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  • 1. PREPARATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF APPLE PICKLE A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED FOR PARTIAL FULFILLMENT TOWARDS MASTER’S DEGREE IN FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TO THE UNIVERSITY OF JAMMU JAMMU (2011) BY Pallvi Dhotra Roll No. 0006-FSC-09POST GRADUATE DEPARTMENT OF FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GCW, GANDHI NAGAR, JAMMU UNIVERSITY OF JAMMU JAMMU – 180006(J&K)
  • 2. CERTIFICATE-IThis is to certify that project work entitled “Preparation andStandardization of Apple Pickle” submitted by Pallvi Dhotra (Roll No.0006-FSC-09) in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for theDegree Maters of Science (Food Science and Technology) is a bonafideresearch work carried out under my supervision. The result of theinvestigation reported in the report has not been submitted for any otherdegree or diploma in any university/institute. The assistance and the helpreceived during the course of investigation have been dulyacknowledged.(Guide) (Co-Guide)Dr. Anuradha Gandotra Mrs. ShalluPost graduate Deptt. Of Post graduate Deptt. OfFood Science & Technology Food Science & TechnologyGovt. College for Women Govt. College for WomenGandhi Nagar, Jammu Gandhi Nagar, Jammu i
  • 3. CERTIFICATE-IIThis is to certify that project report entitled “Preparation andStandardization of Apple Pickle” submitted by Pallvi Dhotra (Roll No.0006-FSC-09) in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for theDegree Masters of Science (Food Science and Technology) has beenapproved by the committee after the discussion.Guide External ExaminerDr. Anuradha GandotraHead of the DepartmentDr. Anuradha GandotraPost graduate Deptt. OfFood Science & TechnologyGovt. College for WomenGandhi Nagar, Jammu. ii
  • 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe task of completing the project needs co-operation and guidance of prominentpersons in the subject line.It is matter of great honour for me to express my gratefulness to my Guide Dr.Anuradha Gandotra and Co-guide Miss. Shallu for all guidance, constantencouragement during the course of this work and preparation of this projectreport. Without their cooperation, criticism, judicious guidance and keen interest,the execution of the project would not have been possibleI am grateful to the Head of the department of Food Science and Technology,Govt. College for Women, Gandhi Nagar, Jammu for extending all the facilities atmy disposal.I would like to thanks all the members of Food Science and TechnologyDepartment and Lab Assistants who helped me in making this project successfuland complete it in time.I would also like to thank my friends and my family who were always there for mewhenever I needed them. Pallvi Dhotra iii
  • 5. TABLE OF CONTENTSS.NO CONTENTS PAGE NO. CHAPTERS 1. INTRODUCTION 1-7 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 8-11 3. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY 12-29 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION 30-34 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 35-36 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY 37-40 iv
  • 6. LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLESS.NO TITLE PAGE NO. FIGURES I. FLOW SHEET FOR THE PRE 24 TREATMENT OF APPLES II. FLOW SHEET FOR THE 25 PREPARATION OF APPLE PICKLE TABLES I. STANDARDIZATION OF RECIPE FOR 23 APPLE PICKLE PER 500 GRAMS II. RESULT OF SENSORY ANALYSIS: 30 APPEARANCEIII. RESULT OF SENSORY ANALYSIS: 31 FLAVOURIV. RESULT OF SENSORY ANALYSIS: 32 TEXTUREV. RESULT OF SENSORY ANALYSIS: 33 OVERALL ACCEPTABILITYVI. RESULT OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 34 v
  • 7. ANNEXURE S.NO TITLE PAGE NO. I. SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE 41 NUMERICAL SCORING TEST II. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF APPLES 42 III. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FENUGREEK 43 IV. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF TURMERIC 44 V. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BLACK 45 PEPPER VI. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CUMIN 46VII. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FENNEL 47VIII. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF RED CHILLI 48 IX. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BROWN 49 MUSTARD SEEDS X. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NIGELLA 50 SEEDS vi
  • 8. CHAPTER - 1
  • 9. INTRODUCTION Fruits are among the perishable commodities, but are animportant source of nutrients in the human dietaries. Due to their highnutritive value they make significant nutritional contribution to humanwell being. Fruits in the daily diet have been strongly associated withreduced risk of some form of cancer, heart disease, stroke and otherchronic diseases. Fruits form an essential daily supplement since the early times,providing nutritionally valuable components. They are source of anumber of essential vitamins and minerals that cannot be found in theother foods or they may contain higher levels of these nutrients thanother foods. The most significant contribution that fruits make to ourdiet is by adding vitamins to the diet, because they are a rich source ofβ- carotene, vitamin B3, vitamin B6 and vitamin E. Fruits have highwater content and also contains minerals like sodium, potassium, ironand other elements in small amounts. That is the reason why mostfruits can be eaten without any undesirable effect on health. Fruits contain organic acids in the form of acid salts of calcium,potassium and sodium. These acids are oxidized in the body and leave abasic residue in the blood. For this reason, fruits assist in maintainingthe acid-base balance of the blood. These acids include citric acid,found in citrus fruits, cherries and strawberries; malic acid found in
  • 10. apples, berries, cherries and some citrus fruits; oxalic acid in manyfruits. Like vegetables, fruits also contain dietary fiber, which our bodyneeds to cleanse and rid itself of refuse and toxins. The dietary fiber isalso needed to keep bowel movements regular, lower cholesterol levels,prevents constipation, bowel cancer and other illness of the bowel andintestine such as diverticulosis. Apart from being rich in vitamins and minerals, fruits containantioxidants that protect cells by neutralizing free radicals. Fruits alsocontain phytochemicals and unsaturated fatty acids. Fruits are not onlya good food but also a good medicine. Since ages, scientists and horticulturists have been explaining theuse of several fruits for the betterment of mankind. India is the thirdlargest producer of fruits in the world with an annual production of 33million tones, which is 8 per cent of world’s production. India producesalmost all tropical and exotic fruits because of the varied climaticconditions. Most fruits are seasonal crops and perishable in nature. In agood season there may be a local glut, but because of insufficienttransport facilities, lack of good roads and poor availability of packagingmaterials, the surplus cannot be taken quickly to the nearby markets inurban areas. Moreover the surplus cannot be stored for sale in the off-seasons because of inadequate local cold storage facilities. Thisabundance of production is not fully utilized and about 20-30 per centof the produce gets wasted. To avoid these surplus losses, fruits areprocessed in various products and are preserved.
