2. second language acquisition in children and adults
(C2-A2), holding second language constant.
3. first language acquisition in children and second language acquisition in adults (C1-A2).
“ Biologically determined period of life when language can be acquired more easily and beyond which time language is increasingly difficult to acquire.”
Lenneberg (1967) proposed the Critical Period Hypothesis The notion derives from biological evidence which was proposed by Lorenz (1958), using example of the new born goslings. Lennerberg based on neurophysiological evidence with studies of aphasia children Before age 2 the brain has not developed enough, and after puberty it is has developed too much, with the loss of “plasticity” and the completion of “lateralization” of the language function. “ Adults are capable of learning to communicate a foreign language” “ Foreign accent can’t be easily to overcome” “ Foreign accent emerge at the age of 11-14”
- When exactly is the Critical Period for a Second Language Learning, or does it really exist? How long does the Critical Period last? Does a Critical Period exist for first language acquisition?
How might neurological development affect Second language success? Does the maturation of the brain at some stage show the failure of language acquisition ability?
As the brain matures, certain functions are assigned to either the left or right hemisphere
TEACHERS TEACHERS RIGHT BRAIN Visula spacial orientations. Hand-on actvities Art-manipulations Visual, music Howard Gardne’s multiple intelligences. Group projects Active and noisy classrooms RIGHT BRAIN Using lectures and lectures Give problems to resolve Research/writing Read independetly Quiet classroom Perfeccionist (afraid to fail)
Production of language, or language outputs The processing of words that we hear being spoken, or language inputs
Children who acquired a second language after the age of 5 may have a physical advantage in that phonemic control of second language is physically possible yet that mysterious plasticity is still present.
Phonological researches support the notion of a Critical Period
AUTHENTIC (Native speaker)
Do you know anyone who started learning a second language after puberty and who nevertheless has an almost perfect accent? How did assess if the accent was perfect? Why do you suppose such a person was able to to be succesful?
The acquisition of the communicative and functional purposes of language is, in most circumstances, far more important than a perfect native accent. http://www.metacafe.com/watch/105659/french_learning_english/
We among all animals possess the gift of tongues b ecause we have a time to speak .
Classroom second language learning , parental input y replaced teacher input. Tachers must do well as deliberated but meaningful in the communication with the students.
That input should foster meaningful communicative use language in appropiated contexs.
It becomes more important to the students because of the disterity in acquiring rules of conversation and perceiving intended meaning
AGE AND ACQUISITION
SOME AGE AND ACQUISITION INSPIRED LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
It is known as TPR
Purpose by James Asher in 1977
This method took into account the physical motion ability to produce learning throught reaching , grabbing moving, looking ansd so forth . He also gave attention to the right brain learning . According to Asher , motor activity is a right brain function that should precede left brain language processing. This method took into account the used of commands to develop students reactions about a prhase pronounce by the teacher to expect the students reaction and actions too.
NATURAL APPROACH NATURAL APPROACH
Stephen and krashen(1982)
This searcher purposed that speech emerges as the students as much relaxed as possible in the classroom and that a great deal of communication and acquisition should take place, as opposed to analysis. The Natural Approach advocated the use of TPR at the beginning level of learning when comprehensive input is essential for triggering the acquisition of language.
The Natural Approach was aimed t the goal of basic interpersonal communication skills that is everyday language situations. The initial task of the teacher was to provide comprehensible input. The students did not need to say anything during the silent period until they feel to be ready to do so. The teacher was the source to the learners and the creator of the input and the creator of interesting and stimulating variety of classroom activities commands, games, and small- group work
References: Brown, D. H. (2000). Principles of language learning & teaching. (4th ed.). New York: Longman. (pp. 49-58) Lightbown, P.M. & Spada, N. (1993). How Languages are Learned. Oxford University Press. (p. 11) http :// www.literature.freeservers.com / image_polat / ccfsla.html#PSC http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/d/d_10/d_10_cr/d_10_cr_lan/d_10_cr_lan.html#1