PREPARATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF APPLE PICKLEGuide: Dr. Anuradha Gandotra By: Pallvi DhotraCo- Guide: Mrs. Shallu Roll No. 0006-FSC-09 M.Sc 4th Semester Food Science & Tech
INTRODUCTION Fruits are among the perishable commodities, but are an important source of nutrients in the human dietaries. Due to their high nutritive value they make a significant nutrient contribution to human well being. Fruits are source of a number of essential vitamins and minerals that cannot be found in other types of foods or they may contain higher levels of these nutrients than other foods. Fruits are a rich source of vitamin A, vitamin B3, vitamin B6 and vitamin A. Fruits have high water content also contains minerals like sodium, potassium, iron and other elements in small amounts.
India is the third largest producer of fruits in the world withan annual production of 33 million tones, which is 8 per centof world’s production.This abundance of production is not fully utilized and about20-30 per cent of the produce gets wasted. To avoid thesesurplus losses, fruits are processed in various products andare preserved.One such method for the preservation of fruits is thepickling. Pickling is the lactic acid fermentation of fruits,which is carried out by is carried out by lactic acid formingbacteria, which are generally present in large numbers on thesurface of fresh fruits.Pickles are the products obtained as a result of the picklingprocess. Pickles are good appetizers and add to thepalatability of a meal.
Mango pickle is very well known in Indian market andrelished by all, but there are some fruits which are highlynutritious and yet there pickle is not available in the market,one such fruit is ‘Apple’.Apple occupies around 40 per cent of total area under fruitand accounts for 90 per cent of the total production of fruitsin Jammu & Kashmir. The area under apple cultivationaccounts for 87,000 hectares with an annual production of9.29 lakh metric tons (2009-10).But due to unavailability of adequate packaging andprocessing facilities in the state, 30 per cent of the total fruitproduced gets wasted. . This leads to a huge wastage of thecrop in a good season.To avoid the losses due to wastage of apples, the apple fruitcan be converted to a value added product by the picklingprocess.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To prepare and standardize the recipe for apple pickle. To study the physico- chemical characteristics of the final product. To check the acceptability of the product.
MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY1. APPLES:Botanical name:- Malus domesticaVernacular name:- Seb Apple fruit is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree. The health benefits of apples are because of the presence of phytonutrients as well as the vitamins and minerals. Phytonutrients found in apples protects the brain from diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Apples contain both soluble and insoluble fiber which aids in digestion and weight loss. Apple reduces the risk of obesity, diabetes, unhealthy cholesterol levels, heart disease, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, hemorrhoids, diverticulitis and many other disorders of the intestinal tract.
2. FENUGREEKBotanical name:- Trigonella foenumgraecumVernacular name:- Methi dana Fenugreek is an annual herb native to Mediterranean and Western Asia. Fenugreek seed whole or powdered is used as a spice in pickles in India. Fenugreek seeds have been found to contain protein, vitamin C, niacin and potassium. Pectin and hemicellulose constitute the fiber content of fenugreek seed. Fenugreek seed contains phytonutrients, which gives fenugreek seeds medicinal properties. Fenugreek seed helps to lower the blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Fenugreek seed has been used to treat arthritis, asthma, improve digestion, maintain a healthy metabolism, cure skin problems and treat sore throat.
3. TURMERICBotanical name: - Curcuma longaVernacular name: - Haldi Turmeric is a perennial shrub and is also extremely popular as a food additive (spice). The medicinal properties of turmeric are attributed to phytochemicals known as curcuminoids. Additional health benefits of turmeric include antibacterial and antifungal properties. It has been used to treat everyday problems such as indigestion and flatulence, as well as more serious problems such as arthritis, Alzheimers disease, cancer, diabetes, high cholesterol, pyrosis, jaundice, liver disorders, and menstrual disorders. Turmeric contains very good levels of vitamin C, which is a powerful natural antioxidant and helps the body to develop immunity against infectious agents, helps to fight type-1 diabetes and remove harmful free oxygen radicals from the body.
4. BLACK PEPPERBotanical name: - Piper nigrumVernacular name: - Kali mirch Black pepper is the fruit of the black pepper plant from the Piperaceae family and is used as a spice and also as a medicine. Because of its antibacterial properties, pepper is also used to preserve food. It is a source of iron, potassium, manganese, vitamin C, vitamin K and dietary fiber. Black pepper is a very good anti-inflammatory agent. The antibacterial property of black pepper helps to fight against infections, insect bites etc. Black pepper also helps avoid gangrene. It is also good in hernia, hoarseness and insect bites. It relieves joint pain.
5. CUMINBotanical name: - Cuminum cyminumVernacular name: - Zeera Cumin belongs to family Apiaceae and is extensively used as a condiment or spice. Cumin seeds are rich in iron and are thought to stimulate the secretion of enzymes from the pancreas which can absorb nutrients into the system. It also contains very good amounts of B-complex vitamins such as thiamin, vitamin B6, niacin, riboflavin, and other vital antioxidant vitamins like vitamin E, vitamin A and vitamin C.
