The insiders guide to forex trading


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The insiders guide to forex trading

  1. 1. Insiders Guide To Forex TradingDiscover All Of TheInsider TechniquesThat The Pros AreUsing With Great Success 1
  2. 2. Limits of Liability / Disclaimer of Warranty:The authors of this information and the accompanyingmaterials have used their best efforts in preparing this course.The authors make no representation or warranties with respectto the accuracy, applicability, fitness, or completeness of thecontents of this course. They disclaim any warranties(expressed or implied), merchantability, or fitness for anyparticular purpose. The authors shall in no event be held liablefor any loss or other damages, including but not limited tospecial, incidental, consequential, or other damages.This manual contains information protected underInternational Federal Copyright laws and Treaties. Anyunauthorized reprint or use of this material is strictlyprohibited. We actively search for copyright infringement andyou will be prosecuted. 2
  3. 3. Table of ContentsChapter 1: What The Stock Market Is All About…………………4Chapter 2: Stock Market Trends…………………………………………12Chapter 3: An Introduction To Forex………………………………….16Chapter 4: Understanding Currency Conversion……………….21Chapter 5: Understanding Statistics…………………………………..26Chapter 6: Forex Volatility And Market Expectation………….30Chapter 7: Aspects Of The Trade………………………………………..34Chapter 8: Risk Management………………………………………………38Chapter 9: “Buzz” Words…………………………………………………….43Chapter 10: Expert Trading Options……………………………………48Chapter 11: Other Trading Options…………………………………….51Chapter 12: In Review…………………………………………………………55Chapter 13: One Final Option………………………………………………60 3
  4. 4. Chapter 1: What the Stock Market is All AboutIn any business or moneymaking venture, preparation andforeknowledge are the keys to success. Without this sort ofinsight, the attempt to make a profitable financial decisioncan only end in disaster and failure, regardless of your levelof motivation and determination or the amount of moneyyou plan to invest.In the stock market, this rule applies to the nth degree, asyou are investing your own money in what could beconsidered a high risk wager, and you are playing with fire ifyou do not have at least a general background knowledge ofhow it functions. Since having a background in any area ishelpful in guiding you down a path in that particular region,the more solid your basis of investment knowledge is, themore likely you are to profit from any attempt to trade onthe open market.In many ways, trading on the stock market can becompared to driving – you do not have to be an expert toget behind the wheel of a car, though you are expected tohave some previous knowledge about basic traffic laws,including moving violations, safety regulations, and otherlegal vehicular infractions, which are learned through eitherspecific study and coursework or even through some form of 4
  5. 5. simple exposure (such as the years you have spent ridingwith your parents and others who have driven for years).You should be able to comprehend the basic tools used tonavigate a car (where the break pedal is located versus thegas, and how to use the rearview mirror, for example), evenif you have never touched a steering wheel.The same is true in entering the world of the stock market.While you do not have to know all the terminology (you willnot be short selling or determining your own long and shortpositions at first, so you do not have to understand thesereferences completely, though you should be aware ofthem), you should certainly be versed in the basicfunctionality of trading stocks, bonds, securities, and othercommodities. And just like someone who is behind thewheel of a car and getting ready to touch the gas pedal forthe first time, you should start out with caution and workyour way in slowly. A first time driver will first set themirrors to his or her own liking, then put the car in gear,look for any interfering traffic, and ease onto the gas pedal,never flooring it and testing the engine coming out of thegate on the first attempt. Likewise, when you select yourfirst investment, you should choose something stable withlittle fluctuation and not invest a large sum of money on thisfirst venture.When a person is learning to drive, he or she will beaccompanied by another individual who is more experienced 5
  6. 6. and can assist them in making better driving decisions andoffering corrections that will aid in learning to handle the carmore efficiently. In the stock market, there arestockbrokers and other experts who can give you input andadvice to help you in building your knowledge of thecommodities in which you are interested, essentially“steering” you toward better stock market buying and sellingdecisions.You could spend hours and hours researching the stockmarket and its functionality, learning how to becomeinvolved in the trade and who to contact to get in the game,especially if your interest lies in the Foreign ExchangeMarket, which goes far beyond the level of complication ofthe domestic stock market. However, in this book, you willfind all the basic information you need to get started downthe path to trading success. All of the leg work and toughresearch has been done for you, collecting the data andknowledge into one source from which you can gain enoughinsight to make you a successful trader on the open market.All you have to do is read in order to gain knowledge andwisdom, step by step that will bring you to a heady level ofsuccess. In this ebook, you will find all such helpfulinformation, all brought together in one single source forease of reference. 6
  7. 7. How Investment WorksAny time you are going to be putting your money into afund; it is a good idea to start by understanding what youare buying into. The stock market is a complicated entity,and doing minimal business in trading requires a fair amountof basic knowledge, as well as the understanding andacceptance of the high risk factor. The more you know inadvance regarding the functionality of the system, the lesslikely it is that you will take a heavy hit, ending indevastating loss.First of all and probably most important in the tradingbusiness, you should understand what stocks actually are.When you buy or sell a stock on the open market, youshould keep in mind that you are dealing with real objects,not pieces of paper; you are buying and selling real parts ofa particular company, its product, or some other variouscommodity.Owning a “share” means that you have actually bought intothe company or product involved and become a partialowner of that commodity. Of course, you could be one ofmillions of shareholders, as most companies and productsare broken into minute pieces of the whole, but you are stillconsidered an investor in that company or product until yousell your shares. 7
  8. 8. Think of it as paying for a tank of gas in the car that yourparents bought for you to drive. You may have even boughtthe oil filter that has been put on the car, and you may feelthat this investment makes you part owner. However, whenyou look at the overall cost of the car, you have reallycontributed very little to that amount. However, as long asyou continue to invest in the gas for the car and take care ofthe maintenance needs, you can claim part ownership of thecar.Because the value of a company and its products or servicescan fluctuate continuously, the value of the stocks you holdwill not be the same from day to day and can sometimeseven change hourly. When the price per share drops and isconsidered low, it is an ideal time to purchase. This is theleast expensive way to begin your trading venture, andworking with a stock broker will allow you to gain moreinformation as to what stocks are ripe for the purchase atany given time.In doing so, you become a stockholder, and the value ofyour holdings will fluctuate from day to day. Your gamble(and hope!) is that the value of the company or product inwhich you have invested will increase or rebound from thelow price at which you made your purchase. This is the goalof all traders and means that your stock will become morevaluable. 8
  9. 9. As the value of your securities increases, so does your networth. When the price of the stock in your possessionreaches a high point, it is time to sell, making a profit onyour original investment. Ideally, you will always sell yourholdings for a reasonably higher price than the purchaseamount and should never sell when the current value of thestock is below your initial purchase price. It is important tomake sure that you do not purposely take a net loss becausethere are plenty of occasions when you could be forced totake a loss.For example, if you purchase shares of a company at twentydollars each, you should never sell them for eighteen dollarsapiece. If possible, you want to hold off until they are eachworth perhaps forty dollars, in essence doubling yourmoney. Of course, this is just an example, and not allstocks will ever double in value, but the illustration ismeaningful.There are other, more complex ways to invest in the stockmarket. However, much like learning to ride a bicycle, youdo not want to make your first attempt without trainingwheels.Making Decisions In The BeginningLet us return to driving as a reference. When you first startdriving, you will not enter the highway and take the car at 9
