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Age And Neurological Factors (I Presentation)

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  • 1. By: Lorena Palomares and Jorge Isaac
  • 2.
    • When is the best age to learn a second language?
    • Could have first language learners any difficulty to learn their first language?
    • Is only native like profiency considered to be language acquisition or can near native like profiency also be considered?
  • 3.
    • first and second language acquisition in children
    • (C1-C2), holding age constant.
    • 2. second language acquisition in children and adults
    • (C2-A2), holding second language constant.
    • 3. first language acquisition in children and second language acquisition in adults (C1-A2).
    A1
  • 4. “ Biologically determined period of life when language can be acquired more easily and beyond which time language is increasingly difficult to acquire.”
  • 5. Lenneberg (1967) proposed the Critical Period Hypothesis The notion derives from biological evidence which was proposed by Lorenz (1958), using example of the new born goslings. Lennerberg based on neurophysiological evidence with studies of aphasia children Before age 2 the brain has not developed enough, and after puberty it is has developed too much, with the loss of “plasticity” and the completion of “lateralization” of the language function. “ Adults are capable of learning to communicate a foreign language” “ Foreign accent can’t be easily to overcome” “ Foreign accent emerge at the age of 11-14”
  • 6. - When exactly is the Critical Period for a Second Language Learning, or does it really exist? How long does the Critical Period last? Does a Critical Period exist for first language acquisition?
  • 7. How might neurological development affect Second language success? Does the maturation of the brain at some stage show the failure of language acquisition ability?
  • 8. As the brain matures, certain functions are assigned to either the left or right hemisphere
  • 9.  
  • 10. believed that the development of lateralization may be complete around age 5 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TSu9HGnlMV0&feature=related
  • 11. For mulate and unde rstand the mean ing of the word s and senten ces Interprests the emotion co gnotation of those words .
  • 12. Such studies seem to suggest that second language learners, particularly adult learners, might benefit from more encouragement of right-brain activity in the classroom context.
  • 13.  
  • 14. TEACHERS TEACHERS RIGHT BRAIN Visula spacial orientations. Hand-on actvities Art-manipulations Visual, music Howard Gardne’s multiple intelligences. Group projects Active and noisy classrooms RIGHT BRAIN Using lectures and lectures Give problems to resolve Research/writing Read independetly Quiet classroom Perfeccionist (afraid to fail)
  • 15.  
  • 16. Production of language, or language outputs The processing of words that we hear being spoken, or language inputs
  • 17. Children who acquired a second language after the age of 5 may have a physical advantage in that phonemic control of second language is physically possible yet that mysterious plasticity is still present.
  • 18.
    • Phonological researches support the notion of a Critical Period
    • AUTHENTIC (Native speaker)
    Do you know anyone who started learning a second language after puberty and who nevertheless has an almost perfect accent? How did assess if the accent was perfect? Why do you suppose such a person was able to to be succesful?
  • 19. The acquisition of the communicative and functional purposes of language is, in most circumstances, far more important than a perfect native accent. http://www.metacafe.com/watch/105659/french_learning_english/
  • 20. We among all animals possess the gift of tongues b ecause we have a time to speak .
  • 21. AFFECTIVE CONSIDERATIONS
  • 22.
    • FACTORS
    • FACTORS
    • HUMAN BEINGS ARE EMOTIONAL
    • WE ARE ALL INFLUENCE BY EMOTIONS
    • THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN INCLUDES MANY FACTORS BEING RELEVANT IN S2L
    • THE ROLE OF EGOCENTRICITY (CHILDREN)
    • BABIES (DONT)
    • CHILDREN DEVELOP(INHIBITIONS) SELF-IDENTITY CRITICAL AND PHYSICAL,COGNICTIVE AND EMOTIONAL CHANGES
    • STUDENTS LOOK FOR THE AFFECTIVE EQUILIBRIUM
    • THAT WAS CALLED THE LANGUAGE EGO
    • CHILD EGO IS DYNAMIC, GROWING AND FLEXIBLE IT MAKES IT EASILY.
    • ACCORDING TO THE AGE THE CHILDRENS CHANGE IT BECOMES PROTECTIVE AND DEFENSIVE
    • THEY ARE AFRAID OF ERRORS.
    • WE HAVE TO DISTINGUISH THE YOUNGER, OLDER,CHILDREN, PREADOLESCENTCHILDREN OF 9 TO 10 DSISONANCE WITH THE LANGUAGE
    • ADULTS MANIFEST A NUMBERS OF INHIBITIONS
    • THE SECOND IDENTITY IT IS FRUITSFUL (SMALL DIFERENCES)
    • THE ROLE OF ATTITUDES(STEREOTYPES)
    • PEER PRESSURE (ADULT EXPERIENCES) ADULT TOLERATE LINGUISTIC DIFFERENCES MORE THAN CHILDREN DURING A POSSIBLE SPEECH
    AFFECTIVE CONSIDERATIONS
  • 23. LINGÜÍSTIC CONSIDERATIONS
    • INTERFERENCE BETWEEN FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGES
    • FOR CHILDREN AND ADULTS PROCESS OF THE SLA DIFFERS
    • CHILDREN LEARN TWO LANGUAGES SIMULTANEOUSLY USING SIMILAR STRATEGIES
    • BILINGUALS ENGAGE CODE SWITCHING( THE ACT OF INSERTING WORDS, PHRASES OR EVEN LONGER STRETCHESOF ONE LANGUAGE INTO THE OTHER
    • ESPECIALLLY IN BILINGUAL COMMUNICATION
    • BY FLEXIBILITY
    • LINGUSITIC AND AND COGNICTIVE PROCESSES O SL ARE SIMILAR TO F1 L SIMILAR STRATEGIES AND LINGUSISTIC FEATURES ARE PRESENT IN BOTH F1 AND SL
    • STUDIES SAYS THAT SPANISH -LEARNERS AND ENGLISH- LEARNERS COMMIT THE SAME AMOUNT OF MISTAKES IN COMPARISON
    • ADULTS SL PROCESSES ARE MORE VULNERABLE TO THE EFFECT OF THE F1 L THEY CONSIDER IT TWO EVENTS
    • ADULTS LEARNS A FOREIGN L ANGUAGE IN A CLASS THEY ACQUIRED IT FOCALLY OR PERIPHERICALLY OR SYSTEMATICALLY ATTEMPT TO FORMULATE LINGUISTIC RULES IN WHAREVER LINGUISTIC INFORMATIO N IS AVAILABLE.
