What is culture?  Helps me  decide...                    It tells me                    what to think                    a...
What is culture?                 ●“A universal orientation system within a                  society, organization and/or g...
Culture is defined by: SHARED… –…norms                What is normal -                        and expected?
Culture is defined by: SHARED… –…norms –…valuesWhat we all value as important?
Culture is defined by: SHARED… –…norms –…values –…behavioral patterns        What we all do.
Cultural relativism “Cultural relativism is based on the  presumption that one particular culture  holds no absolute crit...
Cultural relativism “Cultural relativism is based on the  presumption that one particular culture  holds no absolute crit...
Cross cultural differences
What have all cultures in common?KinshipEconomyEducationPoliticsReligionRecreation
What is the only communication thatall cultures interpret the same?____________(yes, it’s only ONEthing)
We find more differences thancommonalities...
Two tastes of cultures:Low context cultures                  High context culturesWhat You See Is What You Get          Re...
PlanningDo we plan based on analysis, or intuition?Is our plan expressed by numbers, or words?Is everyone involved in the ...
Competition vs HarmonyAre people more proud of their status, orprofessionalism?Do they work for the benefit of their teams ...
IndividualismDo sentences begin with “I”, or “We”?Are managers managing groups, or individuals?Is employment more of a rel...
Orientation towards individualism   high                                       Japan                     Singapore        ...
Orientation towards individualism           USA   high     UK          Italy          France          Germany           Cz...
Rewardand promotionWhich is true: that the rightconnections guarantee promotionand academic titles imply a socialstanding,...
AuthorityIs authority rather informal and based on trust, or is itformally stated and based on competencies?Does authority...
Power distance index                                  India             Austria   high                                    ...
Power distance index          Malaysi                    a            Mexico   high   India              France           ...
StabilityWhat is the extent into which people feel threatened byuncertain situations?Is uncertainty causing much of a stre...
Uncertainty avoidance                                  India   high       Israel                      Denmark             ...
Uncertainty avoidance            Greece   high      Japan          France             Korea            Israel             ...
Long term avoidanceAre traditions respected or adapted?Are there little or plenty of resources for investment?Are quick re...
Long term avoidance   high      China                    Japan                                                            ...
Long term avoidance           China   high           Japan           India          Sweden          Austral               ...
Some other dimensions Individual – society relationship Importance of masculinity in society Ways of conflict resolution...
Crossculture
Crossculture
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Crossculture

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Crossculture

  1. 1. What is culture? Helps me decide... It tells me what to think and do I can show it, I can see it
  2. 2. What is culture? ●“A universal orientation system within a society, organization and/or group. ●This system consists of distinct symbols Helps me traditionally upheld in a given society. decide... ●It impacts the perceptions, thoughts, evaluations and actions of all its members, defining their adherence to the society.” (Thomas) It tells meI can show it, what to thinkI can see it and do
  3. 3. Culture is defined by: SHARED… –…norms What is normal - and expected?
  4. 4. Culture is defined by: SHARED… –…norms –…valuesWhat we all value as important?
  5. 5. Culture is defined by: SHARED… –…norms –…values –…behavioral patterns What we all do.
  6. 6. Cultural relativism “Cultural relativism is based on the presumption that one particular culture holds no absolute criteria for considering another culture as “low” or „high“. However every culture may apply such appraisal upon its own activities, since its associates are at the same time both its members and observers.“ –Claud Levi-Strauss
  7. 7. Cultural relativism “Cultural relativism is based on the presumption that one particular culture holds no absolute criteria for considering another culture as “low” or „high“. However every culture may apply such appraisal upon its own activities, since its associates are at the same time both its members and observers.“ –Claud Levi-Strauss
  8. 8. Cross cultural differences
  9. 9. What have all cultures in common?KinshipEconomyEducationPoliticsReligionRecreation
  10. 10. What is the only communication thatall cultures interpret the same?____________(yes, it’s only ONEthing)
  11. 11. We find more differences thancommonalities...
  12. 12. Two tastes of cultures:Low context cultures High context culturesWhat You See Is What You Get Read betwen the linesHear my words... See my face...This is what I want! This is what WE need!1+1 = 2 1 + 1 = 2, but it depends.See, this is how I feel! (Can you feel how I feel?)This person is dealing with issues. This person is having issues.Let’s argue! Let’s find a consensus.
  13. 13. PlanningDo we plan based on analysis, or intuition?Is our plan expressed by numbers, or words?Is everyone involved in the planning, or is it the soleresponsibility of managers?
  14. 14. Competition vs HarmonyAre people more proud of their status, orprofessionalism?Do they work for the benefit of their teams in whichthey seek harmony, or for themselves, prosperingamidst competition?
  15. 15. IndividualismDo sentences begin with “I”, or “We”?Are managers managing groups, or individuals?Is employment more of a relationship, than a contract?Do tasks prevail over relationships, or the other way?
  16. 16. Orientation towards individualism high Japan Singapore Mexico USA l y Ita Israel Germany Spain UK France Czech low
  17. 17. Orientation towards individualism USA high UK Italy France Germany Czech Israel Spain Japan Mexico Singapore low
  18. 18. Rewardand promotionWhich is true: that the rightconnections guarantee promotionand academic titles imply a socialstanding, or it’s competencies thatdo so, with academic titlesindicating dispositions forexpertise?
  19. 19. AuthorityIs authority rather informal and based on trust, or is itformally stated and based on competencies?Does authority have to be constantly won fromsubordinates, or does it have to be demonstrated tothem?Are subordinates consulted, or told?Is boss a democrat, or a monarch? Are priviledgesdisapproved, or expected?Are inequalities minimized, or expected andwelcomed?
  20. 20. Power distance index India Austria high Denmark Greece Mexico USA ly Ita Malaysi a Germany Spain UK France Israel Japan Czech low
  21. 21. Power distance index Malaysi a Mexico high India France Greece Czech Spain Japan ly Ita USA Germany UK Denmark low Israel Austria
  22. 22. StabilityWhat is the extent into which people feel threatened byuncertain situations?Is uncertainty causing much of a stress?Is the reaction to innovation more of a tolerance, or aresistance?What is more motivating, achievement or security?Are rules to be minimized, or natural and needed?
  23. 23. Uncertainty avoidance India high Israel Denmark Canada USA Greece Austral Germany ia UK France Korea Japan Czech low
  24. 24. Uncertainty avoidance Greece high Japan France Korea Israel Czech Germany Austral ia Canada USA UK India low Denmark
  25. 25. Long term avoidanceAre traditions respected or adapted?Are there little or plenty of resources for investment?Are quick results expected rather than perseverancetowards slow results?Is Truth more concerned about than Virtue?
  26. 26. Long term avoidance high China Japan USA India Austral Germany ia UK Sweden Nigeria low
  27. 27. Long term avoidance China high Japan India Sweden Austral ia Germany USA UK low Nigeria
  28. 28. Some other dimensions Individual – society relationship Importance of masculinity in society Ways of conflict resolution Ability to perceive, accept others Time implications in procedures of problem solving (line of consecutive tasks or parallel run of tasks) Rationality and emotionality in actions Decision making Old age – young age relationship Formal & top-down vs. informal communication Importance of rules Long term vs. short term thinking
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