  • 11. One such method for the preservation of fruits is the pickling,which is one of the ancient methods. Pickling is the lactic acidfermentation of fruits, which combines salting of fruits to selectivelycontrol the microorganisms and fermentation process to stabilize thetreated fruit. Lactic acid fermentation is carried out by lactic acidforming bacteria, which are generally present in large numbers on thesurface of fresh fruits. These bacteria can grow in acidic medium and inthe presence of 8-10 per cent salt, whereas the majority of theundesirable microorganisms are inhibited in such conditions. Lacticacid bacteria are most active at 30°C, so this temperature should bemaintained as far as possible in the early stages of the pickle making.Lactic acid fermentation has been associated with the therapeuticvalues besides the antimicrobial activity imparted to fermented fruitsdue to the production of various antimicrobial compounds. Duringpickling process, the salt makes brine solution and the soluble materialslike fermentable sugars and minerals diffuse out of the tissues of thefruits. The sugars serve as food for lactic acid bacteria which convertsthem into lactic acid and other acids. Apart from contributing certaindesirable flavour characteristics to the fruits, pickling also prolongs theavailability period of the produce by processing at a relatively low cost. Pickles are the products obtained as a result of the picklingprocess. Pickles are good appetizers and add to the palatability of ameal. Pickles are not the main meal itself but used with the main mealor some course to increase the pleasure of eating. They stimulate the
  • 12. flow of gastric juices and thus help in digestion. Pickles are preparedwith salt, vinegar, oil or with a mixture of salt, vinegar, oil and spices.Pickles are commonly made in homes as well as commerciallymanufactured and exported. India has a large variety of picklescommonly known as ‘achar’ in Hindi. Mango pickle is very well knownin Indian market and relished by all, but there are some fruits which arehighly nutritious and yet there pickle is not available in the market, onesuch fruit is ‘Apple’. Apples are the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree (Malusdomestica) in the family Rosaceae. Apples are low in calories; 100 g offresh fruit slices provide only 50 calories. They contain no saturated fatsor cholesterol; but are rich in dietary fiber which helps to preventabsorption of dietary LDL cholesterol in the gut. The dietary fibers alsohelp to protect the mucous membrane of the colon from exposure totoxic substances by binding the cancer causing chemicals in the colon.Apple fruit contains good quantities of vitamin C and β- carotene.Vitamin C is a powerful natural antioxidant. Consumption of foods richin vitamin C helps to develop body resistance against infectious agentsand scavenge harmful, pro-inflammatory free radicals from the body.Apples are rich in antioxidant, phytonutrients, flavonoids andpolyphenols. The important flavonoids in apples are quercetin,epicatechin, and procyanidin. The total measured antioxidant strengthof 100 g apple fruit is 5900 TE.
  • 13. Apples are also good in tartaric acid that gives tart flavour. Applefruit is a good source of B-complex vitamins such as riboflavin, thiaminand pyridoxine. Together these vitamins help as co-factors for enzymesin metabolism as well as in various synthetic functions inside the body.Apple also contains small amount of minerals like potassium,phosphorus and calcium. Potassium is an important component of celland body fluids and helps in controlling heart rate and blood pressure;thus counters the bad influences of sodium. Apple occupies around 40 per cent of total area under fruit andaccounts for 90 per cent of the total production of fruits in Jammu &Kashmir. The area under apple cultivation accounts for 87,000 hectareswith an annual production of 9.29 lakh metric tons (2009-10). But dueto unavailability of adequate packaging and processing facilities in thestate, 30 per cent of the total fruit produced gets wasted. Also,inadequate marketing facility and lack of investment and integration inthe marketing chain and value addition in the supply chain isnegligible. This leads to a huge wastage of the crop in a good season.To avoid the losses due to wastage of apples, the apple fruit can beconverted to a value added product by the pickling process. Apple pickle can be prepared by the use of various spices likefenugreek, cumin, turmeric, fennel, black pepper, rai powder, red chillipowder, salt and mustard oil. For preparation of apple pickle, the applepieces are given a pre treatment prior to pickling to stop the browningprocess. Keeping in view the nutritive value and health benefits
  • 14. provided by apple fruits, pickle prepared from apples will have a goodnutritional and medicinal value.
  • 15. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES• To prepare and standardize the recipe for apple pickle.• To study the physico-chemical characteristics of the final product.• To check the acceptability of the product.
  • 16. CHAPTER – 2
  • 17. REVIEW OF LITERATUREA review of previous study on the health benefits of apples, fenugreekseeds, turmeric, black pepper, nigella seeds, cumin seeds, fennel seedsand red chilli has been done and is compiled as under:Chipault et al. (1952) made a systematic study on antioxidant contentof red chilli. The antioxidant content was found by super critical fluidextraction of red chillies.Kurti (1969) showed that flavonoids called phloridzin found only inapples protects postmenopausal women from osteoporosis and alsoincreases bone density.Agrawhal (1979) showed that nigella seed oil increases the milk outputof breast feeding mothers.Amplis (1981) conducted a research on the cholesterol loweringproperties of apples. In his research he found that apples had pusheddown the blood cholesterol of the patients by 30%. The applesmanipulated the blood so that good HDL cholesterol went up and thedestructive LDL cholesterol went down. He suspected that pectin- asoluble fiber contained in apples caused the reduction in the bloodcholesterol of patients.
