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Reskilling - Watershed Awareness, Manna Jo Greene


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Mid-Atlantic Transition Hub (MATH) Waterways Reskilling, November 23, 2013, Keynote Address - Watershed Awareness, Manna Jo Greene, Environmental Director, Clearwater

Mid-Atlantic Transition Hub (MATH) Waterways Reskilling, November 23, 2013, Keynote Address - Watershed Awareness, Manna Jo Greene, Environmental Director, Clearwater

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  • Contact me at this address.
    Thank you.
  • It’s important to start w/ basics
    Note that watershed includes everything on and under land, including groundwater, surface water, land itself
  • Northern Adirondacks to NYC
    Largest Trib - Mohawk
  • Starts as a trickle in an idyllic wilderness setting
    Over 4,000 ft elevation
  • Wetlands, both freshwater and tidal, are also an important part of the watershed.
    Ecosystem services:
    control flooding
    filter pollutants
    are imp. habitat
  • If you have the option, where would you place your septic system leach field relative to your well?
    What if the well was not just for a household, but for an entire development or municipal water supply?
  • nonpoint pollution is diffuse.
    It consists of contaminants that
    are transported by stormwater
    and groundwater.
  • Santa Cruz River near Tucson, AZ
  • Role of run-off to surface water vs. groundwater
  • Now that we have examined what makes up the Hudson River watershed, I’d like to discuss some of the watersheds treasures and resources.
  • A major resource of the watershed and of significant importance to this audience is the NYC water supply system.
    Catskill/Delaware and Croton
    19 res. / 3 controlled lakes
  • Commercial and recreational fisheries have always been a major economic and cultural asset in the Hudson R Watershed.
    some are banned to PCBs
    some are declining in numbers
    some are hanging on (30,000 short nose sturgeon)
    inland fisheries (trout, bass)
  • wildlife in the H. R. watershed are also an important asset that have had varied success
    some on rise (ban on DDT, habitat conservation)
    some struggle (PCBs, loss of habitat, other pollution)
  • Start by, Physical characteristics
    Then describe, Some of the many resources in watershed
    Then examine, Some of the threats to water quality that the watershed faces
    Discuss, Opportunities to protect our resources and alleviate threats
  • Now that we have an idea of what some of the resources of the watershed are, we can examine some of the threats to the health of the watershed
  • Issue that’s dominated HR for over 30 yrs
    being dealt with, but not over
    EPA/GE in negotiations, no Final Order has been issued
    in the meantime….
  • Appeared in Hudson in 1991
    Native to Eastern Europe, Caspian Sea
    By all estimates, here to stay
    So numerous, they filter the complete estuary in 1-4 days in the summer
    Devastating effects on food chain
    Decimating primary producers, native mussels, changing water clarity and chemistry
  • Start by, Physical characteristics
    Then describe, Some of the many resources in watershed
    Then examine, Some of the threats to water quality that the watershed faces
    Discuss, Opportunities to protect our resources and alleviate threats
  • Start by, Physical characteristics
    Then describe, Some of the many resources in watershed
    Then examine, Some of the threats to water quality that the watershed faces
    Discuss, Opportunities to protect our resources and alleviate threats
  • Start by, Physical characteristics
    Then describe, Some of the many resources in watershed
    Then examine, Some of the threats to water quality that the watershed faces
    Discuss, Opportunities to protect our resources and alleviate threats
  • Now that we have some idea of what threats the HR watershed faces, and what some our major resources are, we can talk about what opportunities exist for the protection and enhancement of our water resources...
  • Since then we’ve formed an organizing committee
    And got the interest of a number of groups (over 100, +)
    Hard to read, but includes groups from the 4 “factions” in the previous slide (town, county, state agencies and gov., env. groups, ed/research inst.)