    • THEY ADULTS AND CHILDREN MANIFEST THE SAME TYPES OF ERRORS
    • IN ADULTS FIRST LANGUAGE IS FACILITATING THE SL LEARNING
    • BILINGUALISM
  • 24.
    • ORDER OF ACQUISITION
    • FOR CHILDREN AND ADULTS PROCESS OF THE SLA DIFFERS
    • CHILDREN LEARNING A SL USE CREATIVE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS AS THEY DO IN FIRST LANGUAGE :
    • CONCLUSION GIVEN USING
    • ELEVEN MORPHEMES
    • 1 . Present progressive
    • 2. In-on
    • 3. Plural
    • 4. Past irregular
    • 5. Possesive
    • 6. Uncontable copula(am- is – are)
    • 7. Articles (a-the)
    • 8. Past regular (ed)
    • 9. Third-person regular (s)
    • 10. Third-person irregular (s)
    • Why both children and adults in both langauages F1 and L2 exhibit a common order of acquistion
    • ORDER LEARNING L2
    • Perceptual salience (how easy is to see or hear a given structure)
    • Semantic complexity(how many meanings are expressedby a particular form)
    • Morpho-phonological regularity(the degree to which languagesforms are affected by their phonological environment.)
    • Syntactic category(grammatical characteristics of forms)
    • Frecuency in the input(the numbers of times a given structure occurs in speech addresed tothe learner)
    LINGÜÍSTIC CONSIDERATIONS
  • 25. ISSUES IN FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION REVISITED
    • COMPETENCE AND PERFOMANCE
    • COMPRENHENSION AND PRODUCTION
  • 26.
    • NATURE OR NUTURE
    • UNIVERSALS
    • Children have de capacity to acquired L2 a any age
    • Adults is different they should rule out the authenctic accent.
    • Children learn second language grammar are indeed constrained by UG
    • Adults acquired a second language withouth any reference to UG
    • Second language learners have only partial access to UG.
    AGE AND ACQUISITION
  • 27.
    • SYSTEMATICITY AND VARIABILITY
    • LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT
    AGE AND ACQUISITION
  • 28.
    • IMITATION
    • Chiflaren are good imitators, centering on meaning not surface features
    • Adults can fare much better imitating surface structure, by rote mechanims they are explicitly to do so.
    • Sometimes to center in on a surface distintion is a distrating factor, other times is helful
    • Adults learn may do well attending conciously to truth value
    • PRACTICE AND FRECUENCY
    • The amount of stimuli and the number of times practicing are not highly important in learning. What is the mos important is meaningfulness
    • It goes with meaning communication
    AGE AND ACQUISITION
  • 29.
    • INPUT
    • Classroom second language learning , parental input y replaced teacher input. Tachers must do well as deliberated but meaningful in the communication with the students.
    • That input should foster meaningful communicative use language in appropiated contexs.
    • DISCOURSE
    • It becomes more important to the students because of the disterity in acquiring rules of conversation and perceiving intended meaning
    AGE AND ACQUISITION
  • 30. SOME AGE AND ACQUISITION INSPIRED LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS
    • TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
    • It is known as TPR
    • Purpose by James Asher in 1977
    • This method took into account the physical motion ability to produce learning throught reaching , grabbing moving, looking ansd so forth . He also gave attention to the right brain learning . According to Asher , motor activity is a right brain function that should precede left brain language processing. This method took into account the used of commands to develop students reactions about a prhase pronounce by the teacher to expect the students reaction and actions too.
    • NATURAL APPROACH NATURAL APPROACH
    • Stephen and krashen(1982)
    • This searcher purposed that speech emerges as the students as much relaxed as possible in the classroom and that a great deal of communication and acquisition should take place, as opposed to analysis. The Natural Approach advocated the use of TPR at the beginning level of learning when comprehensive input is essential for triggering the acquisition of language.
    •  
  • 31. The Natural Approach was aimed t the goal of basic interpersonal communication skills that is everyday language situations. The initial task of the teacher was to provide comprehensible input. The students did not need to say anything during the silent period until they feel to be ready to do so. The teacher was the source to the learners and the creator of the input and the creator of interesting and stimulating variety of classroom activities commands, games, and small- group work
  • 32. References: Brown, D. H. (2000). Principles of language learning & teaching. (4th ed.). New York: Longman. (pp. 49-58) Lightbown, P.M. & Spada, N. (1993). How Languages are Learned. Oxford University Press. (p. 11) http :// www.literature.freeservers.com / image_polat / ccfsla.html#PSC http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_10/d_10_cr/d_10_cr_lan/d_10_cr_lan.html#1

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