6. FENNELBotanical name: - Foeniculum vulgreVernacular name: - Saunf Fennel has many health benefiting nutrients, antioxidants, dietary fiber, minerals like manganese, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron selenium, zinc and copper and vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin B- complex and vitamin C. Fennel stimulates secretion of digestive and gastric juices, reduces inflammation of stomach and intestines and facilitates proper absorption of nutrients from the food. It also has anti acidic (basic) properties and is extensively used in antacid preparations. It is an appetizer too.
7. RED CHILLI POWDERBotanical name: - Capsicum annumVernacular name: - Lal mirch Red chilli powder is the ground, dried fruit of one or more varieties of red chilli pepper. Red chillies have vitamin C and Vitamin A, which are powerful antioxidant. The antioxidants present in the red chilli wipe out the free radicals that could build up cholesterol causing major heart diseases. It also acts as gastrointestinal detoxicants helping in digestion of food.
8. SALTChemical name: - Sodium ChlorideVernacular name: - Namak Salt is also known as table salt. It is composed primarily of Sodium chloride(NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of ionic salts. Salt is one of the oldest, most ubiquitous food seasonings and salting is an important method of food preservation. Salt regulates the texture, mouthfeel and juiciness of a product. It is a well known class I preservative and fulfils a critical antimicrobial function in the modern hurdle technologies.
9. BROWN MUSTARD SEEDSBotanical name: - Brassica junceaVernacular name: - Rai Brown mustard seeds are seeds of mustard plant, Brassica juncea which belongs to family Brassicaceae. It is commonly known as rai in India and is used in powder form in many food preparations like pickles, chutney and salad dressings etc. It has a pungent flavour and gives sourness to the pickles. Brown mustard seeds are an excellent source of essential B- complex vitamins, vitamin A, vitamin K and minerals like calcium, iron, copper, magnesium and manganese.
10 .NIGELLA SEEDSBotanical name: - Nigella sativaVernacular name: - Kalonji Nigella seeds are small black seeds grown on bushes of plant Nigella sativa. Nigella seeds have a pungent bitter taste and smell. Nigella seeds are used as both flavouring, added to a variety of traditional foods, and as an herbal remedy for a variety of ailments. Nigella seeds are known to have many healing properties including migraine, chronic colds, palpitations, alopecia, asthma, bee stings, paralysis, amnesia, skin disorders, ear-ache and respiratory diseases.
11. MUSTARD OIL Mustard oil is obtained from the seeds of mustard plant Brassica nigira. Mustard oil is considered to be oil that has low saturated fats as compared to other cooking oil. It basically consists of fatty acids namely oleic acid, erucic acid and linoleic acid. It has an antioxidant and cholesterol reducing properties. The oil acts as an appetizer and boosts up hunger. Mustard oil also has antimicrobial properties. Mustard oil may afford some protection against cardiovascular diseases.
STANDARADIZED RECIPE FOR THEPREPARATION OF APPLE PICKLE PER 500gS.No INGREDIENTS AMOUNT PERCENTAGE 1 Apple pieces (dried) 250g 50% 2 Mustard oil 160ml 32% 3 Salt 40g 8% 4 Fenugreek powder 10g 2% 5 Rai powder 10g 2% 6 Turmeric powder 7.5g 1.5% 7 Red chilli powder 5g 1% 8 Black pepper powder 5g 1% 9 Cumin powder 5g 1% 10 Fennel powder 5g 1% 11 Nigella seeds 2.5g 0.5%
FLOW SHEET FOR THE PRETREATMENT OF APPLES Selection of apples Washing Cutting Blanching at 60°C for 2 minutes Immersion in 2% KMS solution For 30 minutes Draining Sun drying for 2 days Dried apple pieces
FLOW SHEET FOR THE PREPARATION OF APPLE PICKLE Heating of oil Cooling of oil Mixing of spices in a little of oil Mixing spiced oil with apple pieces Filling in jar Add remaining oil Keep jar in sun for a week Storage
2. PHYSICO- CHEMICAL ANALYSIS S.No PARAMETER RESULT 1 pH 4.0 2 Tirtrable acidity 0.6% 3 Moisture content 59.7% 4 Total ash content 1.22%
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The ‘Apple Pickle’ is prepared by giving apple pieces a preliminary treatment before making it into a pickle. This is done by blanching the apple pieces for 2 minutes at 60° C and then immersing the pieces into 2% KMS solution for 30 minutes.The treated apple pieces are sun dried for 2 days. The product has been subjected to sensory evaluation by a panel of 10 judges using numerical scoring test. The product has been evaluated for appearance, flavour, texture and overall acceptability and is found to be excellent. From the physico- chemical analysis of the product, the pH has been found to be 4.0, titrable acidity has been 0.6%, moisture content was calculated to be 59.7% and total ash content has been calculated to be 1.22%.
Apple pickle is a nutritious product because it gives thehealth benefits of apples as well as the spices added toit.Apple pickle can be stored for more than 6 monthswithout any noticeable change in texture and flavour.Hence, it is concluded that Apple pickle is a productwith excellent keeping quality and good nutritive value.