  • 18. Sharma, Raghuram and Rao (1990) studied the effect of fenugreek seedson blood glucose and serum lipids in type I diabetes patients. Theirstudy showed that diabetic patients when given fenugreek seeds in dietshowed a reduction in fasting blood sugar test and an improved glucosetolerance test.Chakravarty (1993) conducted a study to see the possibility ofcrystalline nigella seeds being an inhibitory agent on histamine. Dr.Chakravartys study found that the crystalline nigellone present innigella seeds inhibits protein kinase C, a substance known to trigger therelease of histamine. In addition, his study showed that crystallinenigellone decreased the uptake of calcium in mast cells, which alsoinhibits histamine release.Alexandrovich et al. (2003) studied the effect of fennel seed oilemulsion in infantile colic. Their study showed that fennel seed oil hasbeen shown to reduce intestinal spasms and increase motility of thesmall intestine.Egan et al. (2004) reported that curcumin; a major constituent ofturmeric corrects a cystic fibrosis defect which is caused by themutation in gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator.Amin et al. (2005) showed in their studies that fenugreek seeds havechemopreventive action against breast cancer. This was the first studythat suggested the chemopreventive effects of fenugreek seeds againstbreast cancer.
  • 19. Lui (2005) concluded eating apples “may be an effective strategy forcancer protection”. His studies also suggest that apples can preventlung, prostate, pancreatic and other digestive cancers.Veeriah et al. (2006) reported that apple flavonoids inhibited coloncancer cell growth and significantly modulated expression of genesrelated to xenobiotic metabolism.Hsu and Cheng (2007) studied the therapeutic benefits of cumin. Theyconcluded from their study that cumin has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anticancerous effects on the human body.Zhang (2008) showed that quercetin found in apples prevents lungdamage in smokers. His findings were especially interesting becausetobacco smoking is the major risk factor for lung cancer. He suggestedthat the naturally occurring chemicals may be working to reducethe damage caused by smoking.Carroll et al. (2009) reported that curcumin present in turmeric shows ameans of reducing breast cancer risk among women undergoinghormone replacement therapy during menopause.Masoumi et al. (2009) reported that curcumin may help to protectagainst Alzheimers disease. In the study nine Alzheimers patients and
  • 20. four people without the disease, investigators determined that acombination of curcumin and vitamin D may prompt the immunesystem to clear the brain of amyloid β (a substance that forms the brainplaques associated with Alzheimers disease).Keith (2010) studied the health benefits of black pepper. His studyprovides evidence that black pepper may have health benefits,particularly in enhancing digestive tract function. There is suggestiveevidence that piperine, which is present in black pepper may havebeneficial effects on nervous system.
  • 21. CHAPTER – 3
  • 22. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY3.1 MATERIALS3.1.1 APPLEBotanical name: - Malus domesticaVernacular name: - Seb Apple fruit is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree. Apple is oneof the most ubiquitous foods in the annals of mankind. The healthbenefits of apples are because of the presence of phytonutrients namedquercetin, epicatechin and procyanidin, as well as the vitamins and ,minerals. Phytonutrients found in apples protects the brain from hytonutrients appldiseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease Quercetin is a disease.natural anti-inflammatory and anti-allergen. Epicatechin and other inflammatorycatechins reduce plaque build-up in the arteries. Procyanidin is educe build upbelieved to be beneficial in the prevention of heart disease anddiabetes. Apples contain both soluble and insoluble fiber which aids indigestion and weight loss. Apples are considered a low-glycemic food lowand therefore do not cause a rapid rise in blood sugar. Apples contain bloodnatural fibrous chemical called pectin, which limits the amount of fat
  • 23. absorbed by body cells and is good for cleansing the liver. Apple ingreduces the risk of obesity, diabetes, unhealthy cholesterol levels, heartdisease, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, hemorrhoids, orydiverticulitis and many other disorders of the intestinal tract.3.1.2 FENUGREEKBotanical name: - Trigonella foenumgraecumVernacular name: - Methi Dana Fenugreek is an annual herb native toMediterranean and Western Asia. Fenugreekseed whole or powdered is used as a spice in pickles in India. Fenugreekseeds have been found to contain protein, vitamin C, niacin andpotassium. Non-starch polysaccharides which constitute fiber content starch whichof the fenugreek include saponins, hemicelluloses, mucilage, tanninsand pectin. These compounds help lower blood LDL-cholesterol. They . LDL cholesterol.also bind to toxins in the food and help to protect the colon mucusmembrane from cancers causing toxins. In addition, fiber in the seedshelp to lower the rate of glucose absorption in the intestines thuscontrols blood sugar levels. In India and China fenugreek has been used to treat arthritis,asthma, bronchitis, improve digestion, maintain a healthy metabolism,
  • 24. cure skin problems, treat sore throat, and cure acid reflux. Fenugreek throat,seed contains phytonutrients, which gives fenugreek seeds medicinalproperties. Fenugreek seed helps to lower the blood glucose and enugreekcholesterol levels.3.1.3 TURMERICBotanical name: - Curcuma longaVernacular name: - Haldi Turmeric is a perennial shrub andis also extremely popular as a foodadditive (spice). It has been used inAsian cookery for thousands of years. Turmeric has long been used as apowerful anti-inflammatory in both the Chinese and Indian systems of inflammatorymedicine. The medicinal properties of turmeric are attributed tophytochemicals known as curcuminoids. Additional health benefits ofturmeric include antibacterial and antifungal properties. The health benefits of Turmeric have been recognized by Chineseand Ayurvedic medicine for hundreds of years. It has been used to treat ediceveryday problems such as indigestion and flatulence, as well as moreserious problems such as arthritis, Alzheimers disease, cancer, Alzheimers
