DEFENSE MECHANISM Reaction formation – converting unwanted feelings and desires into their opposite.
Now let’s take a look at your assessment results
Intrapersonal – emotional maturity – “grown-up” least likely to define a role or set of roles – opposite of ego & self-projection – Maslow, self-acutalization – Erikson, generativityvs stagnation – You respond to external and internal stimuli – prerequisite for discipline and self-improvment
Multiple Intelligence and Learning Styles
Why do we bother? ANDWhy should we take class time?
Dr. Howard Gardner, author,Frames of Mind and MultipleIntelligences: The Theory inPractice “Intelligence is the capacity to do something useful in the society in which we live. Intelligence is the ability to respond successfully to new situations and the capacity to learn from one’s past experiences.”
Howard Gardner’sMULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE TEST Published in Gardner’s Frames of Mind(1983) Created to contribute to field of psychology Quickly embraced by education Howard Gardner (currently) Professor Harvard Graduate School of Education Adjunct Boston University School of Medicine Senior Director Harvard Project Zero Honorary degrees from at least 20 foreign institutions Written over 20 highly regarded books on the human mind, learning and behavior
Howard Gardner All of that, in spite of his self description, in his autobiography “I was born cross-eyed, myopic, color-blind and unable to recognize faces. There is hope for us all.”
What does it do? Provides absolutely pivotal and inescapable indication as to STUDENT’S Preferred learning style Behavioral style Working style Natural strengths It indicates not only capabilities, but also the manner or method in which a person prefers to learn and develop their strengths and also work on their weaknesses.
Examples A person that is strong Musically Weak Numerically Will develop numerically through Music Not by being bombarded with NUMBERS 1234…..7890
Examples A person that is weak Spatially Strong Numerically Will be more likely to develop spatial ability If explained and developed by using numbers and logic Not by Being asked to pack a suitcase
Examples A person that is weak Bodily/kinesthetic Strong Numerically Might best be encouraged to explore numbers through Learning the mathematical and scientific relationships between Exercise Diet and health
Happy relaxed people learnmore readily than unhappystressful people! The pressure of possible failure and being forced to act and think unnaturally, have a significant negative influence on learning effectiveness. . .MOTIVATION
SIMPLE HUH? A person’s strength is also a learning channel A person’s weakness is not a great learning channel.
Develop students through their strengthsand we not only stimulate theirdevelopment—we also make them happy(because everyone enjoys learning intheir strength areas)—and we also growtheir confidence and lift their belief(because they see they are doingwell, and they get told they are doingwell.)
Creating a Class full of STELLAR STUDENTS Developing a student’s strengths will increase their response to the learning experience, which helps them to develop their weaknesses as well as their strengths.
A person is “intelligent” or “unintelligent.” RIDICULOUSStudents possess a set of intelligences—not just one type and level of intelligence. Intelligence is not a single scalable aspect of a student’s style and capability THE FACT IS THAT WE ARE ALL INTELLIGENT IN DIFFERENT WAYS!!!
Using your MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES results, and your personal learning experiences. . . You will get evidence into the inescapable indication as to how preferred learning styles, as well as behavioral and working styles, can be used to enhance your natural strengths.
The pressure of failure and being forced to act and think unnaturally. . . have a significant negative influence on learning!
In life we need people that whocollectively are good atdifferent things.
Intelligence type Capability and perceptionLinguistic Words and languageLogical-Mathematical Logic and numbersMusical Music, sound, rhythmBodily-Kinesthetic Body movement controlSpatial-Visual Images and spaceInterpersonal Other people’s feelingsIntrapersonal Self-awareness
Intelligence Description Typical roles Learning Preferredtype tasks, learning style activities, or clues testsLinguistic Words and Writers, Write a set of Words and lanuguage lawyers, instructions; language Written and journalists, speak on a spoke; speakers, subject; edit a retention, trainers, written piece of interpretation copywriters, work; write a and explanation English and speech, of ideas and social studies commentate on information via teachers, poets, an event; apply language, editors, positive or understands linguists, negative ‘spin’ to relationship translators, PR, a story between consultants, How can I use communication media the spoken or and meaning consultants, written word?
Intelligence Description Typical roles Learning Preferredtype tasks, learning style activities, or clues testsLogical- Logical Scientists, Perform a Number andMathematical thinking, engineers, mental logic detecting computer arithmetic patterns, experts, calculation, More on scientific accountants, create a process reasoning than reasoning and statisticians, to measure mathematics deduction; researchers, something analyze analysts, difficult; analyze problems, traders, bankers, how a machine perform bookmakers, works, create a mathematical insurance process; devise a calculations, brokers, strategy to understands negotiators, achieve an aim; relationships deal-makers, assess the value between cause trouble-shooters or a business and effect proposition towards a How can I bring tangible in numbers,
Intelligence Description Typical roles Learning Preferredtype tasks, learning style activities, or clues testsMusical Musical ability Musicians, Perform a Music, sounds, Awareness, singer, musical piece; rhythm appreciation composers, DJ’s, sing a song; and use of music, review a musical sound; producers, work, coach recognition of piano tuners, someone to play tonal and acoustic a musical rhythmic engineers, instrument; patterns, entertainers, specify mood understands party-planners, music for relationship environment telephone between sound and noise systems and and feeling advisors, voice receptions. coaches How can I bring in music or environmental sounds, or set key points in a
Intelligence Description Typical roles Learning Preferredtype tasks, learning style activities, or clues testsBodily- Body Doctors, Juggle; PhysicalKinesthetic movement demonstrators, demonstrate a experience and control actors, athletes, sports movement, Manual divers, sports- technique; touch and feel dexterity, people, soldiers, create a mime to [physical agility fire-fighters, explain and balance; eye ergonomists, something; toss and body crafts-people something; coordination assess work station ergonomics How can I involve the whole body, or hands-on experiences?