  10. 10. speeds of sixty and seventy miles per hour. Instead, youwill stay in residential areas or at least on the access road,where there is less pressure to maintain such a high speed.In the stock market, you will also want to stay away fromany expensive stocks or extremely volatile investments untilyou have become extremely comfortable with the process oftrading.There are small investment opportunities referred to as“penny stocks”, which will help you try out your sea legs andget a feel for how the stock market works prior to investinglarge sums of money and risking a big financial loss. Theseparticular stocks cost literally pennies or small dollaramounts and typically only fluctuate fractions of a cent onany given day, making them extremely safe for those juststarting out.Once you get the hang of it and can better judge the markettrends, you can comfortably move on to more complicatedand adventurous areas of the market. It is like removingthe training wheels from your bicycle or entering thefreeway the first time at an hour of the day when there is notraffic to contend with.Be aware that, just like you may fall off your bike once ortwice and end up with some scrapes and bruises, you maylose money in an investment here and there. This is verytypical, and investing in the stock market is a lot like 10
  11. 11. gambling. In poker, you cannot expect to win every hand,and the same is true in the world of investments. Learningto watch the market trends, though, is similar to watchingother cars as you join traffic and determining the correctspeed and proximity to other cars for optimal safety. Suchdiligent study can help you improve your statistics drasticallyin a short time. 11
  12. 12. Chapter 2: Stock Market TrendsUnderstanding stock market trends can make your job ofearning money in the market much simpler. In contrast, ifyou know little or nothing about these trends can causeserious loss.Bulls And BearsAs you dig deeper into the market and learn more about theway it functions, you will begin to hear certain terms aboutmarketing trends that seem to be repeated over and overagain. Market trends are variable and volatile, both on adaily basis and over extended periods of time. In the past,for example, the United States has had devastating stockmarket crashes, but due to the freedom of a capitalistsociety, the American economy has always eventuallyrebound.What does it mean for the market or a particular stock torebound? Assuming that the value of a company or its stockhas plummeted to a level that seem unrecoverable, leavingit practically worthless, it may feel as though that companyis in danger of bankruptcy and falling off the scope of thefree trade markets altogether. All of a sudden, however, thefounder of that company may introduce a new product overwhich consumers go wild. Everyone wants one, and this 12
  13. 13. product may be in short supply upon its introduction,causing a race to the department store shelves.When such a move occurs, the law of supply and demandwill take over, making the company valuable once again.The stock price for that company’s shares will recover, andthe resulting gain in value would be considered a rebound –a return to the original status (or better) prior to thedevastating loss.The market trends either up or down, and there are specificreferences to strong changes in the market values that youmay frequently hear. If several different areas of themarket are in a steep downward slide, with values droppingrapidly (perhaps even ten or twenty percent in a few days),it is referred to as a bear market. You can remember thisreference as though you are in the extremely dangerousposition of being chased by a bear – if you are in possessionof several stocks or other commodities worth a goodly sum,you have a serious chance of losing a great deal of valuethat could translate to a loss of net worth should you chooseto sell, and it can be a similar, very dangerous situation.Your best bet in these cases is to either sell before pricesdrop below your original purchase price or to hold onto theshares until the market rebounds. However, when the bearmarket reaches a low point, it can be an ideal time to getinto the game, as it is rare for prices to drop below this 13
  14. 14. point. Then, if you patiently await the recovery or reboundof the market, you can make a great deal of money from abear market. These options will be discussed in more depthin later chapters.At the same time, a bull market is a strong general upwardtrend for many stocks. You might compare this to therunning of the bulls in Pamplona, Spain, every year. You aresafer if you are indoors when the running occurs, and by thesame token, if you own stock during a bull market, you arein a prime position to increase your net worth and sell yourshares, making a great deal of money. This is another ideawill be further explored in greater detail further on in thisebook.The Market OutlookBy taking note of various changes in the status of differentavailable stock options, you will learn how to spot earlymarket trends, giving you a clue to the future of a particularcommodity, and this can only add to your chances forprofitability. Prediction is a big part of the game whenworking in the stock market, since you can never becompletely certain in what direction the market will swing atany given time.However, you can make an educated guess, much the sameway a meteorologist forecasts the weather. While he or she 14
  15. 15. is not right 100% of the time, the forecast is usually quiteclose to the actual outcome of the weather because themeteorologist is a scientist who has studied weather trendsand can pick out details that assist in making that educatedguess. With a little time and seasoning, you can attain thesame level of experience and intuition within the stockmarket.Once you have become more comfortable functioning in thesame world as the stockbrokers and day traders, and youfeel confident (or at least less nervous or awkward) makingsuch important financial decisions, you may decide to makeyour move toward the Foreign Exchange Market (morecommonly known as Forex), and the goal of this book is toprepare you to operate within the boundaries of this morecomplex entity. Next, we will discuss some of the propertiesof Forex and how much more complex this stock marketentity can be than a standard domestic market.The Foreign Exchange Market is incredibly volatile, and thereare a lot more factors to consider when placing an order onthis market than on a domestic market. The followingchapter is an introduction to the exciting and somewhatscary world of the Foreign Exchange Market, or Forex. 15
  16. 16. Chapter 3: An Introduction to ForexForex is the nickname for the Foreign Exchange Market. Inthe United States, there are several branches of the stockmarket, each with their own name. For instance, somestocks trade on the Dow Jones, others on Nasdaq. Ofcourse, all stock market transactions in the United Statestake place on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). Inother countries the same is true. There may be one or moredistinct markets.However, international trade takes place on the markettermed the Foreign Exchange Market, or Forex. Severalcountries across the world in almost every time zoneparticipate in trade on Forex, with multiple currencies beingutilized and stocks and commodities from all participatingcountries being offered for trade. Because there are somany nations and time zones involved, Forex does notfunction as a “business day” entity like most domestic stockmarkets. It remains open for trade 24 hours a day, 5 days aweek.Of course, these additional hours increase the risk factorintensely for those of us who are human and obviouslycannot monitor our investments 24 hours a day. This meansthat the value of your holdings could potentially plummet 16