  • More info
    Become involved
    Links - strategic plan, survey
  • Start by, Physical characteristics
    Then describe, Some of the many resources in watershed
    Then examine, Some of the threats to water quality that the watershed faces
    Discuss, Opportunities to protect our resources and alleviate threats
  • Start by, Physical characteristics
    Then describe, Some of the many resources in watershed
    Then examine, Some of the threats to water quality that the watershed faces
    Discuss, Opportunities to protect our resources and alleviate threats
  • Start by, Physical characteristics
    Then describe, Some of the many resources in watershed
    Then examine, Some of the threats to water quality that the watershed faces
    Discuss, Opportunities to protect our resources and alleviate threats
  • Start by, Physical characteristics
    Then describe, Some of the many resources in watershed
    Then examine, Some of the threats to water quality that the watershed faces
    Discuss, Opportunities to protect our resources and alleviate threats
  • Transcript

    • 1. (845) 454-7673 x113 Watershed Awareness, Planning & Protection in the Hudson River Basin Saturday, November 23, 2013 Mid-Atlantic Transition Hub Manna Jo Greene, Environmental Director Hudson River Sloop Clearwater
    • 2. Hudson River Sloop Clearwater is dedicated to protect the ecology of the Hudson River ecosystem and quality of life for all the people who live in its watershed thru: Education, Advocacy and Celebration. • Built in 1969, the sloop Clearwater serves as a moveable classroom, laboratory, stage, and forum. • Clearwater sailed to Washington, DC in 1970 bearing petitions with hundreds of thousands of signatures and held an impromptu concert in the halls of Congress to help pass the Clean Water Act. • Clearwater annually hosts the Great Hudson River Revival, the original environmental music festival, which features diverse music, dance, folk arts, crafts to spread its message of environmental stewardship, and participates in many other celebrations of the Hudson River. • Clearwater advocated to get EPA to require GE to clean up PCB-contaminated sediments from 40 miles of “hotspots” in the Upper Hudson. • Our mission has expanded to creating the next generation of environmental leaders and to promoting environmental justice (“EJ”). Founder Pete Seeger, 89, with Bruce Springstein at Obama Inaugural Concert.
    • 3. HUDSON RIVER SLOOP CLEARWATER, I NC. What is a watershed? An area of land that drains into a single body of water, such as the Hudson River.
    • 4. HUDSON RIVER SLOOP CLEARWATER, I NC. Hudson River Watershed •315 miles long •Drains 13,400 miles2 •Covers 5 states: NY, NJ, VT, MA, CT 28% of NY’s land area Pete Seeger: “Ghost dancing on one toe”
    • 5. Headwaters of the Hudson River: Lake Tear of the Clouds ~ Mt. Marcy, Adirondack Park ~ Elevation 4, 293 ft. Mainstem: View from Storm King Mountain ~ Passes through 19 counties that are home to 8 million people ~ Lower 155 miles are tidal Mouth: New York Harbor ~ Ends at Verranzano Narrows ~ Connects with NY/NJ Harbor Estuary
    • 6. HUDSON RIVER SLOOP CLEARWATER, I NC. Ecosystems Services Tributaries - Control flooding - Filter pollutants - Important habitat for fish and wildlife Wetlands Tributaries carry water, nutrients, pollutants and sediments through the watershed. Constitution Marsh, Garrison, NY The lower tidal portion of the Hudson (below the Federal Dam in Troy) is fed by over 6,000 miles of tributaries making up 14% of the total flow.
