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The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation
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The Impact of Social Media on Women's Self-Image and Self-Representation

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Presentation from APA National Convention in San Diego: the impact of social media on women's self-image and self-representation. Part of a symposium co-sponsored by Division 46 (Media Psychology) …

Presentation from APA National Convention in San Diego: the impact of social media on women's self-image and self-representation. Part of a symposium co-sponsored by Division 46 (Media Psychology) and Division 35 (Psychology of Women) by Dr. Pamela Rutledge

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  • A couple of years ago HP commissioned a survey which revealed that two thirds of us are “deeply embarrassed” by many of our photos, with only one person in three being happy with almost every photo. Most likely to hate their photos are females, aged between 35 and 44. The minority who are satisfied with every photo are men under 35.

    What is peculiar that even those women who are happy with their reflection in the mirror tend to destroy most photos of themselves. Just look at your ID photo and you will see why.

    The question is would you have your photos retouched if you knew that all those temporary and accidental imperfections of your portrait (blemishes, double chin resulting from tense posing or intensified dark under-eye circles resulting from poor lighting) could be easily removed at $3.50 per photo? And this is what retouching for Main Street is coming to. Sadly, a lot of people are under the false impression that retouching is the butchered images that pop up in popular magazines from time to time and that only ad agencies and celebrities can afford it.

    Alex Wise
    PhotoHand.com
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  • This segment will provide a review of current trends in social media that impact gender representation, voice, and image.  Specifically, a participant will: ·  Recognize how the use of digital technologies and social media can influence gender norms From the 2006 “ Dove Evolution ” exposé of retouching video to the French Elle April 2009 ‘No Make-Up’ issue, a backlash is rising in response to rampant photo retouching. Social networking sites are driving the conversation and mass media is playing catch-up.  Content is no longer distributed as one-to-many.  Social media has created a many-to-many conversation that is creating a new ethic of authenticity and transparency and a population of media-literate content providers.     Photo-retouching is not new news, but digital photography is cheap and easy and photo retouching software is available with every new computer.  Retouching, airbrushing, rearranging images is the rule rather than the exception.  In response, initiatives have been launched in France and the UK proposing that the government require publishers to label photos that have been altered.  In spite of a trend toward using more “real” people in mass media, many magazine editors believe they cannot stop retouching because the consumers are not interested in seeing all the flaws.   Research is mixed on the impact of knowing an image is altered on the viewer’s body image satisfaction.  The conversation, however, is no longer in the hands of profit-seeking media conglomerates or research-citing academicians.  The public has the inconvenient habit of deciding for themselves what they do and don’t want.  Social media has unleashed the public voice. In a world of augmented reality full of digitally altered female images, women and girls are knowingly producing and altering them and themselves for public display. This presentation will discuss the themes and trends about photo alternation and women’s images emerging across social media tools, such as blogs, twitter, and YouTube.  Will this new environment create savvy media consumers and redefine beauty or are women and girls more media-literate than ever and still want an airbrush?
  • This is the original traditional media communications model.
  • What we see in social networks is that, unlike traditional mass media, social networks allow people to connect and exchange information many-to-many rather than one–to-many. Stanley Milgran’s Small World Studies that people are much more closely linked than we thought and that was before Web 2.0. In the period from 1999 to 2008, the number of consumer magazine subscribers increased by 4.4%. The number of Internet subscribers rose 77%
  • All social media manage information in some way; all are interactive
  • 1 Million users by the end of 2004; still restricted to college campuses
  • The conversation, however, is no longer in the hands of profit-seeking media conglomerates or research-citing academicians.  The public has the inconvenient habit of deciding for themselves what they do and don’t want.  Social media has unleashed the public voice. In a world of augmented reality full of digitally altered female images, women and girls are knowingly producing and altering them and themselves for public display. This presentation will discuss the themes and trends about photo alternation and women’s images emerging across social media tools, such as blogs, twitter, and YouTube.  Will this new environment create savvy media consumers and redefine beauty or are women and girls more media-literate than ever and still want an airbrush?
  • Joinson, A. (2008). ‘Looking at’, ‘Looking up’ or ‘Keeping up with’ People? Motives and Uses of Facebook. Paper presented at the CHI 2008, Florence, Italy. Haythornthwaite, C., & Kendall, L. (2010). Internet and Community. American Behavioral Scientist, 53(8), 1083-1094. doi: 10.1177/0002764209356242
  • Listen to the groundswell.
  •  
  • Not the kind of PR these brands and people wanted!
  • My colleague, Dr. Jerri Lynn Hogg and I have research in process based on the assumptions that…
  • My colleague, Dr. Jerri Lynn Hogg and I have research in process based on the assumptions that…
  • Transcript