  17. 17. overnight, while you sleep, because other countries are stilltrading while you are in a dream world. Again, it is like acar – there are many moving pieces under the hood, andjust because you cannot see them does not mean they arenot functioning.This is one reason for several safety options, like limitorders, which we will discuss later. This is also why it isstrongly recommended that your first attempts to makemoney on the stock market are not transactions that takeplace within the Foreign Exchange Market but on a standardnine-to-five domestic trading market. In our car analogy,this would be comparable to having asked someone who hasnever driven or even changed the oil in a car to rebuild theengine.Forex FunctionalityWhile the functionality of Forex is the same as a domesticstock exchange, the commodities and prices are morevolatile, and there are additional factors to take intoconsiderations besides the typical risks associated with adomestic market. You will have to contend with not only thevalue of your stocks and your currency, but also the foreigncurrencies involved in any trades or exchanges on Forex, aswell as the inconsistencies of values of particular goods andservices across international borders. It is like driving a carwith a standard transmission as opposed to an automatic. 17
  18. 18. On the domestic front, the work is mostly done for you, andall you have to do is navigate, much like an automatictransmission. However, shifting gears is quite similar tohaving to constantly take part in the currency conversion. Itcan be distracting, and it certainly complicates the act ofdriving.Because the financial situation of many countries is not assecure as that of the United States, this can pose aformidable problem in determining where to invest yourmoney and what to expect next in the international market.Knowing what countries and currencies are involved in Forexcan assist you by allowing you to more closely monitor thefinancial situation in the nations with which you will beinteracting.The History Of ForexWhen foreign trade began, it was not an international trademarket. It was borne out of the Bretton Woods agreementin 1944, which set forth that foreign currencies would befixed against the dollar, which was valued at $35 per ounceof gold. This precedent was first put into practice in 1967,when a bank in Chicago refused to fund a loan to a professorin sterling pound. Of course, his intention was to sell thecurrency, which he felt was priced too high against thedollar, then buy it back later when the value had declined,turning a quick profit. 18
  19. 19. After 1971, when the dollar was no longer convertible togold and the domestic market was stronger, the BrettonWoods agreement was abandoned, and the currencyconversion process became more variable. This allowed fora stronger backing in the foreign markets, and the UnitedStates and Europe began a strong trade relationship. In the1980s, the market hours and usage was extended throughthe use of computers and technology to include the Asiantime zones as well. At this time, foreign exchange equaledabout $70 billion a day. Today, about twenty years later,the trade level has skyrocketed, with trade equaling close to$1.5 trillion daily.Originally, trading across international lines was moredifficult, with several different currencies involved acrossEurope. Though the major players in the European marketwere deeply involved in and veterans of international tradeby the time other markets joined in, there were morecurrencies to keep track of – the franc, the pound, the lira,and many more – than was reasonable. With the birth ofthe European Union in 1992, the wheels were set in motionto create a single currency that would be used across mostof Europe, and the Euro was finally established and put intocirculation in 1999.Forex Today 19
  20. 20. While some countries have still not accepted the currency astheir own (such as Britain, who still uses the sterling pound),the process of currency conversion has been simplifiedwithout the large number of various currencies that werepreviously dealt with. Instead of dozens of currencies, themain countries trade in five – U.S. dollars, Australian dollars,British pounds sterling, the Euro, and the Japanese Yen.Today, the Foreign Exchange Market is international andworldwide. The market is open 24 hours a day, 5 days aweek, to accommodate all of the time zones for all of themajor players. These now include most of Europe, theUnited States, and Asian markets, especially Japan. EvenAustralia has joined the international trading markets, andsince such nations are halfway around the world from someof the other top players, time zones obviously must be takeninto consideration.Another completely separate but perhaps more importantconcern with trading in Forex is understanding how tradeworks in multiple currencies. How can you compare thevalue of a stock across international lines if the values areexpressed in two separate, non-equivalent currencies? Andhow do you measure gains and losses when conversion rateis constantly changing? 20
  21. 21. Chapter 4: Understanding Currency ConversionWhen you begin trading on Forex, you have to learn how toconvert currencies and note the difference in values, as wellas how currencies are exchanged between internationallines. This means studying not only domestic market trendsand currency values, but also those of foreign markets.Working With Multiple CurrenciesSince Forex is the Foreign Exchange Market, you obviouslycannot expect everyone within the market to trade in U.S.dollars (and why not, you might ask? – but remember thatnot everyone covets the U.S. dollar). With so manyvariables and volatile currencies being exchanged, how canyou know a good buy or sell when you see one withoutcomplete awareness of the value of foreign currency?The first step is to find a source that will give you a basicidea of the current exchange rate between your domesticcurrency and the foreign currency in question. You shoulddo this as a base listing for any currency that with which youmight become involved. Of course, this will not beconsistent down to the cent or fraction of a particularcurrency throughout an entire business day, but at least you 21
  22. 22. will have your starting point from which to begin, almost likeNorth on a compass. Such sources can be found all over theInternet, as well as through many brokers, both on line andin person.Currency ExpressionIt is also good to understand the means be which thecurrency conversion is expressed. The comparison is usuallymade in a ratio known as the cross-rate. In thisconfiguration, the two currencies are listed in an XXX/YYYratio, with the XXX position referred to as the base currency.The base currency is usually expressed as a whole number,while the YYY position is expressed as the decimal that mostclosely matches the based currency rate. It is sort of likemaking reference to miles per gallon or rotations per minuteon a car – a direct comparison of one to the other in theform of a ratio.The smallest fraction, or decimal, in which a currency can betraded, is called a pip and this is usually the degree to whicha cross-rate is expressed. For example, if the British poundsterling can be traded in thousandths, the currency will beexpressed to the third decimal place. The U.S. dollar isoften expressed to the hundredth of a cent (the fourthdecimal place). 22
  23. 23. In one cross-rate expression example, one U.S. dollar maybe equivalent to 117.456 Japanese yen. This ratio would beexpressed as 1.000/117.456. The base currency is almostalways expressed as a single unit (as in one dollar asopposed to ten dollars), and frequently that unit ofmeasurement is the U.S. dollar. Since the whole numbervalue (or big figure, as it is referred to) of the secondarycurrency, or the currency in the YYY position in terms ofconversion changes so infrequently, often only the decimalportion of the number is mentioned in the Foreign ExchangeMarket.Therefore, in the ratio above, you may hear that the yen istrading at .456, with no mention at all of the 117 whole yenthat is shown in the ratio. This is because the exchange ratemay vary from 117.456 to 117.423, but not to 119.024.Experiencing a change in the big figure – the whole numberahead of the decimal – unless it was only because thenumber was already within a few thousandths, wouldrepresent much too large a shift in value for a single tradingperiod and would be a rare occurrence that could cause theentire market to make a drastic swing in one direction or theother.The most common currencies found in Forex are the U.S.dollar, the British pound sterling, the Euro, the Japaneseyen, and the Australian dollar. In the past, there wouldhave been many more currencies to keep track of (such as 23