    • 7. Basic Watershed Hydrology Groundwater flows to Surface Water Aquifer: subsurface deposit that transmits and stores water Ground water: water that flows through subsurface deposits Ground-water recharge: precipitation that passes through the land surface to become ground water Water-supply wells interrupt the natural flow of ground water
    • 8. How Ground Water Occurs:
    • 9. Aquifers: • • • Fractured bedrock Bedrock Sand & gravel deposits Special case: Karst Deltaic deposit Karst dissolution
    • 10. Threats to Groundwater Quality Non-Point Sources: Salt loading Non-point pollution is diffuse. Contaminants are transported by stormwater and groundwater. Point Source: End of Pipe Source: University of Wisconsin, 2000 - Pollution: nutrients, toxins, pathogens, debris - Erosion & Sedimentation (siltation) Impervious Surface: Sprawl Invasive Species Dams Special Cases: Karst & Isolated Wetlands Climate Change
    • 11. Water Quantity (Drinking Water) (Source: Center for Watershed Protection , 1999) This diagram shows how development and its corresponding increase in impervious cover disrupts the natural water balance. In the post-development setting, the amount of water running off the site is dramatically increased.
    • 12. Recipe for Disaster Tributary Buffer Zones Wetlands + Impervious Surfaces Runoff and Erosion Deposition of Sediments and Pollutants
    • 13. Importance of Watershed Protection Examples of Lack of Protection • Santa Cruz, NM • Fenton River, CT • Ipswich River, MA Fenton River September, 2005
    • 14. Threats to Watershed: Flooding • Increase in impervious surfaces and intensity of storms leads to increased frequency and severity of flooding events
    • 15. Erosion & Sedimentation Destroys Habitat Failed sedimentation basin Severe bank erosion
    • 16. HUDSON RIVER SLOOP CLEARWATER, I NC. Treasures and Resources Recreational Opportunities Transportation/Industry Historical and Cultural Assets Tourism
    • 17. Hudson River Watershed: • Critical for water supply, fish and wildlife habitat, open space preservation, and recreational opportunities. NYC’s Water Supply System • “Cat-Del” and Croton provides high-quality water to 9 million NYC residents • 580 billion gallon capacity • Watershed Protection vs. Filtration • Well Testing Laws; Aquifer Protection Ecosystems Protection Pays Off Catskill System: Threatened with increasing pollution due to development, ag runoff and other activities, the City faced a choice: build an artificial filtering system for $6-$8 billion or invest $1 billion in proper development and restoring the Catskills’ natural filtering purification system. Choosing to protect ecosystems saved City taxpayers $5 to $7 billion -- and increased rural property values. -- Penn State College of Ag Sciences, Coop Extension & Center for Biodiversity Research, Environmental Resources Research Inst.  Biodiversity: Our Living World: Your Life Depends On It! (Penn State U: University Park, PA 2001), p. 7
    • 18. HUDSON RIVER SLOOP CLEARWATER, I NC. Fisheries Atlantic Sturgeon Striped Bass American Eel American Shad Netting Shad in the Hudson
    • 19. Hudson River Fish Need Your Support Hudson River Fish in Trouble: 10 of 13 Signature Hudson River Fish in Decline Major causes include: • loss of habitat and spawning grounds, • overfishing and ocean bycatch, • low dissolved oxygen from sewage plant discharges, and • impingement, entrainment and thermal pollution from power plants. _________ SPECIES IN JEOPARDY    THREE SPECIES DOING WELL Striped bass and bluefish are voracious predators of smaller fish and shrimp. Spottail shiner, a minnow that feeds on zooplankton and benthic (bottom-dwelling) organisms, is also on the increase. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) American shad (Alosa sapidissima) Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) Hogchoker (Trinectus maculates) Bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli) White catfish (Ameiurus catus) Alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) Striped bass (Morone soxotilis) White perch (Morone americana) Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) Spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius ) Blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis)
    • 20. HUDSON RIVER SLOOP CLEARWATER, I NC. Wildlife Some are on the rise... # Fledged ‘93-03 Juvenile Bald Eagle While others struggle Mink Tree Swallow w/ tumor
    • 21. HUDSON RIVER SLOOP CLEARWATER, I Fish and Wildlife NC. VICTORY FOR BALD EAGLE PROTECTION Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat Designation Conservation Easements Habitat Preservation Reintroduction; Restoration Watershed & Biodiversity Protection Notice of Intent to Sue resulted in agreement to reduce Bald Eagle mortality: • Carcass removal program • Data collection & reporting • Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP). Bald Eagle has since been delisted from the Federal Endangered Species Act; still threatened in NY State.