  • 25. diabetes, high cholesterol, pyrosis, jaundice, liver disor , disorders, andmenstrual disorders. Turmeric can also be applied topically to reduceinflammation and to relieve wounds, cuts, and bruises. It is very richsource of many essential vitamins such as pyridoxine choline, niacin pyridoxine,and riboflavin that are essential for optimum health. Turmeric contains fvery good levels of vitamin C, which is a powerful natural anti antioxidantand helps the body to develop immunity against infectious agents,helps to fight type-1 diabetes and remove harmful free oxygen radicals 1from the body.3.1.4 BLACK PEPPERBotanical name: - Piper nigrumVernacular name: - Kali mirch Black pepper is the fruit of the blackpepper plant from the Piperaceae family andis used as a spice and also as a medicine. It is native to the southernstate of India, Kerala. From ancient times, black pepp is one of the . peppermost widely traded spices in the world. It is not seasonal and is,therefore available throughout the year. Because of its antibacterialproperties, pepper is also used to preserve food. It is a source of iron,
  • 26. potassium, manganese, vitamin C, vitamin K and dietary fiber. Black ,pepper is a very good anti-inflammatory agent. anti Black pepper increases the hydrochloric acid secretion in stomachand thus, helps in digestion of food. Proper digestion is essential to .avoid diarrhoea and constipation. In Ayurveda, pepper is added intonics for cold and cough. Pepper gives relief from sinusitis and nasalcongestion. The antibacterial property of black pepper helps to fightagainst infections, insect bites etc. Black pepper also helps avoid lackgangrene. It is also good in hernia, hoarseness and insect bites. It . bitesrelieves joint pain. It is used to treat tooth decay and toothache. In t toothacheancient times, pepper was also used to treat eye problems problems.3.1.5 CUMINBotanical name: - Cuminum cyminumVernacular name: - Zeera Cumin belongs to family Apiaceae andis extensively used in culinary in IndianSubcontinent and some other Asian, African and Latin Americancountries, as a condiment or spice. Cumin seeds are rich in iron and arethought to stimulate the secretion of enzymes from the pancreas which
  • 27. can absorb nutrients into the system. It has also been shown to boostthe power of the livers ability to detoxify the human body Cumin body.seeds are an excellent source of dietary fiber. Its seeds contain manyhealth benefiting essential oils such as cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde), pyrazines, 2-methoxy-3-sec-butylpyrazi propylbenzaldehyde), butylpyrazine, 2-ethoxy-3-isopropylpyrazine, and 2-methoxy 3-methylpyrazine. isopropylpyrazine, 2 methylpyrazine. Cumin is extremely good for digestion related problems. Cumin isa carminative i.e. relieves from gas troubles and thereby improvesdigestion and appetite. Cumin is very rich in iron and can be a appetitenutritious additive to daily diet for anemic people. It also contains very vegood amounts of B-complex vitamins such as thiamin, vitamin B6, complexniacin, riboflavin, and other vital antioxidant vitamins like vitamin E, iboflavin, antioxidantvitamin A and vitamin C.3.1.6 FENNELBotanical name: - Foeniculum vulgreVernacular name: - SaunfFennel is widely used around the worldin mouth fresheners, toothpastes, desserts, antacids and in culinary.Fennel has many health benefiting nutrients, antioxidants, dietary fiber, alth antioxidants,
  • 28. minerals like manganese, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ironselenium, zinc and cop copper and vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin E, itaminvitamin B- complex and vitamin C. Fennel seeds contain numerousflavonoids like kaempferol and quercetin. Fennel stimulates secretion .of digestive and gastric juices, reduces inflammation of stomach andintestines and facilitates proper absorption of nutrients from the food.It also has anti acidic (basic) properties and is extensively used inantacid preparations. It is an appetizer too. Fennel is most popular asan anti flatulent, due to the carminative properties of Aspartic acidfound in fennel. Fennel has a diuretic effect and helps to reduceproblems of water retention.3.1.7 RED CHILLI POWDERBotanical name: - Capsicum annumVernacular name: - Lal mirch Red chilli powder is the ground, dried fruit of one or morevarieties of red chilli pepper Red chillies have vitamin C and Vitamin A, i pepper. eswhich are powerful antioxidant. These antioxidants destroy free radical antioxidant.present in the body. Usually, these free radicals may travel in the body .and cause huge amounts of damage to cells. These free radicals coulddamage nerve and blood vessel in diabetes. The antioxidants present in
  • 29. the red chilli wipe out the free radicals that could build up cholesterolcausing major heart diseases. It also dilates airway of lungs which reduces asthma andwheezing. Red chillies act as detoxifiers as they remove waste productsfrom our body and increases supply nutrients to the tissues. It also acts increasesas gastrointestinal detoxicants helping in digestion of food. Red chilliesact as antioxidant; they bring fresh blood to the site of the infection.The fresh blood fights infection. The white blood cells and leukocytespresent in the fresh blood fights viruses.3.1.8 SALTChemical name: - Sodium ChlorideVernacular name: - Namak Salt is also known as table salt. It iscomposed primarily of Sodium Chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound ,belonging to the larger class of ionic salts. It is essential for animal life .in small quantities, but is harmful to animals and plants in excess. Saltis one of the oldest, most ubiquitous food seasonings and salting is an ubiquitousimportant method of food preservation. The taste of salt (saltiness) isone of the basic human tastes. tastes
  • 30. Salt regulates the texture, mouthfeel and juiciness of a product. Itis a well known class I preservative and fulfils a critical anti preservative antimicrobialfunction in the modern hurdle technologies. In pickles, it makes brinesolution for the diffusion of fermentable sugars.3.1.9 BROWN MUSTARD SEEDSBotanical name: - Brassica junceaVernacular name: - Rai Brown mustard seeds are seeds ofmustard plant, Brassica juncea whichbelongs to family Brassicaceae The plant are Brassicaceae.native to sub- Himalayan plains of NorthernIndia It is commonly known as rai in India and is used in powder formin many food preparations like pickles, chutney and salad dressings etc.It has a pungent flavour and gives sourness to the pickles. Brownmustard seeds are an excellent source of essential B-complex vitamins complex vitamins,vitamin A, vitamin K and minerals like calcium, iron, copper,magnesium and manganese manganese.