  24. 24. the franc, the lira, or the Deutschmark). However, with theconsolidation of most of the European market trading onForex to the Euro, many currencies have been eliminated,making trade on Forex for other lands less complicated.If you purchase a commodity in a particular currency, andthat currency’s value falls against the U.S. dollar, you canactually make money by selling that same commodity indollars. The same is true in reverse should the value of aforeign currency increase against a U.S. dollar. Of course,you can only take advantage of such a situation should thecommodity be traded in both currencies and both markets inquestion. We will discuss this process, as well as other waysto take advantage of the Foreign Exchange Market (likearbitrage) in more depth in future chapters.Once you are able to discern a base value of each particularcurrency and its conversion rate against others traded onForex, you will be able to more closely monitor the change incurrency conversion, including its inconsistency andvolatility. Such ideas will not seem so “foreign”, and you willbe caught up and knowledgeable right along with the pros.Then, you will need to learn how to read, understand, andultimately interpret additional market trends.Forex Trending 24
  25. 25. Following charts, listening to the advice of market analystsand chartists, and learning to make educated predictionsyourself will help you keep track of various marketingtrends. The next chapter will explain more about using thestatistics that are published to forecast the next move onthe stock market. Will it be a clear, calm day with littleactivity, or is there a storm brewing with winds of changeand uncertainty? How can you tell what will happen withyour holdings the following day or even further into thefuture?Simply learning to read market trends can remove a lot ofnatural apprehension and uncertainty for beginning traders.In fact, sometimes the best first step to entering the marketis to watch shows about it or read the financial sections ofthe newspaper that detail the trends and expectedoutcomes. The following chapter will explain more abouthow to interpret the statistics and basic trends. 25
  26. 26. Chapter 5: Understanding StatisticsYou have now become somewhat familiar with how the stockmarket works, and you understand to a point what isinvolved in trading on the Foreign Exchange Market. Now,you would like to know how to gauge market trends in orderto profit from your business ventures on the open market.We are no longer discussing penny stocks and playgroundgames. You want the real goods.The name of the game is statistics, and the first rule is thatyou must be aware there is no such thing as a sure thing onthe stock market. While you can never be 100% sure at anygiven time of the next move that will be made on the marketas a whole, being able to read statistics and interpret themwill place you ahead of the pack in regards to “guessing”what will happen next.Investing is a lot like gambling. If you can keep track of thecards that have already been played, you are moreinformed, statistically, regarding what is likely to be dealtnext, meaning you can place abet with greater insight thansomeone who has no clue what has already been played.With the open market, if you have information as to whathas already occurred over the past few days, months, oreven years, you are again placed in a better position to 26
  27. 27. more logically conclude what will happen next. You simplylearn the pattern and follow it to the end, reaping thefinancial rewards.Charts And ChartistsWait, did you think you were going to have to research andmap out the market’s past all by yourself? Of course not!There are people who get paid to do that sort of work. Theymonitor the market hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, andyearly so that they can provide big-time traders with thesame knowledge mentioned before. The more aninvestment company knows about the market, the moremoney they can make. The same is true for stockbrokers.They make money when you make money, and they want todo the best they can to make sure that you make intelligentdecisions.The best part of this is that you have access to the sameinformation as these VIP clients. Chartists, who areessentially market analysts that publish their findings ineasy to read charts, produce what is referred to as acandlestick chart. These charts are basically a combinationof a line graph and a bar graph that show the trend ofvarious stocks, indexes, or other interests over a specifiedperiod of time. Therefore, you can easily determine if thecommodity is on an uptrend or if it is taking a downturn,when the last major change occurred, and how long it is 27
  28. 28. predicted that the stock or bond will continue on the currentpath.You can actually find information on most commodities andtheir market trends for years in the past, and some even allthe way back to their introduction to the open market.Using this information can help you decide whether it is agood idea to buy or sell the stocks or securities in which youhave interest, or if it is better to hold off for a peak in themarket trend.Understanding Market TrendsUnderstandably, as economies vary, the value of variouscommodities can change. This is because, when aneconomy is strong and flourishing, a nation is wealthier andhas more purchasing power. Along with that power comes ahigher value for the items purchased. In other words, ifpeople have more money to spend and are spending agreater amount of that money at Walmart stores, the valueof stock at Walmart is going to multiply at a considerablerate. Therefore, stockholders become wealthier in terms ofassets, simply because the shoppers are driving the marketwith their purchasing power. When stockholders arewealthy, and the value of their holdings is on the rise, theycontinue to purchase stock, which again, pumps theeconomy. A strong upward trend in the stock market is anexcellent sign for any economy. 28
  29. 29. However, there are also things that affect the market in anegative fashion, causing stock values to plummet. Forexample, warfare rarely has a positive effect on the stockmarket. On September 11, 2001, when terrorists attackedthe World Trade Center in New York City, the economy ofthe United States took a huge dive, and the nation wasthreatened with a depression. Some analysts were sure thatit would never properly recover. The same thing typicallyhappens any time there is an attack or act of war within anation. However, the critics proved to be wrong, and theUnited States proceeded to rebound, or recover from a baddowntrend, in a strong manner. This quick recoveryoccurred mostly because the people of the United Statescontinued to push and spend, forcing money and wealthback into the economy. In watching the reaction of thestock market, you can learn to read trends based on worldevents.Oil prices commonly affect the stock market, as well.Especially on the Foreign Exchange Market, you will findtrends vary depending on many current events. You willalso note that, over time, the principle value (or face value)of a currency may purposely be revised by a nation in termsof currency conversion. This is referred to as devaluation,which will be discussed in greater detail in the followingchapter. 29
  30. 30. Chapter 6: Forex Volatility and Market ExpectationVolatility, or the tendency for fluctuation that can affect yourearnings within the stock market, is typical within adomestic market but even more evident and much strongeron the Foreign Exchange Market. What factors affect thevalue of currency on Forex, and is there any way to controlthis?Devaluation And RevaluationAs mentioned in the previous chapter, devaluation refers tothe purposeful decline in value of a currency in relation toother currencies as charged by a government entity. Forexample, if the U. S. dollar is worth ten units of a foreigncurrency that is then devalued by ten percent, the U. S.dollar is now equivalent to only nine units of the foreigncurrency. This makes any items purchased in the foreigncurrency more expensive for those trading in U. S. dollars,as the exchange rate is lowered. It also makes items in theforeign country less expensive to trade in U. S. dollars.An opposite change in value can also occur, raising the valueof the foreign currency. This is referred to as revaluation.While it may seem that purposely adjusting the value of anation’s currency is “cheating”, or taking an unfair 30
  31. 31. advantage by making foreign products cheaper to purchaseand increasing the value of exports, there are regulations inplace to prevent the manipulation of exchange rates for suchpurposes. The charter of the IMF (International MonetaryFund) assists in prohibiting such occurrences and enforcingthe policy.There are ways in which you can take advantage ofdevaluation and revaluation, which will be discussed lateron. However, what happens when the value of a foreigncurrency changes due to market fluctuation rather thanpurposeful reductions or increases by a federal governmentor federal bank? What effect do appreciation anddepreciation have on the stock market?Appreciation And DepreciationDepreciation can be easily related to the life of a car. Assoon as you drive a new car off the lot, the value is almostcut in half. This is extreme depreciation. However, over thenext few years, the car continues to lose value at a moregradual pace. This is considered to be depreciation as well.Currency appreciation and depreciation are changes in thevalue of the currency that are driven by market forces ratherthan by government mandate. For example, in an attemptto repay certain loans, in 1998 the Central Bank of Russiaannounced the coming devaluation of the ruble. The 31
