looking” and “seeing” clearly. • We often miss the minutiae of events because we are preoccupied, or do not train ourselves to be observant. • We tend to “see” either what is significant at the time, or what we want to see, or else what we have time to see.
  6. 6. • Precise observation and description are the basis of research. 2. Understanding – (why events happen?) • Once we have a very clear description of events in the world, then the next stage is to try to understand why and how they happen. • Much of scientific research has always been concerned with establishing general laws which govern and describe patterns of event.
  7. 7. 3. Explaining – One of the main aims of research is to try to understand and explain organizational patterns and behavior. • A major purpose of research is to try to monitor and explain trends such as: • Changes in home-ownership patterns in the population • Trends in the use of public transport • Employment changes in relation to variable such as age or gender • Changes in the relationship between qualification level and mean income of individuals • Productivity levels of different industries.
  8. 8. Commercial companies are usually interested in such features as; • Changes in consumer demand for a products • Effects of changes in manufacturing technology upon productivity • Changes in transport facilities which might affect the price of raw materials or of distribution costs for products • Demographic trends which might affect their marketing function.
  9. 9. • Trends are potentially very complex to analyze. • The only reliable way in which to monitor the trend is to conduct a research investigation. • There is really no short cut to obtaining accurate data and precise analysis. • It takes time and commitment, but the results will be much more valid and useful than some assumptions made in haste.
  10. 10. 4. Predicting (future developments) • It is one of the primary functions of research. • The predictive process in research depends very much upon establishing accurate causal connections. 5. Developing new policy strategies • The prime function of research is to contribute to human knowledge. • Research is crucial in enabling individuals, organizations and governments to make informed decisions about issues which policy- makers can base their decisions.
  11. 11. • Policy researchers are frequently expected to analyze their data, and to provide a series of recommendation for social action. • Policy-makers may wish to examine an issue from wide a variety of view-points as possible before reaching a decision.
  12. 12. Characteristics of Science 1. Objectivity – attitudes devoid of personal whim, bias or prejudice. • Evidence of science is factual, not conjectural; and truth is achieved by the demonstration of evidential proof. • Scientific method encourages a rigorous, impersonal mode of procedure dictated by the demands of logic and objective procedures.
  13. 13. • Scientist, as a scientist, does not advocate any values. • He does, and he holds such values highly, to as the spint of inquiry and the idea of objectivity (or “truth”). • As a scientist about the only way that he is influenced by cultural values would be in his choice of problems for research, and of course in the drive which led him to becomes a seeker of knowledge in the first place.
  14. 14. 2. Logical –To say that science is a logical method is simply (yet very significantly) to say that the scientist is constantly guided by the accepted rules of reasoning logicians • The scientist guards himself by a cloak of critical doubt. • He is constantly searching, never satisfied, and always doubtful of everything he knows, for he has learned early in his career the singular lesson of science. • What is thought to be true today might be proved to be false by tomorrow.
  15. 15. 3. Systematic – science proceeds in an orderly manner both in its organization of a problem and in its methods of operation. • It does not proceed randomly or haphazardly 4. Reliable knowledge – this term refers to that kind of knowledge which one can depend upon in terms of predictability. • In this sense, then reliable knowledge is synonymous with exact or correct knowledge. • Science strives constantly for exactness. • It is not satisfied with half truths and is intolerant of careless procedures.
  16. 16. Why research is of value? • How can educators, parents, and students obtain the information they need? • Many ways of obtaining information, of course, exist. • One can consult experts, review books and articles, question or observe colleagues with relevant experience • examine one’s own experience in the past, or even rely on intuition. • All of these approaches suggest possible ways to proceed, but the answers they provide are not always reliable. • Experts may be mistaken; source documents may contain no insights of value; colleagues may have no experience in the matter; one’s own experience or intuition may be irrelevant or misunderstood.
  17. 17. • This is why a knowledge of scientific research methodology can be of value. • The scientific method provides us with another way of obtaining information- • information that is as accurate and reliable as we can get. • Let us compare it, therefore, with some of the other ways of knowing that exist.
  18. 18. Sensory Experience • We see, we hear, we smell, we taste, we touch. • Most of us have seen the fireworks on the fourth of July in TV • heard the whine of a jet airplane’s engines overhead • smelled a rose, tasted chocolate ice cream, • and felt the wetness of a rainy day. • The information we take in from the world through our senses is the most immediate way we have of knowing something.