    • 22. Threats to the Health of the Hudson River Watershed Smog - NOx Acid Rain - SO2 Asthma Respiratory Illness Habitat Degradation Loss of biodiversity Mercury Persistent Contamination Health Threat Persistent Organic Pollutants: PCBs – insulating oil used in electrical transformers DDT - pesticide Dioxin - byproduct of many processes MTBE - gasoline additive TCE, PCE - cleaner, grease remover PAHs - produced from combustion PBDEs - flame retardant APEs - used in certain soaps and detergents Emerging Contaminants: Pharmaceuticals, Caffeine
    • 23. HUDSON RIVER SLOOP CLEARWATER, I NC. PCBs • Ban on taking fish from the Upper Hudson remains • Fish advisories still in place throughout • Remediation of upper Hudson PCB hotspots began in 2009; now more than halfway completed, however… • ~136 acres of PCB contaminated sediment is outside of the area designated for dredging
    • 24. Clamshell dredging
    • 25. Invasive Species: Zebra Mussels Changes in the Hudson following the zebra mussel invasion (from studies of the Institute of Ecosystem Studies) gains losses soluble reactive phosphorus water clarity planktonic bacteria animals in shallow-water sediments dissolved oxygen animals in deep-water sediments large zooplankton native mussels small zooplankton phytoplankton -100 -50 0 50 100 % change following the invasion Eurasian Water Chestnut 150
    • 26. Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant Assets: • Provides 2,000 mW of electricity • Employs 1,250 people • Emits less CO2 than coal, gas or oil Liabilities: • Aging, Leaking Facility • Spent Fuel Storage: • Cleaner, Safer Alternatives Ignored (Proposed long-term storage for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain is no longer an option; will be kept in dry cask storage on site.) • Evacuation Impossible
    • 27. Thermal plume Model of groundwater contamination plume (shown in red) moving toward river. Power plants kill fish by impingement, entrainment and thermal shock. Eggs Larvae Adult
    • 28. UWNY Proposed Desalination Project FATE AND TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES FROM INDIAN POINT LEAKS AND OTHER RELEASES -- Several communities in lower Hudson take drinking water from Hudson River, but it is not brackish. -- PCBs, which are present in water column and sediment, are readily be filtered out, but radioisotopes are not. -- Trace amounts of tritium, Sr-89/90, Cs-134/137 are released from contaminated groundwater under Indian Point. Sr-90 measured in pilot results. DEIS ignores vapor and particulate-bound isotopes. -- Tritium (tritiated water) is not removed by reverse osmosis; Sr and Cs difficult and costly to filter; create radioactive waste. -- DEIS doesn’t account for cumulative or synergistic effects of multiple exposures; humans have range of sensitivity; MCLs are averages determined by risk assessment; don’t protect most sensitive or vulnerable. -- Curies measure radiation emission intensity; REMs measure physiologic damage done. DEIS does not discuss REMs. ~ Precautionary Principle: Prevention; not remediation. Sound alternatives exist. ~
    • 29. Global Climate Change Hurricane Irene Tropical Storm Lee Superstorm Sandy
    • 30. Energy Consumption Percent Central Hudson (June 2002 - July 2003) 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Coal Gas Oil Nuclear Hydro Other
    • 31. Hydraulic Fracturing (“Hydrofracking”)
    • 32. Opportunities Open Space Preservation Critical for water supply, fish and wildlife habitat, and recreational opportunities.