  32. 32. exchange rate, which was currently six rubles per U.S.dollar, would over a period of time change to 9.5 rubles perdollar, effectively a depreciation of 34%.However, prior to the change, there was a widespread panicwithin the former Communist nation, and the value of theruble dropped due to many people in Russia opting to tradein their securities prior to maturity. In a single day,following the announcement, the Russian ruble wasdepreciated by an amazing 25%.The same sort of crisis occurred in the 1920’s with the crashof the U.S. stock market. In that time, a nationwide panicset in, and people rushed to the banks to withdraw cash thatwas not available or to trade in securities and stock optionsthat were not matured. In running to the bank, peopleactually caused the crash rather than escaped it.On the flip side of the coin, too fast of an appreciation setsup a country for inflation, or an increase in the retail value ofproducts sold to the public based on currency valuation.While inflation is bound to occur, it can be minimallytempered through the use of the currency valuation.Appreciation can be related to a vehicle as well. Often, menenjoy taking old cars and restoring them to their originalbeauty. In doing so; they drastically increase the value ofthe vehicle or appreciate it. 32
  33. 33. The ever changing rates of currency conversion and volatilityof the market create an inherent market risk, or a day today potential to experience loss due to fluctuation insecurities prices. There is no way to diversify this type ofrisk, as it is always going to affect investment to a certaindegree. However, some risk can be offset by particulartypes of investments or ways of investing that are moresecure or protected.We will take a look at long and short positions, short selling,stop orders, and other ways to protect your investmentsfrom drastic loss in additional chapters. These optionsinclude the ability to preset your purchase or sell price for aspecific commodity, as well as using various predetermineorder levels to place orders and complete transactions.Of course, do not delude yourself into thinking that you canrid yourself of all possible risk factors on the market. Thereis always a cloud hanging over your head waiting to burst,and all it takes is one little pinprick. You must alwaysexercise caution, though the idea of playing the stockmarket entails danger and excitement inherently. The nextchapter will help you get a grasp on reality and what isinvolved in balancing your risk factor with a grounding inreality; your ego with your id. 33
  34. 34. Chapter 7: Aspects Of The TradeYou are now versed in the functionality of the stock marketand have decided that you are willing to accept the riskfactors involved. However, you want to know everythingyou can about balancing that risk with intelligent investmentoptions. How can you be sure that the risks you take aremore likely to be rewarding in the long run than destructive?Long and ShortOne of the most important parts of making money on thestock market is to determine your position. The longposition is basically the purchasing position – you are aboutto take on a long-term commitment for ownership of somestock, security, or other traded commodity. The shortposition, by contrast, is the selling position – you are shortlygoing to dispose of the same sort of ownership and anyresponsibility toward it.The best time to take up the long position is when stockprices are low. This will get you into the market at areasonable price and increase your chances for profitabilityas new offerings go up in price and older investment optionsrecover or rebound. In fact, as others take the long positionand purchase at the same time you do, this will actuallydrive the value of securities up through the standard rule of 34
  35. 35. supply and demand, causing the beginning of what could bea bull market.You may equate this with the end of the month at a cardealership. The prices tend to drop on any cars left on thelot for sale, and the dealer is more often willing to bargainbecause he or she wants less inventory on the lot. Likewise,when stock prices are low, some will panic and dump all oftheir holdings at these low prices, thinking that their shareswill never recover the value. This can only be of assistanceto you.When prices are high, it is likely time to turn around and sellyour shares to bring in a profit, not losing anything onunrealized gain (profit that cannot be counted in liquidassets or cash because it is still invested in a volatile stockoption). You should never sell for a price that is below yourcost, as this brings negative equity and loss of funds. Youshould always sell for the greatest amount of profit that youfeel is safe.In other words, if you buy a security at fifteen dollars pershare, and it quickly rises to twenty-five dollars per share,you may very well feel that it could hit thirty dollars pershare within a week. However, you must determine if youare willing to risk losing your already secured earnings of tendollars per share to wait that long, should the price actuallyfall, so you may decide to sell at the current high price. 35
  36. 36. Market-Makers And Selling ShortWhat if the stock values are up incredibly high, but you didnot get in on that particular commodity and own no shares?Your first step should be to visit a market-maker or to makea deal with a broker for a short sell. A market-maker isliterally a stockbroker who purchases keeps a certainamount of shares of several securities or stocks on hand,which are purchased during a time when the market ratesare low.The firm will then turn around and sell those shares to anindividual at that low price, regardless of the market rate, ineffect making its own market (thus the name). Theindividual who purchases from the firm can immediately sellthe commodities on the open market at market rate (whichis higher), making an incredible amount of profit in a shortperiod of time.A short sell is another option for a quick profit. In thisscenario, you will borrow a particular number of shares froma stockbroker to sell when the market value is high. Yourjob is to then wait for the stock price to go down, purchasethe same quantity of stock, and return the holdings to thebroker, keeping the profit from the sale, minus the brokerfees. 36
  37. 37. The way that a car dealer works with trade-ins is verysimilar. They will purchase the car from you at a very lowprice, then turn around and sell it on the lot for a high profitmargin.One of the most positive aspects of a short sell is that younever actually take possession of the stock, meaning thatyou are never in a position to lose money. Because youhave sold shares for a high price, you have already profited,and in the worst-case scenario, the particular stocks will notdrop in price. Rather than return the stocks to the brokerfrom whom they were borrowed, you can simply pay backthe amount for which they were originally purchased, alongwith the premium.How can you be sure that you will not overshoot the bestprice options or miss a good rate because you areunavailable to place a buy order or sell order with yourbroker? Is there a way to set limits on your trades? Next,we will discuss ways to protect your investments and limityour risk factors. 37
  38. 38. Chapter 8: Risk ManagementOne of the most important aspects of protecting yourinvestments is balancing your risks with reassurances.There are several ways to do this, and we will discuss thosein this chapter.Limit Orders And Balancing RisksA limit order is a standing amount at which you have agreedto buy or sell a particular security or other commodity. Forinstance, you have designated to your stockbroker that youwill not sell X Security until its value reaches a minimumvalue of Y dollars. At the same time, you will not purchasethe same X Security if it exceeds a value of Z. Setting limitsfor the price you pay for a particular security, as well as theprice you will accept to sell it, protects you and yourinvestment in several ways.First of all, you are maximizing your gains, but mostly, youare avoiding loss. Any loss that occurs with limit orders willalways be unrealized loss, or a loss that is not measurable inliquid assets or cash. In other words, until you sell the stockand reap the net loss, it will not affect your net worth. Sinceyou have set a limit that does not allow your commodities tobe sold for less than the original cost, you cannot possiblyhave a loss in your net worth. At the same time, you are 38