  • 31. 3.1.10 NIGELLA SEEDSBotanical name: - Nigella sativaVernacular name: - Kalonji Nigella seeds are small black seeds grown on bushes of plantNigella sativa, which are grown widely through India. Nigella ,seeds have a pungent bitter taste and smell. Nigella seeds are used asboth flavouring, added to a variety of traditional foods, and as an herbalremedy for a variety of ailments. Nigella seeds are known to have manyhealing properties including migraine, chronic colds, palpitations,alopecia, asthma, bee stings, paralysis, amnesia, skin disorders, ear-acheand respiratory diseases. They are a source of poly unsaturated fattyacids and help to regulate metabolism, balance insulin levels, regulates gulatecholesterol, improve blood circulation and promote healthy liverfunctions. It is a strong anti oxidant and helps to cleanse the bodytoxins.3.1.11 MUSTARD OIL Mustard oil is obtained from the seeds ofmustard plant Brassica nigira Mustard oil is nigira.considered to be oil that has low saturated fats as
  • 32. compared to other cooking oil. It basically consists of fatty acids namelyoleic acid, erucic acid and linoleic acid. It has an antioxidant andcholesterol reducing properties. Mustard oil serves as an all roundertonic for the health. This tones up all the systems in the body, boostsup immunity and also gives strength. The warmth feeling of mustard oilmakes it a cordial. This warms up the internal systems like respiratorysystem and safeguards it from accumulation and formation of phlegm.The oil acts as an appetizer and boosts up hunger. Mustard oil also hasantimicrobial properties. Mustard oil may afford some protectionagainst cardiovascular diseases.
  • 33. 3.2 METHODOLOGY TABLE –I STANDARADIZED RECIPE FOR THE PREPARATION OF APPLE PICKLE PER 500 g S.No INGREDIENTS AMOUNT % 1. Apple pieces (dried) 250g 50% 2. Mustard oil 160ml 32% 3. Salt 40g 8% 4. Fenugreek powder 10g 2% 5. Rai powder 10g 2% 6. Turmeric powder 7.5g 1.5% 7. Red chilli powder 5g 1% 8. Black pepper powder 5g 1% 9. Cumin powder 5g 1% 10. Fennel powder 5g 1% 11. Nigella seeds 2.5g 0.5%
  • 34. FIGURE- IFLOWSHEET FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF APPLES Selection of apples Washing Cutting Blanching at 60° C for 2 minutes Immersion in 2% KMS solution for 30 minutes Draining Sun drying for 2 days Dried apple pieces
  • 35. FIGURE- IIFLOWSHEET FOR THE PREPARATION OF APPLE PICKLE Heating of oil Cooling of oil Mixing of spices in a little of oil Mixing spiced oil with apple pieces Filling in jar Add remaining oil Keep jar in sun for a week Storage
  • 36. METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF APPLE PICKLE• Select fresh apples from the market.• Wash them thoroughly to remove adhering dust and foreign materials.• Cut the apples into equal sized pieces.• Blanch the apple pieces for 2 minutes at 60°C.• Immerse the blanched apples pieces in 2% KMS solution for 30 minutes to prevent browning.• Keep the treated apple pieces in sun for 2 days for drying.• Heat the measured quantity of mustard oil and cool it.• Mix the weighed amount of spices in the little of previously heated and cooled mustard oil.• Mix the spiced oil with apple pieces.• Fill the apple pieces along with spiced oil in a sterilized glass jar.• Add the remaining oil and keep the jar in sun for 7 days.• Store Apple pickle at ambient temperature.
  • 37. APPLE PICKLEIngredients: Apple pieces (dried), mustard oil, salt, fenugreek powder,rai powder, turmeric powder, red chilli powder, black pepper powder,cumin powder, fennel powder and nigella seeds. Manufactured by: Pallvi Dhotra Manufacturing date: 23rd April, 2011.
  • 38. APPLE PICKLE
  • 39. SENSORY ANALYSIS The coded sample of apple pickle is subjected to sensoryevaluation by a panel of 10 judges. The product has been evaluated afterthe period of one month, for appearance, flavour, texture and overallacceptability. The evaluation is carried out by Numerical Scoring Test.The sample questionnaire was given to panelists and were asked to givescore directly ranging from 30 to 90 for each quality parameter. Forsample questionnaire refer Annexure-I. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSISi) pH: pH was determined by using a digital type pH meter.ii) Titrable acidity: Titrable acidity was determined by titrating the sample against0.1N Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) solution using phenolphthalein as anindicator. The formula used for calculating titrable acidity is:% acidity= V x N x W x 100
  • 40. W1 x 1000Where,V- Titrable volumeN- Normality of NaOHW- Equivalent weight of NaOHW1- Weight of the sampleiii) Moisture content: The moisture content was determined using oven drying method.The hot air oven was set at 105°C and the sample was dried until itattained constant weight. The formula used for calculating moisturecontent is given below:% M.C= [(W1-W2)/ (W1-W)] X 100Where,W- Weight of empty petriplate in gms.W1- Weight of petriplate with sample before drying in gms.W2- Weight of petriplate with sample after drying in gms.iv) Total ash content:
  • 41. Ash content was determined by placing the 5 gms of sample inmuffle furnance maintained at 550°C for 5-8 hours. The formula usedfor calculating ash content is given belowAsh (%) = Weight of Ash x 100 Weight of Sample = W3-W1 x 100 W2-W1Where,W1- Weight of empty crucible in gms.W2- Weight of crucible with sample in gms.W3- Weight of crucible with ash in gms.
