Toxicology Demystified: Understanding Safety & Health Risks in the Workplace


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Some basics of toxicology for a better understanding of hazard communication

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Toxicology Demystified: Understanding Safety & Health Risks in the Workplace

  1. 1. To help protect y our priv acy , PowerPoint prev ented this external picture from being automatically downloaded. To download and display this picture, click Options in the Message Bar, and then click Enable external content. Boogeyman Toxicology Demystified – Understanding Safety & Health Risks in the Workplace Keng- Keng-Meng Khoo, PhD, LLM (Commercial Law), Regulatory Affairs Regional Director (Asia Pacific, Africa, Middle East & Turkey) 1 March 16, 2012 2To help protect y our priv acy , PowerPoint prev ented this external picture from being automatically downloaded. To download and display this picture, click Options in the Message Bar, and then click Enable external content. Boogeyman Perception of safety risks (real or imaginary) can be very emotive!!! Boogeyman – an amorphous imaginary being used by adults to frighten children into behaving. The monster has no specific appearance, and conceptions about it can vary drastically from household to household within the same community; in many cases, he has no set Goyas "Here Comes the Boogey-Man" appearance in the mind of an adult or child, (Aquí viene el Coco) c.1797 but is simply a non-specific embodiment of terror. - Wikipedia March 16, 2012 3 March 16, 2012 4 Boogeyman Risk Perception Revealed! Risk perception by consumer/customer must not be Why what is real and what underestimated! is perceived matters! It does matter! Why even a basic Basis of media attention and political pressure, which both affect understanding of safety regulation! and toxicology matters! Why education and awareness matters! We have a B-2-B model - Why I am here today! BUT whether the customer is Child working in a lead battery recycling factory, from retail or institutional, their Bangladesh perception matters! (Still Pictures/Peter Arnold Inc) This child will suffer from the effects of lead poisoning for a lifetime and will not be able to reach his intellectual potential! March 16, 2012 5 March 16, 2012 6 3/16/2012 1
  2. 2. Power To Discover The Truth Daily Encounters with Chemicals “It is not the truth that makes you • We encounter chemicals almost every day free. It is your possession of the - Filling your car with petrol power to discover the truth. Our - Cleaning the bathroom or kitchen - Applying pesticides dilemma is that we do not know - Using cleaning products at work how to provide that power.” - Formulating in the lab Richard Lewontin Chemicals can cause injury or illness if not handled properly! (New York Review of Books, Jan 7, 1997) Even water can kill under certain circumstances!!!March 16, 2012 7 March 16, 2012 8Hazard vs Risk? Key Words To Understand! Hazard Dose / Response / Route Risk = Hazard X Exposure Individual Sensitivity RiskMarch 16, 2012 9 March 16, 2012 10Key Words To Understand! Key Words To Understand! We routinely combine our knowledge Hazard = Intrinsic properties of of hazard, exposure and individual a particular agent or situation susceptibility to judge the risk of harm! We know the - Young person judges the speed of approaching car and decides to run across hazards of the street! - Old person waits for traffic light to change! crossing the - Decision based on judgment about the risk highways! of being hit by car!March 16, 2012 11 March 16, 2012 12 3/16/2012 2
  3. 3. Key Words To Understand! Key Words To Understand! Formal process of determining the potential of an agent/chemical/ingredient to cause What is hazard classification? harm = risk/safety assessment • A standard and harmonized system to describe and classify against agreed limits, hazard properties with potential danger- Process is complex and often controversial to man or the environment because data may not be available or there is conflicting information! • Constitutes the basis of safety labeling to warn the user about potential hazards- Process combines all known information about the hazards and determine the potential for harm ! • GHS is a hazard-based classification system- Risk/Safety assessment is not an ABSOLUTE and depends on data available at the time and the Reminder: HAZARD is different from RISK! subject matter expertMarch 16, 2012 13 March 16, 2012 14Key Words To Understand! Paracelsus Risk, Hazard & Risk Perception in Cosmetics “All substances are poisons;- Market for sunscreens in EU April 2001 – media attention and there is none which is not a poison. consumer anxiety The right dose differentiates a poison- Article by Schlumpf et al (2001) suggesting several sunscreens have estrogenic activity (HAZARD!) from an in vitro test with cancer cell from a remedy.” line and an in vivo rat uterotrophic assay- Controversial interpretations of the results (RISK FOR HUMAN HEALTH!) caused consumer concerns Paracelsus (1493-1541)- In actual fact, the activity found in Schlumpf et al was very low compared to exposure with estrogenic substances in food (flavonoids) and current hormonal therapy (e.g. birth control pill, morning after pill, post menopausal therapy)March 16, 2012 15 March 16, 2012 16 Childhood Lead ExposureExamples of Why Safety and ToxicologyMatters Childhood Lead Exposure “Lead Makes the Mind Organic Mercury in Fish Give Way” From S. Gilbert’s Principles of Toxicology Dioscorides, 2nd BCMarch 16, 2012 17 March 16, 2012 18 3/16/2012 3