  39. 39. also assuring at least a certain amount of profit by settingyour sell point high enough to reap that particular profit.Another way to protect your assets is to hedge. This meansthat you create and sell a futures contract stating that, whenyour shares reach a certain value in the future, you will sellyour holdings at this predetermined price. When that priceis reached, the order will be processed and the transactioncompleted. Of course, if you ever change your mind about alimit that you have set, you can place a stop order with yourbroker, which designates that you no longer wish to trade atthe specified dollar amount.You can also buy on margin. This is very similar to shortselling, but instead of borrowing stocks to sell, you areessentially borrowing money to purchase stocks on your ownwhen the market value is down. Then, when the value ofthe securities you have purchased rises and you are able tosell for a profit, you repay the loan and keep the excessfrom the sell, minus the broker fees. Of course, all dealingswith a stockbroker incur a premium, or fee for servicesrendered, and it is nearly impossible to trade without abroker or broker service. However, online services are oftenless expensive than live agents, but you can research todetermine what your best option is.How Do I Handle a Whipsaw? 39
  40. 40. No, we are not referring to anything in the garage, thebedroom, or a country band. A whipsaw is market trendthat defies the odds. It can be thought of as the “fenderbender”. Despite how careful you are as you learn to drive acar and become coordinated, sometimes you cannot doanything to avoid being rear-ended.Whipsaw is a term for what happens when everything pointstoward a specific direction in market trend, causing you tobuy (if it looks as though prices are going to rise) or sell (if itseems they are about to fall), then the opposite effectoccurs.For example, if you purchase a security at five dollars pershare because the stock seems to have fallen as far as it cango and appears to be starting an upward trend, thenunexpectedly, the stock plummets to one dollar per share,this is considered a whipsaw effect. If this happens to you,as it surely will if you play the market long enough, the bestthing to do is wait it out. The stock will do one of two things– it will either dissolve entirely, and the company will gobankrupt (this is what you do not want to happen), or it willrebound, and you can opt to wait for a chance to turn aprofit or you can get out as soon as the purchase rate isreached.Whipsaws are not the end of the world, and no one canexpect to gain with every stock market purchase. However, 40
  41. 41. if you find that you are involved in several of theseinstances, you should seriously reconsider your investmentoptions. You may be reading the signs incorrectly, or youcould be picking bad stocks. You should seek advice for anyfuture investments you expect to make prior to purchasingany further stocks or securities.Another way to overturn a bad investment like this is toproceed with an offset transaction – a purchase or sell thatoffsets the loss of a previous transaction. You could eitherpurchase additional stock in the same company at the lowerprice if you expect it to recover, or you can opt for anotherhot commodity that is about to explode in price, either ofwhich will help you offset your loss. You could also sellshares of a security in which you have a large amount ofunrealized gain – gain that cannot be measured in liquidassets or cash due to increase in value of stock and securityholdings – in order to replace the lost cash value.All of these are viable options to recover a loss, but waitingfor the share value to rebound is always the first choice. Itavoids the loss of funds already invested, retains the optionto pursue profit, and reduces the risk of further investmentinto the market.As you grow and learn about these various options, you willneed to feel more comfortable when surrounded by financialgurus and geeks who speak what sounds like gibberish, 41
  42. 42. muttering words you have never heard left and right. Thefollowing chapter will take you through some of themeanings of the major “buzz” words used in the stockmarket and the international financial district. 42
  43. 43. Chapter 9: Buzz WordsNow that you know a little more about the stock market,and you have decided to try your hand at investment, youshould be more concerned with understanding the jargonyou will hear on the trading room floor. Although youprobably will not find yourself amid a group of screamingstockbrokers on Wall Street (and these days, most of thetrading is done by computer anyway), knowing that learningto talk the talk is part of walking the walk.Margins, Spreads, And Other CondimentsOkay, so it is margins, not margarines, but it sounds verysimilar. In order to understand the stock market, especiallyon Forex, you need to speak not a language meant forcommon communication, but the language of trade. Forinstance, when you think of a margin, for many this means avariable – like the “margin of error” in a statistic.However, in trade, it refers to the sum of money borrowedfrom a broker in order to purchase stocks when the marketis on a downtrend. Then, when the value begins its nextupswing, you sell the stock at the higher price, pay back themargin (along with the premium accrued), and retain theprofit. 43
  44. 44. When you buy on margin, the money lent by the stockbrokeris referred to as a margin account. The margin account isprovisional based on the value of the stock. Occasionally, ifthe value of the stocks purchased should drop too low forthe safety margin set forth by the broker, the agent willrequest that more money be deposited into the marginaccount to make up for loss. This is referred to as a margincall.In some trades, the market value does not come into play.For instance, a forward trade is set up between twoindividuals or two companies outside the open market. Itinvolves a process of negotiation and an eventualcompromise in price. There is usually a bid made – the offerto buy a commodity at a certain price – and an asking priceor offer – the price for which the other business entity iswilling to sell the securities or other holdings. The differencebetween these two purchase numbers is referred to as thespread.If the spread cannot be narrowed and eventually closed, nodeal can be made. This agreed-upon price is called theforward price, and all details involved in the trade processwhen this type of transaction takes place are detailed in acontract and referred to as forward points. Usually, theforward price is outlined as available for a particular date,and should the transaction not be completed on this date 44
  45. 45. (referred to as the transaction date), then the trade must berenegotiated.Jobbers, Yards, And Other “Brit” TermsOne of the major foreign markets that Americans trading onForex will encounter is that of the British. While severalother terms relating to the stock market will be similarbecause of the common language, there are some specificterms that are very different in the British tradingvocabulary.For example, in the United States, stockbrokers who holdonto securities purchased at low prices for the purpose ofselling them to clients in a higher priced market (so that theclient can turn around and resell them for the profit on theopen market) are called market-makers. However, inBritain, this type of investor is simply referred to as a“jobber”.Another term you will want to be familiar with is “yard”.This does not refer to a green patch of land, a measurementin inches, or even 36 of something. The term is used inreference to quantity of currency rather than value and isequivalent to one million units of the currency in question.In other words, you can have a yard of dollars or a yard ofyen, and though it is the same quantity of bills, coins, or 45
  46. 46. whatever physical currency is used, it is not necessarilyequivalent in value.In Britain, they do not use the Euro, and they do not use theU.S. dollar. They have chosen to still use the poundsterling, a currency that has been used in the country forhundreds of years. However, Britain is currently on a pathto make the conversion to the Euro within the next fiveyears.Open And ShutIn the stock market, there are various types of orders thatcan be placed to help protect you from making a badinvestment or to limit the amount you pay for a certainsecurity or other commodity. For instance, if you havemade a bad investment and do not want to reinvest in aparticular security, you should sell all shares of that stock,regardless of taking on a small loss. This action is referredto as closing a position. On the contrary, if you are doingwell with your investment, you might participate in arollover, simply reinvesting any earnings in additional sharesof the stock or security.An open order is exactly what it sounds like, meaning thatthe order remains pending until it is either executed by yourstockbroker or canceled by you as the client. A stop orderwould cancel any pending orders you have placed with your 46