  • 42. CHAPTER – 4
  • 43. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSThe results of the study were interpreted under two main division i.e.sensory analysis and physico-chemical analysis.4.1) SENSORY ANALYSIS: TABLE-II QUALITY PARAMETER- APPEARANCE JUDGES SAMPLE SCORE 1 90 2 90 3 90 4 90 5 90 6 90 7 90 8 90 9 90 10 90 TOTAL 900 AVERAGE 90By referring Table-II of sensory analysis for quality parameter- appearance, ithas been found that the sample code 628 i.e. Apple Pickle gets an averagescore of 90 which lies in the range of excellent. Therefore, it has beenconcluded that sample has an excellent appearance.
  • 44. TABLE-III QUALITY PARAMETER-FLAVOUR JUDGES SAMPLE SCORE 1 90 2 90 3 90 4 80 5 90 6 90 7 90 8 90 9 80 10 90 TOTAL 880 AVERAGE 88By referring Table-III of sensory analysis for quality parameter- flavour,it has been found that the sample code 628 i.e. Apple Pickle gets anaverage score of 88 which lies in the range of excellent. Therefore, it hasbeen concluded that sample has an excellent flavour.
  • 45. TABLE-IV QUALITY PARAMETER- TEXTURE JUDGES SAMPLE SCORE 1 90 2 80 3 90 4 80 5 80 6 90 7 90 8 90 9 80 10 90 TOTAL 860 AVERAGE 86By referring Table-IV of sensory analysis for quality parameter- texture,it has been found that the sample code 628 i.e. Apple Pickle gets anaverage score of 88 which lies in the range of excellent. Therefore, it hasbeen concluded that sample has an excellent texture.
  • 46. TABLE-V QUALITY PARAMETER- OVERALL ACCEPTABILITY JUDGES SAMPLE SCORE 1 90 2 90 3 90 4 90 5 90 6 90 7 90 8 80 9 90 10 90 TOTAL 890 AVERAGE 89By referring Table-V of sensory analysis for quality parameter- overallacceptability, it has been found that the sample code 628 i.e. ApplePickle gets an average score of 88 which lies in the range of excellent.Therefore, it has been concluded that sample had an excellent overallacceptability.
  • 47. 4.2) PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS:4.2.1) Physical analysis: -The pH of the sample was determined using adigital type pH meter and has been found to be 4.0.4.2.2) Chemical analysis: - TABLE-VI RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS PARAMETERS PERCENTAGE Titrable acidity 0.6% Moisture content 59.7% Total ash content 1.22%By referring to Table- VI of chemical analysis, it has been found that thesample has titrable acidity equal to 0.6%, moisture content equal to59.7% and ash content equal to 1.22%.
  • 48. CHAPTER – 5
  • 49. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The project deals with the ‘Preparation and Standardization ofApple Pickle’. The ‘Apple Pickle’ is prepared by giving apple pieces apreliminary treatment before making it into a pickle. The preliminarytreatment of apples is carried out. This is done by blanching the applepieces for 2 minutes at 60° C and then immersing the pieces into 2%KMS solution for 30 minutes. The treated apple pieces are sun dried for2 days. The dried apple pieces are then mixed with mustard oil and thespices. The product is filled in a sterilized glass jar, and stored for thecompletion of pickling process. The product has been subjected to sensory evaluation by a panelof 10 judges using numerical scoring test. The product has beenevaluated for appearance, flavour, texture and overall acceptability andis found to be excellent. Physico- chemical tests have been conducted for thedetermination of the pH, titrable acidity, moisture content and totalash content. The pH has been found to be 4.0, titrable acidity has been
  • 50. 0.6%, moisture content was calculated to be 59.7% and total ashcontent has been calculated to be 1.22%. Apple pickle is prepared by the lactic acid fermentation of theapple fruit. Apple pickle is a nutritious product because it gives thehealth benefits of apples as well as the spices added to it. It is a goodsource of carbohydrates, fiber, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Applepickle can be stored for more than 6 months without any noticeablechange in texture and flavour. Hence, it is concluded that Apple pickleis a product with excellent keeping quality and good nutritive value.
  • 51. CHAPTER – 6
  • 52. BIBLIOGRAPHY• Sivasankar, B. (2002). Vitamins and minerals, Vegetables and Fruits (2nd ed.), Prentice- Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., p: 83, 84, 272-277• Jongen, W.M.F. (2005). Health Benefits of Increased fruit and vegetable consumption, Antioxidants in Apples, Fruit and vegetable processing: improving quality (2nd ed.), Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington, p: 6-11, 34.• Lal, G., Siddappa, G.S. and Tandon, G.L. (1998). Pickles, Preservation of fruits and vegetables (2nd ed.), Indian council of agricultural research, New Delhi, p: 260• Manay, S. and Shadaksharaawamy, M. (1997). Fruits, Oils and fats in foods, Spices, Food processing and preservation, Food Facts and Principles (2nd ed.), New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, p: 188, 317-331, 496.• McWilliams, M. (2001). Phytochemicals, Foods Experimental Perspective (4th ed.), Prentice- Hall, New Jersey, p: 4-5, 193, 382-384.• Mudambi, R.S. and Rajagopal, C. (2001). Dietary Fiber, Fundamentals of Foods and Nutrition, (4th ed.), New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, p: 49-55.• Potter, N.N. and Hotchkiss, H.J. (1996). Harvesting and Processing of Fruits, Food Science (5th ed.), CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, p: 424.