  4. 4. Blood Lead Levels Organic Mercury in Fish Acceptable Childhood Blood Lead Levels 40 40 Discharge in Minamata Bay, Blood Lead (ug/dl) 35 30 30 25 Japan 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 0 CDC CDC CDC WHO EPA CDC 1973 1975 1985 1986 1986 1990 Agency and Year The CDC set the blood lead level of concern for children at 10 micrograms per deciliter, but also states that adverse effects exist at all levels!March 16, 2012 19 March 16, 2012 20 Toxicity ranked by amount that causesFetal Effects of MeHg death What is LD-50? Agent LD- LD-50 (mg/kg) Ethyl alcohol 10,000 Salt (sodium chloride) 4,000 Iron (Ferrous sulfate) 1,500 Morphine 900 Mothballs 500 (paradichlorobenzene) Aspirin 250 DDT 250 Cyanide 10 Nicotine 1 Life-long effects! Tetrodotoxin (from fish) 0.01 Dioxin (TCDD) 0.001 Botulinum Toxin 0.00001March 16, 2012 21 March 16, 2012 22Exposure & Absorption Frequency Of Exposure 7 Beers in 1 Hour or Route of exposure 7 Beers in 1 Week (1 Beer/Day) 1) Skin (dermal) 1 or 7 Cups of Coffee in 1 Day 2) Lung (inhalation) 3) Oral (gut) Harmful effects of a chemical are often dependent on the frequency of exposure and the time between exposures!March 16, 2012 23 March 16, 2012 24 3/16/2012 4
  5. 5. Distribution Metabolism How The Body Breaks The Where A Chemical Goes Chemical Down? (body water, fat, bone) What The Chemical Turns Where A Chemical Into? Accumulates How Fast?March 16, 2012 25 March 16, 2012 26 Communicating Information – WhyCommunicating Information Training on Chemical Safety/Risk? • Regulators and customers may want to have• Product labels information about potential harms (right to know): - Hazard, risk, directions for use, safety - foreseeable use precautions - foreseeable misuse - accident situations• Safety data sheets - Usually for use at work (occupational setting) • Need to differentiate between hazard vs risk to avoid: - Available to public on request - confusion that the same chemical is more toxic than previously due to a change in hazard classification• Other means (GHS) - Package inserts - clarify that although chemical has intrinsic - Internet properties/toxicity, proper safety training on handling will minimize risk (exposure to chemical hazards)March 16, 2012 27 March 16, 2012 28Hazard Communication Safe Handling and UseExamples of Chemical Hazards PPE (Personal Protection Equipment)Physical Hazards: - Dust masks and respirators- Flammable- Explosive - Glasses, goggles, and face shields- Reactive - Gloves - Foot protectionHealth Hazards: - Aprons or full-body suits- Corrosive- Toxic Use PPE correctly and under the appropriate circumstances!Hazards do not inform user of the risk – If handled in an unsafe manner, risk of exposure to hazards (intrinsic toxicity of chemicals) is high; if handled in a safe manner, risk is low although the intrinsic properties may be high!Training on understanding risk/hazard and safe use is a value-add to customers!March 16, 2012 29 March 16, 2012 30 3/16/2012 5
  6. 6. Safe Handling and Use Safe Handling and UseFirst Aid Instructions Spills and Leaks - Eyes: Flush with water for 15 minutes - Evacuate the area - Skin: Wash with soap and water - Notify a supervisor or the emergency response team - Inhalation: Move to fresh air - Swallowing: Get emergency medical assistance Sometimes accidents happen and users need to be aware of what to do under those circumstances!Sometimes accidents happen and users need to be awareof what to do under those circumstances! March 16, 2012 31 March 16, 2012 32 Importance of Labels Importance of MSDS- Identity of the chemical - Chemical and manufacturer’s identity- Name, address and emergency phone number of the - Hazardous raw materialsmanufacturer - Physical and chemical characteristics - Fire, explosion, and reactivity- Physical and health hazards- Special handling instructions - Health hazards- Basic PPE recommendations - Routes of entry- First aid, fire response, spill cleanup - Exposure levels (PEL or TLV) - Symptoms of exposure - First-Aid and emergency informationThe label will not communicate the degree of risk!How safe is the use of the product? - Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)Depends on the nature of the hazards and potential - Safe handling and storage exposure (exposure minimal if safety precautions are - Spills and leaks taken)! - Compliance issuesValue-add of such communication to customer! Like label, does not communicate the degree of risk! March 16, 2012 33 March 16, 2012 34 Hazard Communication Summary When to submit for safety assessment Formulation If formulation is leveraged from an EU/US product (e.g. MNC), canTrain customers on: typically leverage on the safety assessment from those regions – no- Identify chemical hazards by reading labels and MSDSs need to reinvent the wheel- Follow warnings and instructions, or ask supervisor if in doubt If a formulation is tweaked (e.g. introduction of a new ingredient)- Use the correct personal protective equipment If the formulation is the same (leveraged from EU/US) but RM sources- Practice sensible, safe work habits change due to cost-improvement projects (e.g. change to China- Learn emergency procedures ingredient supplier) – safety review of the RM Is there any contaminants/traces/impurities of concern?Label or MSDS does not communicate the degree of risk! A single RM switch may not be a concern for a finished product but if there are multiple switches, there may be a concern forIf asked how safe is the product? contaminants/traces/impuritiesAnswer would be if follow the proper precautions as above, the safety risk can be minimized – every chemical will have its own E.g. Heavy metal content in mined materials (talc) intrinsic hazards and no chemical is 100% safe Pesticide content in plant-based ingredients BSE statement (certificate of origin) for animal-based ingredientsSafe use depends on awareness of hazards and practicing sensible, (statements to confirm that a product is “free of TSE/BSE” are notsafe work habits to minimize safety risk! scientifically possible) March 16, 2012 35 March 16, 2012 36 3/16/2012 6
  7. 7. Post-Post-marketing surveillance Power To Discover The Truth Once a product is cleared for use, it is important to monitor adverse reactions “It is not the truth that makes you when it enters the market place free. It is your possession of the Continuous confirmation to give consumer power to discover the truth. Our the level of safety reasonably expected dilemma is that we do not know how to provide that power.” Richard Lewontin (New York Review of Books, Jan 7, 1997)March 16, 2012 37 March 16, 2012 38March 16, 2012 39 3/16/2012 7