  47. 47. stockbroker. You also have options like One Cancels theOther Orders. These allow you to have interest in severalcommodities, leaving orders with your stockbroker to buy allof them, should they drop to a certain price. Then, shouldone of those reach this preset low price, your stockbrokerwill follow your direction and invest your money in thatparticular security, followed by a cancellation of all additionalorders.When a broker gives you an estimate on the price for aparticular stock or commodity, it is considered a quote. Aquote is never completely accurate and is usually referred toas a spot price, as the value of a security can change withina few seconds. However, it is as close to accurate as can beexpected. When you put in an order, the broker thenprocesses the fill, or completion, of that order. The actualvalue at which the trade is completed is called the fill price.The completion of a trade or purchase, referred to as asettlement, can also be called the execution of a transactionor realization of an order. As you see, there are a lot ofterms to take into consideration, and we have not evenbegun to consider terms used in some of the tougher areasof the market.Next, we will consider some specialized, more complextrading options that you can use on Forex to take advantageof the volatility of the market and the constantly varyingexchange rates. 47
  48. 48. Chapter 10: Expert Trading OptionsAfter spending a lot of time buying and trading on bothdomestic and foreign markets, you will find that the processbecomes easier and almost intuitive. You no longer have towork so hard to determine currency conversion or find thenext big explosive commodity. It will be like second naturefor you.What, then, becomes the next big challenge for someonetrading on the open market? What keeps things frombecoming monotonous and boring? First of all, there isalways something new and different happening on theForeign Exchange Market. Remember, it operates 24 hoursa day, and you never know what you will find when youwake up in the morning. However, there are various waysthat you can take advantage of the variance in currencyconversion and a lag in time between markets that canaffect trading values.ArbitrageThere are some commodities that are traded in multiplecurrencies on multiple markets on Forex. Althoughcomputers have made worldwide communication almostlightning fast these days, all of these markets can trade 48
  49. 49. together with fairly equivalent values for the securitiesshared across currencies.However, the system is not perfect, and the value may riseor fall in one country and currency prior to the same changein value reaching across another border. Seasoned tradershave learned to take advantage of this lag in the markettrending by using a process called arbitrage. In thistransaction, you purchase the particular stock or security onthe market with the lower price while simultaneously sellingthe same in a market where the value is higher. Theprocess is a bit complex, so we will use an example. Let’ssay that one U.S. dollar is equivalent to .5 British pounds,meaning that everything is going to be twice as expensive inBritish pounds.Now, let’s take a look at the price of a stock that is tradedon both markets. If they were equivalent, then the stockwould trade for two dollars in the United States and onepound in Britain. However, if something happens and thestock value drops in Britain, it is six hours ahead of theUnited States, and this drop may not hit the Americanmarket immediately.If the value of the stock drops in Britain to .8 pounds, thepurchase price is now below that of the price in dollars dueto the currency conversion. In this case, arbitrage wouldtake place when you bought shares of the stock in on the 49
  50. 50. British market in pounds and sold it on the U.S. market indollars, benefiting by the slow communication of the fall invalue of the stock. In effect, you will make $.40 per stock.Volatility of Currency ConversionAnother way to take advantage of the ever-shifting value ofeach individual currency is to trade based on the changingrates. What exactly does this involve? You must closelywatch the changing conversion rates. When a currencyconversion rate changes drastically, it is time to make amove. This is very similar to arbitrage, but the area is muchriskier due to high volatility. For instance, if you havepurchased a stock in the scenario above on the U.S. marketfor two dollars a share, and suddenly the British pound gainsvalue, dropping to a conversion of only half a pound forevery two dollars, you would want to sell your shares on theBritish market because the value of a pound is higher andnow has greater purchasing power.One piece of advice to keep in mind, though, is that it is bestto immediately dispose of all liquid assets in foreigncurrency, usually in the same day. This is referred to astomorrow next because it takes two to three business daysfor foreign currency to be delivered, and by exchanging thecurrency for value in stocks on the same business day, youavoid having to take delivery of the currency altogether. 50
  51. 51. Chapter 11: Other Trading OptionsBesides the expert options described above, there are othernontraditional ways to make money on the stock market. Inconsidering these options, however, you should considermaking a career of trading stocks and securities. Sometypes of trading are simply not for the faint of heart, andthat means you must have complete motivation and anadventurous spirit to take part in these areas of the market.The chances of taking a giant hit and experiencing a greatloss are multiplied.Day TradingDay traders take on some of the greatest market risk of all.Because day traders work with investments that changedrastically within hours, they are by nature playing in thelion’s den. These stocks are extremely volatile, and formost, day trading is a quick way to lose a great deal ofmoney. It is difficult to make a great deal of cash in thismanner, and it is even more difficult to forecast the outcomeof these day trade stock options. You cannot be certain ofthe overnight position (the net value at which a stockbrokeror day trader will open the following morning). 51
  52. 52. And in Forex, there is little room for day trading, as themarket never shuts down during the workweek. In thesecases, the day trader has to set a time limit for him- orherself to get out, selling all shares, so that he or she cansleep soundly while the world spins round and start the nextday fresh.Day trading is very dangerous and is not recommended tonewcomers. In fact, it is not really recommended at all, andmost people who partake of this volatile part of the industryare extremely seasoned in trading on the open market, donot consider the risk factors carefully enough prior toentering this branch of the market, or have enough moneythat they simply wish to try this form of investment and donot care if they lose a goodly sum.Secondary MarketsSecondary markets are interesting in that they are createdby the government to help redistribute money that is usedfor loans. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac are two of the majorcorporations from which stocks are purchased on asecondary market.Here is how it works. When a person purchases a home, heor she requests a loan from the bank, usually for abouteighty percent of the cost of the house. This is granted, and 52
  53. 53. the house is purchased by the bank for the individual orfamily, who begins to pay off the loan to the bank.Meanwhile, to assure that money is available at that bankfor the next person who needs a mortgage loan, Fannie Maeor Freddie Mac, two entities originally established by theUnited States government, will purchase the loan from thebank. Therefore, the money is returned to the bank for usein the future.What do these agencies then do with the deficit they haveacquired? They sell it. On the secondary market, theybreak up the loan into shares that are backed by themortgage itself and sell those shares, recovering the moneyfrom investors. Eventually, those securities mature,probably about the same time that the original loan is paidoff to the bank, and the investors reap the benefits of theirinvestment with the interest earned.Another way to take advantage of a volatile internationalstock market is to make a swap. This is the exchange ofsecurities or bonds in order to take advantage of lowerinterest rates. For example, if a business entity in Britain isin possession of one security, and another in Japan is inpossession of a different security, the two commodities maybe beneficially traded or sold to each other in order to saveon the interest rates, if the currently held bond or security iskept at a lower interest rate in the opposing market. 53