  • 53. • Pruthi, J.S. (1998). Spices and Condiments (5th ed.), Director National Book Trust, India, p: 66-67, 109-116, 127-195, 147-151, 174-177, 189- 190, 198-200.• Rosa, L.A., Alvarez- Parrilla, E. and González- Aguilar, G. (2010). The contribution of Fruits and Vegetables to human health, Phenolic Compounds and Dietary Fiber & Associated antioxidants in fruits, Fruit and vegetable phytochemicals: chemistry, nutritional value, and stability (1st ed.), Blackwell Publishers, Iowa, p: 5-16, 54-72, 223- 231.• Sri lakshmi, B. (1997). Fruits and Spices, Food Science (3rd ed.), New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, p: 200-210, 242-250• Srivastava, R.P. and Kumar, S. (2002). Fermentation, Fruits and Vegetables Dehydration and Pickles, Fruits and vegetable preservation- Principles and practices (3rd ed.), International Book Distributing Co., Lucknow, p: 148, 235-248.• Subbulakshmi, G. and Udipi, S.A. (2001). Processing and Preservation of Fruits, Food Processing and Preservation (1st ed.), New Age International Publishers, New Delhi, p: 123.• Tamang, J.P. (1998). Role of Microorganisms in Traditional Fermented Foods, Journal of Indian Food Industry.17 (3): 162-167.WEBSITES CITED:
  • 54. • http://www.archive.org/stream/studiesonapplesi00bigerich#page/6/ mode/2up• http://www.foodreference.com/html/artapples2.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/artapples.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/a-apple-season.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/artcardamom.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/artfennel.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/a-fennel-sp-angels.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/artfenugreek.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/a-sneeze-pepper.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/a-red-pep-101207.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/a-saltofearth-1.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/a-saltofearth-2.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/a239-turmeric-pickles.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/art-turmeric.html• http://www.foodreference.com/html/articles-l-m.html• http://wcbd.hypermart.net/applecrest/health1.html• http://www.drgranny.com/food-nutrition/health-benefits-of- mustard-oil/• http://www.oldthingsforgotten.com/peppers.htm• http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12868253• http://healthfood-guide.com/HealthBenefitsOfApples.aspx• http://www.whole-food-supplements-guide.com/health-benefits-of- apples.html
  • 55. • http://www.juicer-recipes-for-energy.com/health-benefits-of- apples.html• http://www.vegrecipes4u.com/health-benefits-of-apples.html• http://www.natural-remedies-review.com/health-benefits-of- apples.html• http://www.riverdalegastro.com/sable.html• http://www.nigella-sativa-seeds.com/scientific-analysis.html• http://www.helium.com/knowledge/263456-what-are-the-health- benefits-of-nigella-sativa• http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1097- 0010(199803)76:3%3C404::AID-JSFA964%3E3.0.CO;2-L/abstract• http://www.kalonji-oil.com/kalonji-seeds.html• http://www.nigellaseeds.com• http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/apple-fruit.html• http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/turmeric.html• http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/black_pepper.html• http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/fennel-seed.html• http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/cumin.html• http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/fenugreek-seeds.html• http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/mustard-seeds.html
  • 56. ANNEXURE
  • 57. ANNEXURE- I SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE FOR NUMERICAL SCORING TESTName: Date: Product: Rate the sample according to the following description SCORE QUALITY DESCRIPTION 90 Excellent 70 Very Good 50 Good 30 Fair QUALITY PARAMETER SAMPLE CODE (924) Appearance Flavour Texture Overall acceptabilityComments: SIGNATURE
  • 58. ANNEXURE- II NUTRITIVE VALUE OF APPLES PER 100 GRAM NUTRIENTS AMOUNT Energy 54Kcal Moisture 83.5gCarbohydrates 13.81 g Protein 0.26 g Total Fat 0.17 g Cholesterol 0 mg Dietary Fiber 2.40g Vitamins Niacin 0.091 mgPantothenic acid 0.061 mg Pyridoxine 0.041 mg Riboflavin 0.026 mg Thiamin 0.017 mg Vitamin A 54 IU Vitamin C 4.6 mg Vitamin E 0.18 mg Vitamin K 2.2 mcg Electrolytes
  • 59. Sodium 1 mg Potassium 107 mg Minerals Calcium 6 mg Iron 0.12 mg Magnesium 5 mg Phosphorus 11 mg Zinc 0.04 mg Phyto-nutrients ß -Carotene 27 mcg Crypto-xanthin-ß 11 mcg Lutein-zeaxanthin 29 mcgSOURCE: http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/apple-fruit.html