    • 33. Hudson River Watershed Alliance “To protect, conserve and restore the water resources of the Hudson River Basin through collaborative outreach, education, networking, science, information sharing and technical assistance by and for the stakeholders of the region.” HUDSON RIVER VALLEY WATERSHED ALLIANCE PARTICIPATING ORGANIZATIONS* American Association of University Women Arm-of-the-Sea Theater Audubon New York Audubon Society of NY Battenkill Watershed Alliance Bottskill Baptist Church Brooks and Brooks, P.C. Builders Association of the Hudson Valley Catholic Worker Farm City of Poughkeepsie Columbia University Cornell Cooperative Extension Croton Watershed Clean Water Coalition CUNY John Jay College Dhammakaya Foundation Dutchess County Environmental Management Council Dutchess County Lakes Commission Dutchess County Soil & Water Conservation District Environmental Advocates of NY Environmental Defense Esopus Creek Conservancy Fairleigh Dickinson University Federated Conservationists of Westchester County Fishkill Creek Watershed Committee Fishkill Ridge Caretakers Fishkill Ridge Community Heritage Friends of Callicoon Mountain Friends of the Shawangunks Gardiner Democratic Committee Gardiner Environmental Commission Greene County Soil and Water Conservation District Hudson Highlands Land Trust Hudsonia Ltd. Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve Hudson Basin River Watch Hudson River Estuary Program Hudson River Sloop Clearwater Hudson River Watertrail Association Hudson River Valley Greenway Conservancy Institute of Ecosystem Studies John Burroughs Association Kingston High School Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Local Union #19 UBCJA Land Use Law Center – Pace University League of Women Voters of Mid-Ulster Lloyd Environmental Commission Lower Hudson Coalition of Conservation Districts LMS Engineers, LLP Marbletown Environmental Conservation Commission Marist College Mid-Hudson Pattern for Progress Mid-Hudson Sierra Club Mohonk Consultations Mohonk Reservation Association Moodna Creek Coalition Shawangunk Ridge Artists Guild Sierra Club Museum of Industrial Art National Audubon Society Nature Conservancy Norwood Community Action NYC Dept. of Environmental Protection NY-NJ Trail Conference NYS Dept. of Environmental Conservation NYS Dept. of Health NYS Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation Onesquethaw-Coeymans Watershed Council Orange County Federation of Sportsmen Orange County Peace & Justice Orange County Water Authority Palisades Interstate Park Commission Passaic River Coalition Pattern for Progress Plan Putnam Protect the Plattekill Creek & Watershed Putnam/Northern Westchester BOCES Ramapo College Ramapo River Committee Ramapo River Watershed Council Rivers and Estuaries Center Riverkeeper, Inc. Rockland County Legislature Rosendale Environmental Commission Sawkill Watershed Alliance Scenic Hudson Student Conservation Association, Inc. Shingebiss Associates Southern Catskill Anglers Sparkill Watershed Conservancy SUNY/ESF SUNY/New Paltz Sustainable Hudson Valley Town Board of New Paltz Town of Gardiner Town of Greenville Town of Lloyd Environmental Conservation Council Town of Marbletown Town of Montgomery Town of Red Hook Town of Rochester Tri-County Skaneateles Lake Pure Water Assoc. Trout Unlimited Trust for Public Land Ulster County Environmental Management Council Ulster County Planning Dept. United Nations US Army Corps of Engineers US Environmental Protection Agency US Geological Survey Village of Cornwall-on-Hudson Village of New Paltz Wallkill River Task Force Wallkill Valley Land Trust Wappinger Creek Intermunicipal Council Westchester County Department of Planning * The organizations listed have participated in the formation of the Alliance, however actual membership in the Hudson River Valley Watershed Alliance has not yet been defined.