  54. 54. For example, let’s say one business is in possession of abond “A” that is paying out only two percent interest in itscurrent market, and another is holding bonds “B” in itsmarket at three percent interest. If bond A is actuallypaying out three percent on the foreign market, and bond Bcan be cashed in for four percent on the first market, bothparties can make more money on a trade of bonds. Theycan mutually benefit from a sale of the securities to eachother due to a gain of more interest.If that seems confusing, then perhaps a swap is not in yournear future. This is more often processed betweenbusinesses on the foreign market rather than individualparties, though with the correct broker, it could beaccomplished. However, should you work the deal, youneed know little except that you are looking at a higherprofit margin than previously, and your broker will take careof the rest.If you determine that you should have stock options as abusiness, you will probably decide to hire a fulltimeconsultant for all your financial needs, including the handlingof your share holdings. In fact, when businesses are largeenough and present a strong enough trading presence withinthe market, especially on Forex, you will find that there areentire departments dedicated to maintenance on the stockoptions. 54
  55. 55. Chapter 12: In ReviewAfter shoveling through piles of information and taking in somuch knowledge, you probably feel like you are swimming interminology and cannot remember just where to begin. Thebest way to retain knowledge is through repetition, andhaving a quick reference guide is never a bad idea, either.The following pages are a brief overview of the in depthdiscussions in this book, allowing you to quickly reference atopic in a bind.The Basic TradeA share is a holding of a company that varies in value basedon the desire or need for that particular company’s goods orservices. As a shareholder, your net worth increases anddecreases based on taking a short position (selling) whenvalues are high and a long position (buying) when prices arelow. As long as the stock or security is in your possession,the change in value is considered unrealized gain or lossbecause you cannot measure it in liquid assets (cash).When most commodities traded on the market are on astrong upward trend for a period of time, this is referred toas a bull market. Should value take a sharp downwardswing and continue on that path, it is called a bear market. 55
  56. 56. If no such trend is recognized, and the value of stocks andsecurities is fairly even, this is referred to as flat.The Foreign Exchange MarketThe Foreign Exchange Market is the stock exchange onwhich several different countries across several differenttime zones trade their domestic and internationalcommodities in various currencies. Currency is thedenomination or monetary division used in a particular land(such as the U.S. dollar or the Euro). When multiplecurrencies are in use, they are typically expressed as a ratiocalled a cross-rate that shows the amount of a secondcurrency that is equivalent to the first listed. Determiningwhat the equivalent is would be referred to as currencyconversion.Several countries in Europe, which have now consolidatedtheir currencies to agree on the Euro (since 1999) trade onForex, as it is called for short. Britain, which to this pointhas opted to continue using the pound sterling, also takespart in international trade, as well as the United States,Japan, and Australia. Each of these countries utilizes its owncurrency for standard trading purposes, with options forinvestment in foreign currencies. Determining whether ornot this is worthwhile depends on the currency conversionrate. 56
  57. 57. The value of a nation’s currency is determined by itsgovernment and federal bank (the Federal Reserve, betterknown as the FED, is the federal bank of the United States).Purposeful change in the rate of conversion by a governmentis referred to as valuation – devaluation is taking value andstrength from the currency, and revaluation adds strengthand purchase power to the currency. If the same change tothe rate of conversion occurs naturally through events andthe volatility of the market, it is then called appreciation anddepreciation.Careers In The MarketWithout the assistance of professionals, it is nearlyimpossible to trade on the open market. Market analyststrack trends in the stock market that affect the value ofshare holdings. They use such information and basic historyto help predict the outcome of different aspects of themarket in the future.Other individuals, referred to as chartists, create charts andgraphs that interpret all the data – various numbers,statistics, percentages, etc – into an easy to read candlestickchart that tracks the trends of specific commodities on themarket.A stockbroker is an individual or a company that assists youin making your investments. A broker can aid you in 57
  58. 58. making smart financial decisions, helping you track your andplace your orders, and following trends in the market.A market-maker does the same job as a stockbroker, withthe exception that this individual or company retains aninvestment in a particular variety of securities and bondsthat can be sold in short order to a client for a lower price sothat the client can make money by immediately selling thesame shares at the higher market price.Other individuals can assist with loans, allowing you to buyon margin. This involves the opposite approach – borrowingmoney to purchase a stock or security that is at a lowmarket value so that the client can later resell thecommodity at a higher price.Protecting Your InvestmentsThere are several ways to protect your investments. Byplacing limit orders, you guarantee to the best of your abilitythat you will not lose money on the market and virtuallyguarantee at least a minimal profit. However, if you changeyour mind about those limits, you can always place a stoporder. If you leave standing instructions with yourstockbroker, these are referred to as open orders thatremain such until the transaction is executed and the orderfilled. 58
  59. 59. Try to set your limit orders just above the support levels(the lowest levels of value to which a stock can drop) andjust below the level of resistance (the upper level abovewhich it is difficult for the value of a stock to rise).Also, set a value date – a date at which time you can takean average of the value of a particular commodity andreview your options. This should be reviewed at least everysix months, if you plan to retain any holdings of a particularsecurity. 59
  60. 60. Chapter 13: One Final OptionWhile “Chapter 13” is not an appropriate way to end afinancial endeavor, it is, in this case, one of the mostimportant conclusions to an incredibly helpful tool full ofinvestment advice, especially when it is placed at the end ofa book to offer assistance to those threatened withbankruptcy due to bad investment decisions. There arealways ways to turn around when you have begun to walkdown the wrong path. Much like moving on to a new carafter purchasing a lemon that has been nothing but anightmare, you can reverse your direction.Some people can spend days, months, and even yearstrying to conquer the stock market and still fail. In somecases, it is virtually impossible for an individual to ever getthe hang of the functionality of the market. If you cannotfollow market trends, then it is best that you do not makeany investment decisions.It is okay not to fit into the market. At the same time, youcan still make money with investments. One final optionyou have is to create a discretionary account. This meansthat you sign a contract with your stockbroker and turn overa sum of money to the agent for investment, leaving thedetermination of placement of that investment in the handsof your agent. You never again have to worry that you havemade a bad investment. In fact, in this scenario, you do not 60
  61. 61. even have to follow any market trends or other informationthat has anything to do with financial investment. Yourbroker will simply let you know when you have increasedyour net worth or if your assets have taken a dive.Whatever choices you make in regards to moving in on thestock market, you need not worry about not having theessential information to help you get through your first fewtrading experiences. Now, you have the basic knowledgeand the essential reference guide to get you started on thepath to success and wealth that you can access at any giventime. You’ve read all there is to know about Forex Trading, right? Doyou know of the system the Legendary Forex trader, Jess Palmer, usesto make $1,000 EVERY DAY? New to trading, or a veteran who’s beenin the trenches for years, everybody agrees Forex Trend Wave is thesystem that WORKS. Are you ready to take on the market? Click thelink and experience the Wave for yourself. 61