  19. 19. • Sensory data, to be sure, can be refined. • Seeing the temperature on an outdoor thermometer can refine our knowledge of how cold it is; • a top-quality stereo system can help us hear Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony with greater clarity; • smell, taste, touch- all can be enhanced and usually need to be. • Man experiments in sensory perception have revealed that we are not always wise to trust our senses too completely.
  20. 20. • Our senses can (and often do) deceive us: • The gunshot we hear becomes a car backfiring; • the water we see in the road ahead is but a mirage; • the chicken we thought we tasted turns out to be a rabbit. • Sensory knowledge is undependable; • it is also incomplete. The data we take in through our senses do not account for all (or even most) of what we seem to feel is the range of human knowing. • To obtain reliable knowledge, therefore, we cannot rely on our senses alone, but must check what we think we know with other sources.
  21. 21. Agreement With Others • One such source is the opinions of others. • Not only can we share our sensations with others, we can also check on the accuracy and authenticity of these sensations; • Does this soup taste salty to you? • Isn’t that John over there? • Did you hear someone cry for help? • Smells like mustard doesn’t it?
  22. 22. • The problem with such common knowledge is that it, too, can be wrong. • A majority vote of a committee is no guarantee of the truth. • My friends might be wrong about the presence of an approaching automobile, or the automobile they hear may be moving away rather than toward us. • Two groups of eyewitnesses to an accident may disagree as to which driver was at fault. • Hence, we need to consider some additional ways to obtain reliable knowledge.
  23. 23. Expert Opinion • To use expert opinion as a means of obtaining information • There are particular individuals we should consult- experts in their field, people who know a great deal about what we are interested in finding out. • Ph.D in economics knows more what makes economy tick • We believed our family dentist if he say our back molar is need to be pulled.
  24. 24. • It also depends on the credentials of the experts and the nature of the question about which they are being consulted. • Experts like all of us can be mistaken. • No expert however has studied or experienced all there is to know in a given field, and thus expert can never always totally sure. • They just give opinion based on what he/she knows and no matter how much this is, it is never all there is to know.
  25. 25. Logic • We also know things logically • Our intellect- the capability we have to reason things out-allows us to sensory data to develop a new kind of knowledge. • Consider the famous syllogism: • All Human beings are mortal; Sally is a human being; Therefore Sally is mortal
  26. 26. The scientific method • The goal of all scientific endeavors is to explain, predict, and/or control phenomena • Compared to other sources of knowledge, such as experience, authority, inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning, application of the scientific method id undoubtedly the most efficient and reliable. • Research is the formal, systematic application of the scientific method to the study of problems:
  27. 27. The Research Process • The research process is defined by five phases: 1.Phase 1: The Researcher. The personal history, biography, gender, social class, race, and ethnicity of the researcher and those of the people in the setting shape research as an interactive process. 2.Phase 2: Theoretical Paradigms and Perspectives: A paradigm is a set of beliefs that guides action. It compasses 3 elements: • ontology (what is the nature of reality?);
  28. 28. • Epistemology (what is knowable?) • Methodology (how can we gain knowledge of the world?) • These 3 elements serve as a foci, around which the paradigms of qualitative research would be examined namely positivism, post-positivism, critical theory, and constructivism. • Positivism denotes the received view that has dominated research for the past 400 years. • Post-positivism represents efforts in the past few decades to respond in a limited way to the most problematic aspects of positivism.
  29. 29. • Constructivism denotes an alternative paradigm whose break away assumption is the move from ontological realism to ontological relativism. 3. Phase 3: Strategies of Inquiry: A strategy of inquiry comprise a bundle of assumptions, skills, and practices that the researcher employs as he moves from his paradigm to the empirical world. • It connect the researcher to specific methods of collecting and analyzing data.
  30. 30. • This includes case study, ethnography, phenomenology, biography, action and clinical strategies. 4. Phase 4: Methods of Collection and Analysis: • The researcher has several methods of collecting data ranging from interviews to direct observations, to the analysis of artifacts, documents, cultural records, to the use of visual materials and personal experience. 5. Phase 5: The Art of Interpretation: Qualitative research is endlessly creative and interpretative.
  31. 31. • The text is constructed as a working interpretive document that contains the writer’s initial attempts to make sense out of what was learned. • There is no single interpretive truth as the interpretive act of making sense is both artful and political.