Intelligence Description Typical roles Learning Preferredtype tasks, learning style activities, or clues testsSpatial-Visual Visual and Artists, Design a Pictures, shapes, spatial designers, costume, images, space- perception; cartoonists, interpret a 3D Interpretation story boarders, painting, create and creation of architects, a room layout, visual images; photographers, create a pictorial sculptors, town- corporate logo, imagination and planners, design a expression; visionaries, building; pack a understands inventors, suitcase or the relationship engineers, trunk of a car. between images beauty How can I use and meanings, consultants visual aids, and between visualization, space and effect. color, art, metaphor, or visual organizers?
Intelligence Description Typical roles Learning Preferredtype tasks, learning style activities, or clues testsinterpersonal Perception of Therapists, HR Interpret moods Human contact, other people’s people, facial communication feelings mediators, expressions; s, cooperation, Ability to relate leaders, demonstrate teamwork to others; counselors, feelings through interpretation of politicians, body language, behavior and educators, sales- affect the communication, people, clergy, feelings of understand the psychologists, others in a relationships teachers, planned way; between people doctors, coach or counsel and their organizers, another situations, advertising How can I including other professionals, engage students people coaches and in peer or cross- mentors, age sharing, cooperative learning or large-group
Intelligence Description Typical roles Learning Preferredtype tasks, learning style activities, or clues testsintrapersonal Self- Arguably anyone Consider and Self-reflection, awareness, who is self- decide one’s Self-discovery Personal aware and own aims and cognizance, involved in the personal personal process of changes objectivity, the changing required to capacity to personal achieve them understand thoughts, (not necessarily oneself, one’s beliefs, reveal this to relationship to behaviors in others); and others and the relation to their decide options world, and one’s situation, other for one’s own own need for people, their development and reaction to purpose and How can I change aims. engage students in peer or cross- age sharing, cooperative learning or
Many teachers see the theory as simple common sense. Some say that it validates what they already know: that students learn in different ways. The challenge that this brings for educators is to know which students learn in which ways.
TO BEGIN TEACHING WITH THE SEVEN INTELLIGENCES, TRY THE FOLLOWING:the seven intelligences and the different ways we Teach your students about learn. Help them get better at using these different ways. Vary the lessons so students have an opportunity to use all seven intelligences. Instead of always using traditional tests, have students demonstrate what they’ve learned by using different intelligences. Help students see how much they have learned by keeping samples of work, journals, and portfolios. Give students a chance to use the different intelligences every day. Discuss with them which intelligence they use for each activity. Ask students how you can test what they’ve learned. To close a unit, have students do projects, exhibits, or performances to demonstrate what they genuinely understand about what they have learned. Check the students interest inventory to see if there is a coorelation with the intelligence. Help students develop their seven intelligences through the opportunity of exploring a wide variety of learning activities
Now couple your reflection on theInterest Inventory with the MI and theVAK model---and you will understandyour students as learners The VAK was also designed by psychologists and has been adopted by teachers. The MI is one way of looking at thinking styles; VAK is another.
Most people possess a dominantor preferred learning style. . . However, some people have a mixed and evenly balanced blend of the three Learning styles descriptions Visual Seeing and reading Auditory Listening and speaking Kinesthetic Touching and doing
Armed with the three evaluative assessments you have a reference invnetory by which to assess your student’s preferred learning styles and the most importantly Design learning methods and experiences that match student’s preferences.
Using your inventory. . . visual auditory Kinesthetic/ physical/tactileCook a new dish Follow a recipe Call a friend for an Follow your explanation instinct, tasting as you cookTravel directions Look at a map Ask for directions Follow your nose and maybe a compassTeach someone Write instructions Explain verbally Demonstrate andsomething let them have a goYou say I see what you I hear what you say I know how you mean feelYou say Show me Tell me Let me tryYou say Watch how I do it Listen to me You have a try explain it
This is a starting point Consider how Bloom’s taxonomy fits into the understanding of the MI, the VAK, and the interest inventory of each student? Consider how does Maslow’s hierarchy of needs fit into behavior and learning? Gardner emphasis that we should not judge and develop ideas about students with an arbitrary and narrow definition of ability and intelligence levels.
POTENTIAL is the end GOAL We need to rediscover and promote the vast range of capabilities and uniqueness of each student. Look for the capabilities each student possesses And then set about valuing each student for who they are, what they can be, and HELPING them to grow and fulfill their potential!
Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School, by Thomas R. Hoerr Eight Ways of Knowing: Teaching for Multiple Intelligences, by David Lazear Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences,by Howard Gardner Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century, by Howard Gardner Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom,by Thomas Armstrong Teaching and Learning Through Multiple Intelligences,by Linda and Bruce Campbell and Dee Dickinson http://www.literacyworks.org/mi/intro/index.html