Ethos
Ethos <ul><li>Appeals to the character / credibility of the speaker / writer. </li></ul><ul><li>Invented ethos (how the rh...
Types of Ethical Appeal <ul><li>Demonstrating knowledge / expertise about the issue (doing the homework) </li></ul><ul><li...
Identification <ul><li>&quot;you persuade a man only insofar as you can talk his language by speech, gesture, tonality, or...
Analyzing Voice I <ul><li>Does the rhetor employ first, second, and/or third person discourse? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind...
Analyzing Voice II <ul><li>Does the rhetor employ more active or passive voice? (active: the boy threw  the ball; passive:...
Effects of Rhetorical Distance <ul><li>Intimate (close) distance: greater identification,  </li></ul><ul><li>greater emoti...
Appropriate Level of Distance <ul><li>Depends on audience, purpose, and genre conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on pow...
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Ethos

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Ethos

  1. 1. Ethos
  2. 2. Ethos <ul><li>Appeals to the character / credibility of the speaker / writer. </li></ul><ul><li>Invented ethos (how the rhetor constructs her ethos through the words she uses) </li></ul><ul><li>Situated ethos (the preconceptions that the audience has about the rhetor, the power that the rhetor has / doesn’t have) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Ethical Appeal <ul><li>Demonstrating knowledge / expertise about the issue (doing the homework) </li></ul><ul><li>Establish “good character” (showing that you are moral and trustworthy) </li></ul><ul><li>Building Goodwill (convincing the audience that you have their best interests at heart, that you understand and appreciate their point of view) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Identification <ul><li>&quot;you persuade a man only insofar as you can talk his language by speech, gesture, tonality, order, image, attitude, idea, indentifying your ways with his.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Kenneth Burke) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Analyzing Voice I <ul><li>Does the rhetor employ first, second, and/or third person discourse? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of vocabulary does the rhetor employ (monosyllabic versus polysyllabic)? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the rhetor qualify her claims (with word such as “might” or “some”)? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Analyzing Voice II <ul><li>Does the rhetor employ more active or passive voice? (active: the boy threw the ball; passive: the ball was thrown) </li></ul><ul><li>Does the rhetor establish strong or weak identification with the audience? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effects of Rhetorical Distance <ul><li>Intimate (close) distance: greater identification, </li></ul><ul><li>greater emotional impact, lesser sense of </li></ul><ul><li>“ objectivity” or “expertise” </li></ul><ul><li>Formal (removed) distance: less identification, </li></ul><ul><li>less emotional impact, but greater sense of </li></ul><ul><li>“ objectivity” or “expertise” </li></ul>
  8. 8. Appropriate Level of Distance <ul><li>Depends on audience, purpose, and genre conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on power structures and social norms governing the rhetorical situation </li></ul>

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