    • 34. Wetlands Protection: Prevent Filling & Draining Value to watersheds: • Pollutant removal • Flood storage • Groundwater recharge • Habitat • Shoreline/stream protection Special Condition: Isolated Wetlands Vernal Pools (Intermittent Woodland Pools); SWANCC exempted from protection
    • 35. Riparian Corridors and Wetlands Roles and Services: • Prevent “firehose” effect, erosion and channel incision Regulations: • NYS DEC ( > 12.4 acres) • US Army Corps of Engineers ( > 0.1 acre) Freshwater Wetlands & NWI maps. Importance of field delineation. • Hydrophytic vegetation • Hydric soils • Standing water The riparian or aquatic corridor is comprised of the stream and its rights-of-way. Healthy stream channels diverge, converge, and meander along the natural stream path. c. 1999, Center for Watershed Protection
    • 36. What is a Watershed Management Plan ? Monitor, assess, plan, & implement • Identify all key stakeholders • Create shared watershed vision and articulate desired outcomes; share with community at large • Gather information and data • Make recommendations • Implement • Monitor and evaluate
    • 37. Stream Monitoring: Physical and Chemical Physical Survey Weather conditions Water temperature Water level Water appearance & odor Channel dimensions Habitat quality Chemical Survey Human land uses - Nitrate-Nitrogen levels - Orthophosphate levels - Dissolved Oxygen - E.coli levels
    • 38. Biological: Benthic Macro Invertebrates provide information on stream health over time
    • 39. Protective Regulations and Practices • • • • • • • • • • Clean Water Act NPDES / SPDES Storm Water Regulations (MS4) Water Quality Standards NYS Stream Classification NYS Freshwater Wetlands (>14.5 acres) Army Corps of Engineers Wetlands Jurisdiction (>0.1 acre) NYS DOS Coastal Consistency Low Impact Development Better Site Design Green Stormwater Infrastructure Watershed Planning
    • 40. Acknowledgements Hudson River Sloop Clearwater
    • 41. HUDSON RIVER SLOOP CLEARWATER, I Thank you! For more info on the Hudson River or contact Manna Jo Greene 845-454-7673 x 113 Calendar: NC.
    • 42. Sustainable Development “Sustainable development means meeting the needs of present generations without compromising those of the future." ~ U.N. Commission on Environment & Development, Our Common Future, 1987 Defining Sustainability - The Four E's of Sustainability are: 1 - Environmental Protection 2 - Economic Prosperity (based on quality of life) 3 - Social Equity 4 - Effective Communication HV Smart Growth Alliance * US Green Building Council – HV Chapter * Mid-Hudson Energy $mart Communities * LEED Certification; Living Bldg Challenge * Sustainable Agriculture; I.P.M.; Permaculture * Transition Movement
    • 43. The Natural Step Four Conditions of Sustainability Dr. Karl Henrik Robert • What we TAKE from the Earth: Minerals and fossil fuels - Substances from the Earth's crust must not systematically increase in the biosphere. This means fossil fuels, metals and other minerals must not be extracted at a faster rate than their redeposit and reintegration into the Earth's crust. • What we MAKE: Pesticides and toxic materials - Substances produced by society must not systematically increase in nature. This means substances must not be produced faster than they can be broken down and reintegrated into natural cycles. • What we do to the Earth (BREAK): Protecting intact ecosystems and species biodiversity - The physical basis for the productivity and diversity of nature must not be systematically deteriorated. This means the productive surfaces of nature must not be diminished in quality or quantity, and we must not harvest more from nature than can be recreated and renewed. • How we use resources and meet basic needs (FAKE): There must be just and efficient use of resources with respect to meeting the needs of all people. This means that basic human needs should be met with the most resource efficient methods possible. Alliance for Sustainability The Natural Step
    • 44. Collaborative Land Use Planning CLUP has these benefits: • Community led and designed to enhance surrounding neighborhoods and region. • Includes community-enhancing features (recreation, green space, walkability, traffic reduction, emergency services), which improve proposed projects. • Valuable ecologically sensitive areas are protected and preserved. • Neighborhoods gain an improved sense of safety and community. • No outside facilitator is necessary. • The permitting process becomes less conflicted or oppositional, more efficient, and result in less litigation. • CLUP information is available free, specifically designed to help a neighborhood group set up and run the collaborative planning process.
