Reported Speech Indirect SpeechMiss Macarena Arévalo A
Reported SpeechDefinition Reported speech is often also called indirect speech. When we use reported speech, we are usually talking about the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too.E.g: "Im going to the cinema". Direct SpeechHe said (that) he was going to the cinema. Reported Speech
Changing basic tensesStatements When we want to report what other person has said, we have to change the tenses, moving them backwards: DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECHPresent simple: Im a teacher. Past simple: He said he was a teacher Past continuous:Present continuous: He said he was having lunch with hisIm having lunch with my parents. parents.Present perfect simple: Past perfect simple:Ive been to France three times. He said he had been to France three times.Present perfect continuous: Past perfect continuous:Ive been working very hard. He said he had been working very hard.
Changing basic tensesStatements DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECHPast simple: Past perfect:I bought a new car. He said he had bought a new car.Past continuous: Past perfect continuous:It was raining earlier. He said it had been raining earlier.Past perfect: Past perfect:The play had started when I arrived. NO CHANGE POSSIBLEPast perfect continuous: Past perfect continuous:Id already been living in London for five years. NO CHANGE POSSIBLE
Exercises:1. The train leaves at 05:32 => She said that_____________ at 05:32.2. We want to go to Disneyland => The children cried they______________ to Disneyland.3. John and William never write to us => Mr and Mrs Litten complained that John and William________________.4. Its too late to catch the train => He said that it______________ the train.
Changing Modal VerbsSentences with modals When we have sentences with modal verbs, we have to change them into their past equivalent: Direct speech Reported speech CAN: COULD: I can sleep He said he could sleep MAY: MIGHT: I may sleep He said he might sleep WILL: WOULD: I will sleep He said he would sleep MUST: HAD TO: I must sleep He said he had to sleep
Changing QuestionsInterrogative Sentences For changing a question into reported speech, you have to follow the same rules as above, but with two extras. If there is a question word (what, who, when, how, where), then it becomes an indirect question, if not then use if/whether as an interrogative.