    • 1. Did You PhotoShop Your Facebook Picture? The Impact of Social Media on Self-Representation and Self-Image Pamela B. Rutledge, PhD, MBA Media Psychology Research Center Symposium on Women and Media: Global Perspectives on Promoting Social Change August 14, 2010,
    • 2. Social Media has changed everything <ul><li>What we do isn’t new </li></ul><ul><li>How we can do it is new </li></ul><ul><li>This shift has fundamentally changed the experience of communications </li></ul><ul><li>This challenges the validity of our assumptions about the impact of mass media </li></ul>
    • 3. Mass Media: One to Many
    • 4. Social Media: Many to Many
    • 5. Many Types of Social Media <ul><ul><li>Information searches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folksonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs &amp; microblogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Networking </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. Top 10 Websites Worldwide <ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo! </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Live </li></ul><ul><li>Baidu.com </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>Blogger.com </li></ul><ul><li>MSN </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter </li></ul>60% are social media sites
    • 7. Broadband Access <ul><li>No longer a relevant indicator of Internet access </li></ul><ul><li>95% of people 18-29 years of age own cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>59% of Americans go online wirelessly </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans and Latinos outpace other groups with 87% using mobile devices for Internet access </li></ul>
    • 8. Social Networking Explodes <ul><li>Facebook is a powerful example of the adoptions of social networking sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Facebook started in April 2004 </li></ul>
    • 9. Facebook Today <ul><li>500 Million Active Users </li></ul><ul><li>50% log on to Facebook each day </li></ul><ul><li>Average user has </li></ul><ul><ul><li>130 friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected to 80 community pages, groups and events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates 90 pieces of content each month </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More than 30 billion pieces of content shared each month. </li></ul>
    • 10. The Big Question <ul><li>How has this new environment changed the way we think about ourselves? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we becoming savvy media consumers or do we pine for an airbrush? </li></ul>
    • 11. Social Networking Site: Defining Characteristics <ul><ul><li>Network boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profile space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities for uploading content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to form and display connections with individuals and groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to browse and search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-network communication </li></ul></ul>
    • 12. A Whole New World <ul><li>Information is on-demand and interactive </li></ul><ul><li>No more geographical or time constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has a voice </li></ul><ul><li>Messages can’t be controlled </li></ul><ul><li>No ability to restrict secondary uses </li></ul><ul><li>Information can be triangulated </li></ul><ul><li>Information is permanent and searchable </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting boundaries of public and private </li></ul>
    • 13. Expectations in the New Environment <ul><li>Immediacy </li></ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><li>Connection </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Self-relevance </li></ul>“ We&apos;re tired of fembots. We can handle the truth.”
    • 14. Celebrating Authenticity French Elle Magazine “ No Make-Up” Issue Jamie Lee Curtis Shares Her Real vs. Retouched Photos
    • 15. Busting Fakes Ann Taylor, Ralph Lauren, Katie Couric and Redbook
    • 16. Impact on Self-Image <ul><li>Most research on body image is pre-Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>Studies post-2004 suggest that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women and girls still have body image concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media literacy isn’t working </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media literacy with celebrities is the least convincing of all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Photos of real women are everywhere </li></ul>
    • 17. Assumptions <ul><li>People engage in social comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Information is increasingly self-relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity is valued </li></ul><ul><li>Social media and interactive technology change the locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy influences global self-image </li></ul>
    • 18. Pilot Study: Social Media &amp; Body Image <ul><li>Theoretical: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People engage in social comparison as a normal behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy influences global self-image </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is increasingly on-demand and self-relevant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authenticity is valued </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social media and interactive technology change the locus of control </li></ul></ul>
    • 19. Preliminary Results <ul><li>Hypotheses supported in preliminary data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women are more influenced by what their friends looks like than what celebrities and models looks like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological competence is positively correlated with positive self-appraisal of appearance </li></ul></ul>
    • 20. Retouching Profile Photos <ul><li>85% felt little or no pressure to alter their profile photo </li></ul><ul><li>95% felt their photo looked just like them </li></ul><ul><li>Technical proficiency was irrelevant to whether or not someone retouched their photo </li></ul><ul><li>13% altered their photos </li></ul><ul><li>75% altered their photos to </li></ul>“ Look my best”
    • 21. Before
    • 22. After
    • 23. Before &amp; After
    • 24. Summary <ul><li>Interactive and social media have changed the psychological experiences of communication </li></ul><ul><li>The shift from traditional to user-controlled information changes the impact </li></ul><ul><li>Individual action through production, control, and choice creates an environment of empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions of personal competence are more effective in creating global self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Results indicate that competence can support positive body image </li></ul>
    • 25. THANK YOU <ul><li>Pamela B. Rutledge, PhD, MBA </li></ul><ul><li>Media Psychology Research Center </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mprcenter.org </li></ul><ul><li>Email: prutledge@mprcenter.org </li></ul><ul><li>Phone: 949-544-1300 </li></ul>

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