    • 45. Environmental Justice (“EJ”) Movement: Dr. Robert D. Bullard, Father of Environmental Justice • 1970’s: Environmental Sociologist; identified systematic patterns of environmental injustice in the siting of garbage dumps in black neighborhoods. • 1994: Helped President Clinton draft an Executive Order mandating the consideration of EJ in federal programs. Now Director of the Environmental Justice Research Center at Clark Atlanta University, author of 12 books on environmental justice; recent focus on Hurricane Katrina aftermath. Hazel Johnson, Mother of Environmental Justice, as designated at First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit. • 1982: Founded People for Community Recovery on Southside of Chicago to increase awareness that dangerous pollutants, such as lead, were disproportionately higher in her community; worked to remove asbestos contamination from the community’s schools. • Garnered national attention to the issue of environmental racism, testifying before Congress, hosting conferences and “toxic tours” of her community. • The Environmental Justice movement seeks to not only combat environmental racism and redistribute environmental resources to all people, but also to promote “the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies." ~ EPA Office of Environmental Justice , 1992
    • 46. Transition Movement: Engaging the Community is at the Core of Transition Purpose: To create locally self-reliant, resilient communities in the face of climate change, peak oil and economic instability. To Meet Essential Needs: • Food • Water • Shelter • Energy Stakeholder-inclusive Collaborative Sustainable solutions Transition Training 2007
    • 47. Stream Monitoring • Physical • Chemical • Biological Tier 1 : Introductory Investigation Primarily for educational purposes, providing a general awareness of river water quality. Tier 2 : Preliminary Assessment Water quality problems require verification for inclusion in DEC’s Priority Waterbody List. Tier 3 : In Depth Assessment Water quality problems incorporated into DEC’s Priority Waterbody List depending on the level of QA/QC employed.
    • 48. This figure illustrates how upstream development can widen & lengthen the floodplain limit. Upstream impervious surface = Downstream
    • 49. EVACUATION IMPOSSIBLE “Peak Injury” Zone: Nearly 20 million people live within 50 miles of Indian Point “Peak Fatality” Zone: 17.5 mile radius Emergency Evacuation Zone: Before Witt Report: 10 miles Now: 2 mile radius, or “shelter in place” “Opponents maintain that already-congested roads and bridges would make it impossible to evacuate the 305,000 people living within a federally mandated 10-mile evacuation zone, let alone people living as far away as New York City, which they believe could be jeopardized by a large radiation leak. Panic, they contend, would force people to flee willy-nilly, clogging roads and disrupting emergency workers. FEMA officials countered yesterday that they never expected all 305,000 people in the 10-mile zone to be evacuated in an emergency. Instead, they said, in a major leak everyone within a two-mile radius would be evacuated, and then a more limited evacuation of people in a narrow corridor downwind from the radiation could be evacuated or ordered to ‘shelter in place’ by staying put and closing windows and ventilation systems.”
    • 50. Map of Westchester and Rockland Counties showing location of United Water of NY’s proposed desalination plant for Rockland County . • Located 3.5 miles southwest of Indian Point, which is leaking radioactive water into Hudson River; isotopes include Sr-90, Cs-137 and tritium (tritiated water). • Now a potential source of drinking water for Rockland County. • Will take 10 M gpd to produce 7.5 M gpd of potable water, using reverse osmosis (RO). • Desalination is highly energy-intensive. • NYS DEC is lead agency in SEQRA process; positive declaration filed. • Note proximity of Indian Point and the proposed desal plant to Potential Environmental Justice Areas (PEJA), in purple. Courtesy of NYS DEC Office of Environmental Justice.
    • 51. Peak Oil 2008
    • 52. Energy Efficiency and Conservation
    • 53. Renewable Energy Tidal Wind Power Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Hot Rock or Deep Well Geothermal > Solar: Photovoltaics (“PV”) & Solar Thermal (hot water)