Young Immigrants’ Political Participation on the Internet in Germany : Comparing German-East-Europeans and German-Turks


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  • Political : every socially relevant activity that intends to change or to stabilize the societal structure and thus the power relations between social groups, organizations, and institutions (Lenk 1988).
  • Young Immigrants’ Political Participation on the Internet in Germany : Comparing German-East-Europeans and German-Turks

    1. 1. YOUNG IMMIGRANTS’ POLITICAL PARTICIPATION ON THE INTERNET IN GERMANY : COMPARING GERMAN-EAST-EUROPEANS AND GERMAN-TURKS Viktoria Spaiser     International Joint Workshop on Immigrant Inclusion by E-Participation, Helsinki
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Methods and Data </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>4.1. Political Online Participation – Excerpt </li></ul><ul><li>4.2. Online and Offline Political Participation </li></ul><ul><li>4.3. Political Online Participation & Gender </li></ul><ul><li>4.4. Political Online Participation & Education 4.5. Model for young people from East-Europe 4.6. Model for young people from Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>5. Conclusions </li></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>digital divide vs. digital empowerment of immigrant groups </li></ul><ul><li>(digital) political integration of immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Immigrants’ agendas in the political long tail? </li></ul><ul><li>Do only immigrant elites participate online? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Theory <ul><li>Political participation on the Internet : </li></ul><ul><li>Information activities online: e.g. reading online news </li></ul><ul><li>Communication activities online: e.g. political online-debates, writing political blogs, networking, coordinating political activities, … </li></ul><ul><li>Participation activities online: e.g. protest email campaigns, online petitions, digital civil disobedience,… </li></ul>
    5. 5. Theoretical Background <ul><li>Theory-synthesis of rational-choice and resource </li></ul><ul><li>models to explain political online participation -> </li></ul><ul><li>Factors of influence : </li></ul><ul><li>Political discontentment and/or grievance (relative deprivation, discrimination experience) </li></ul><ul><li>Political efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>Social incentives / social capital: young people’s socio-political milieu </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Internet skills </li></ul>
    6. 6. Data & Methodology <ul><li>Survey-Data , N= 2,082 (ages of 14 to 26), German respondent (n=771) left out for this analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Survey in school classes, including all types of German schools </li></ul><ul><li>Survey from November 2009 – March 2010 in four German cities Bielefeld, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt -> clustered sample </li></ul>
    7. 7. Data & Methodology <ul><li>Two groups, based on origin </li></ul><ul><li>Young East-Europeans, mainly from Poland and former Soviet Union, n=221 </li></ul><ul><li>Young people with Turkish origins, n=497 </li></ul>
    8. 8. Data & Methodology <ul><li>Statistical Methodology: </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics (means, frequencies) </li></ul><ul><li>Variance-Analyses (Eta) </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Equation Models (SEM) </li></ul><ul><li>Missing Data handled with Full Information Maximum Likelihood </li></ul>
    9. 9. Results: Political Online Participation Immi-grants East-Europe Turkey online news at least rarely 92% 92.8% 92.5% online debates at least once 37.9% 32% 42.3% online content at least once 21% 18.4% 23.4% coordina-ting action at least infrequently 68% 56.4% 74.3% protest email at least once 20.3% 17.8% 20.8%
    10. 10. On-/Offline Participation
    11. 11. On-/Offline Participation <ul><li>Which political issues are related to intense </li></ul><ul><li>political Internet usage? </li></ul><ul><li>Internet freedom/preventing Internet censorship </li></ul><ul><li>Data security/ (digital) civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental political changes in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-racism/ anti-fascism </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting marginalized groups </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural dialogue (German-Turks) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Gender <ul><li>Significance of gender differences: Eta Immigrants: 0.130**; Eta Turkey: 0.133*; Eta East-Europe: n.s. **: p < 0.01 (ANOVA) </li></ul><ul><li>*: p < 0.05 (ANOVA) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Education
    14. 14. Socioeconomic Status <ul><li>Significance of socio-economic status: all Etas are n.s. apart from Eta East-Europe: 0.173* with p < 0.05 </li></ul>Significance of socio-economic status: all Etas are n.s. apart from Eta East-Europe: 0.173* with p < 0.05
    15. 15. Model: German-East-Europeans
    16. 16. Model: German-Turks
    17. 17. Some additional notes <ul><li>Surprising that German-Turks are more active politically on the Internet than German-East-Europeans, because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On average lower Internet skills: Tur.: M=1.38, SD=0.67 vs. East: M=1.47, SD=0.70 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to lower socioeconomic status: Tur.: M=46.67, SD=13.12 vs. East: M=56.90, SD=13.74 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But German-Turks included in rather politized milieus: Tur.: M=1.70, SD=0.93 vs. East: M=1.21, SD=0.71 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore higher level of political efficacy: Tur.: M=1.44, SD=0.76 vs. East: M=1.21, SD=0.80 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally, stronger incentives </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Conclusions <ul><li>Immigrants use the Internet for political purposes to raise their voice, therefore, e-Participation is a chance </li></ul><ul><li>However, different immigrant groups have different incentives, backgrounds, resources and therefore e-participation needs </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up approach: immigrant communities build cyber-spaces for participation themselves. Authorities, politicians etc. should go to this spaces and listen to the voices; more important than producing new spaces for immigrants from above </li></ul><ul><li>Still (digital) divides: e.g. women, Internet skills (necessary to find ways to reduce Internet skills discrepancies) to avoid an establishment of second-level digital (democratic) divide </li></ul>