  • 60. ANNEXURE- IIINUTRITIVE VALUE OF FENUGREEK SEEDS PER 100 GRAM NUTRIENTS AMOUNT Energy 323 Kcal Carbohydrates 58.35 g Protein 23 g Fat 6.41 g Cholesterol 0 mg Dietary Fiber 24.6 g Vitamins Folates 57 mcg Niacin 1.640 mg Pyridoxine 0.600 mg Riboflavin 0.366 mg Thiamin 0.322 mg Vitamin A 60 IU Vitamin C 3 mg Electrolytes Sodium 67 mg Potassium 770 mg Minerals
  • 61. Calcium 176 mg Copper 1.110 mg Iron 33.53 mg Magnesium 191 mg Manganese 1.228 mg Phosphorus 296 mg Selenium 6.3 mcg Zinc 2.50 mcgSOURCE: http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/fenugreek-seeds.html
  • 62. ANNEXURE- IVNUTRITIVE VALUE OF TURMERIC PER 100 GRAMNUTRIENTS AMOUNT Energy 354 KcalCarbohydrates 64.9 g Protein 7.83 g Fat 9.88 g Cholesterol 0 mgDietary Fiber 21 g Vitamins Folates 39 mcg Niacin 5.140 mg Pyridoxine 1.80 mg Riboflavin 0.233 mg Vitamin A 0IU Vitamin C 25.9 mg Vitamin E 3.10 mg Vitamin K 13.4 mcg Electrolytes Sodium 38 mg Potassium 2525 mg
  • 63. Minerals Calcium 183 mg Copper 603 mcg Iron 41.42 mg Magnesium 193 mg Manganese 7.83 mg Zinc 4.35 mgSOURCE: http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/turmeric.html
  • 64. ANNEXURE- VNUTRITIVE VALUE OF BLACK PEPPER PER 100 GRAM NUTRIENTS AMOUNT Energy 255 Kcal Carbohydrates 64.81g Protein 10.95 g Fat 3.26g Dietary Fiber 26.5 g Vitamins Choline 11.3 mg Folic acid 10 mcg Niacin 1.142 mg Pyridoxine 0.340 mg Riboflavin 0.240 mg Thiamin 0.109 mg Vitamin A 299 IU Vitamin C 21 mg Vitamin E 4.56 mg Vitamin K 163.7 mcg Electrolytes Sodium 44 mg
  • 65. Potassium 1259 mg Minerals Calcium 437 mg Copper 1.127 mg Iron 28.86 mg Magnesium 194 mg Manganese 5.625 mg Phosphorus 173 mg Zinc 1.42 mg Phyto-nutrients Β- Carotene 156 mcg Lycopene 6 mcgSOURCE: http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/black_pepper.html
  • 66. ANNEXURE- VI NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CUMIN PER 100 GRAMNUTRIENTS AMOUNT Energy 375 KcalCarbohydrates 44.24 g Protein 17.8 g Fat 22.27g Cholesterol 0 mgDietary Fiber 10.5g Vitamins Folates 10 mcg Niacin 4.58 mg Pyridoxine 0.435 mg Riboflavin 0.32 mg Thiamin 0.628mg Vitamin A 1270 IU Vitamin C 7.7mg Vitamin E 3.3 mg Vitamin K 5.4 mcg Electrolytes Sodium 1788 mg
  • 67. Potassium 68 mg Minerals Calcium 931 mg Copper 0.867 mg Iron 66.36mg Magnesium 366 mg Manganese 3.3 mg Phosphorus 499 mg Zinc 4.8 mg Phyto-nutrients ß -Carotene 762 mcg Lutein-zeaxanthin 448 mcgSOURCE: http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/cumin.html
  • 68. ANNEXURE- VIINUTRITIVE VALUE OF FENNEL PER 100 GRAMNUTRIENTS AMOUNT Energy 345 KcalCarbohydrates 52.29 g Protein 15.80 g Fat 14.87 g Cholesterol 0 mgDietary Fiber 39.8 g Vitamins Niacin 6.050 mg Pyridoxine 0.470 mg Riboflavin 0.353 mg Thiamin 0.408 mg Vitamin C 21 mg Vitamin A 135 IU Electrolytes Sodium 88 mg Potassium 1694 mg Minerals Calcium 1196 mg
  • 69. Copper 1.067 mg Iron 18.54 mg Magnesium 385 mg Manganese 6.533 mg Phosphorus 487 mg Zinc 3.70 mgSOURCE: http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/fennel-seed.html
  • 70. ANNEXURE- VIIINUTRITIVE VALUE OF RED CHILLI PER 100 GRAMNUTRIENTS AMOUNT Energy 318 KcalCarbohydrates 56.63 g Protein 12.01 g Fat 17.27 g Dietary Fiber 27.2 g Vitamins Folates 106 mcg Niacin 8.701 mg Pyridoxine 2.450 mg Riboflavin 0.919 Thiamin 0.328 mg Vitamin A 41610 IU Vitamin C 76.4 mg Vitamin E 29.83 mg Vitamin K 80.3 mg Electrolytes Sodium 30 mg Potassium 2014 mg
  • 71. Minerals Calcium 148 mg Copper 0.373 mg Iron 7.80 mg Magnesium 152 mg Manganese 2.00 mg Phosphorus 293 mg Selenium 8.8 mcg Zinc 2.48 mg Phyto-nutrients ß- Carotene 21840 mcg ß- Cryptoxanthin 6252 mcgSOURCE: http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/cayenne-pepper.html
  • 72. ANNEXURE- IXNUTRITIVE VALUE OF BROWN MUSTARD SEEDS PER 100 GRAM NUTRIENTS AMOUNT Energy 508 Kcal Carbohydrates 28.09 g Protein 26.08 g Fat 36.24 g Dietary Fiber 12.2 g Vitamins Folates 162 mcg Niacin 4.733 mg Pantothenic acid 0.810 mg Pyridoxine 0.397 mg Riboflavin 0.261 mg Thiamin 0.805 mg Vitamin A 31 IU Vitamin C 7.1 mg Vitamin E 19.82 mg Vitamin K 5.4 mcg Electrolytes Sodium 13 mg
  • 73. Potassium 738 mg Minerals Calcium 266 mg Copper 0.645 mg Iron 9.21 mg Magnesium 370 mg Manganese 2.448 mg Selenium 208.1 mcg Zinc 6.08 mg Phyto-nutrients ß- Carotene 18 mcg Lutein-zeaxanthin 508 mcgSOURCE: http://www.nutrition-and-you.com/mustard-seeds.html
  • 74. ANNEXURE- X NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NIGELLA SEEDS PER 100 GRAM NUTRIENTS AMOUNT Energy 531 kcal Protein 20.8 g Thiamin 1.5 mg Riboflavin 0.1 mg Pyridoxine 0.5 mg Niacin 5.7 mg Calcium 185.9 mg Iron 10.5 mg Copper 1.8 mg Zinc 6 mgSOURCE: http://www.kalonji-oil.com/kalonji-seeds.html