MA IE ICT session 23 nov2012_Edirisingha

  • 2,366 views
Uploaded on

This is the set of slides used for the MAIE Session 14 on the 23rd of Nov 2012.

This is the set of slides used for the MAIE Session 14 on the 23rd of Nov 2012.

More in: Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,366
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
98
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • .
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • The Role of ICT in Education, a unit within Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education - MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha

Transcript

  • 1. 23 November 2012 2 – 4pm MA International Education core module: Contemporary Issues in Education, Session 14 Dr Palitha Edirisingha Beyond Distance Research Alliance, School of Education, University of Leicester, 105, Princess Road East, LE1 7LG, UK pe27@le.ac.uk +44 (0)116 252 3753The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha +44 (0)7525 246 592
  • 2. Learning outcomes of this unit Recognise the potentials of ICT to support learning in schoolsUnderstand the natureand implications of Gain an in-depthdifferential access to understanding of thetechnology for developments of ICT ineducational and social various national and culturalinclusion contexts Develop critical awareness of young people’s new digital media skills and their implications for teaching and learning in schools The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 3. Theme 1. What do we mean by ICT? Theme 2. Potential of ICT for learning in various educational contexts Theme 3. Developments of ICT in national and international contextsThemes Theme 4. Digital dividecovered in Theme 5. Learners in a digital age – ‘digitalthis natives’session Theme 6. Digital literacy skills. Implications for learning The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 4. A summary of learningactivities Pre-session activities (2) Pre-session reading Group activities Discussions Post-session reading A presentation -> an essay A dissertation research project? The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 5. Key conceptsand themes The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 6. Key themes and concepts ICT? What do we mean Learners: digital by it? How might ICT generation, help learning? Net generation Digital divide Digital exclusion and inclusion Digital literacy The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 7. Themes 1 and 2ICTs – what dowe mean by it?How might theyhelp learning? The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 8. ICTs – What are they? Why is theinterest in ICT? The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 9. Benefits of ICT – views frominternational organisations ‘the use of ICT in education can increase access to learning opportunities. It can help to enhance the quality of education with advanced teaching methods, improve learning outcomes and enable reform or better management of education systems’ (UNESCO, 2009, p. 9) ‘Many countries around the world are investing in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to improve and update the education they provide their younger generations’ (Pedro et al., 2004, p. 4). The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 10. Interest in ICT Commercial interests Despite many failed attempts (see Cuban, 2001) To help the learners acquire new skills needed for society and world of work, to enhance productivity, and to improve the quality of learning. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 11. Defining ICTsAdditional reading materialPLEASE READ the recommended sections andpages of the Course Unit 13 written by Reddi titled‘Role of ICTs in Education and Development:Potential, Pitfalls and Challenges’ [available fromthe URLhttp://www.unesco.org/education/aladin/paldin/courses].The actual URL for the document ishttp://www.unesco.org/pv_obj_cache/pv_obj_id_3F2FF6. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 12. Defining ICTs Tendency to be ‘associated with the most sophisticated and expensive computer-based technologies’ (Reddi, 2009) Broadening the definition to include more conventional technologies such as radio, television and telephones The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 13. Benefits to education /learning Enhanced motivation and creativity when confronted by the new learning environments. A greater disposition to research and problem-solving focused on real social situations. More comprehensive assimilation of knowledge in the interdisciplinary ICT environment. Systematic encouragement of collaborative work between individuals and groups. Ability to generate knowledge. Capacity to cope with rapidly changing, complex and uncertain environments. New skills and abilities fostered through technological literacy. (Kelley-Salinas, 2000, p. 7, based on the work of Papert, 1997) The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 14. Categorising ICTsOLD ICTs? NEW ICTs? The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 15. Categorising ICTsFigure 1: Five waves of developments of ICTs (based on Pea and Wallis (DATE) in Borgman et al. 2008:13) The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 16. ICTs since 1980Audio cassettes Video cassettesAudio conferencing Computer-based learningAudio-graphic systems Cable TVViewdata/Teletext/Teledon/Minitel Satellite TVLaser video-disks Video conferencingComputer conferencing Compact discsInternet Electronic mailWorld Wide Web LCD projectorsDigital video discs Search engines (e.g., Google)Fibre Optics Mobile phonesLearning Objects Wireless networksPortals e-portfoliosSimulations Expert systemsVirtual Reality Table The Theof ICT in Education, Corenew technologies in teaching since 1980 (Bates, 2005, p. 43) 1: Role development of Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 17. Categorising ICTsSynchronous AsynchronousParticipants need to be together The participants can take part inat the same time for the learning the learning event at differentevent timesExamples? Examples? The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 18. Summary of Themes 1 and 2 Different approaches to defining and categorising ICTs Educational benefits of using ICTs What are your own views on and experiences with ICTs? Next  access to ICTs and internet, and implications for education The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 19. Theme 3Developments ofICTs innational andinternationalcontexts The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 20. We will return to the outputsfrom the Pre-class Activity 1 Responses received so far from: Brunei China Cyprus Japan Taiwan Turkey The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 21. Access to the internet Access at an affordable cost Access to the Internet as a basic human right  ‘Is internet access a human right?’ ( http://www.guardian.co.uk/law/2012/jan/11/is-internet-access-a-human-righ ) (the Guardian Newspaper)  Finland: broadband access to Internet is ‘a legal right for every citizen’ (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10461048) (BBC website). Internet as a basic infrastructure  ICT ‘to … expand the reach of education...’ (Pedros et al., 2004) The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 22. Access to Internet in differentgeographical regions Let’s return to the outputs of pre-class activity 1 Responses received so far from:  Brunei  China  Cyprus  Japan  Taiwan  Turkey The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 23. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 24. The internet access and useacross the world – someinteresting factsThere are roughly the same number of Internet users in the G8 countries as inthe whole rest of the world combined.The top 20 countries in terms of Internet bandwidth are home to roughly 80%of all Internet users worldwide.The entire African continent - home to over 50 countries - has fewer Internetusers than France alone.There are more Internet users in London than in the whole of Pakistan.Denmark has more than twice the international Internet bandwidth than thewhole of Latin American and the Caribbean combined.There are still 30 countries with an Internet penetration of less than 1%. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 25. The internet and other ICTSaccess in the Western EuropeICT is widely available to the general public in both accessibility at affordableprices.About 47% of the population between the ages of 16 and 74 used the Internet.Despite this high level of access, gaps remain in terms of age, employmentstatus, educational level, and location of residence, whether rural or urban.The main contributory factors for lack of access are poor infrastructure, lowlevel of ICT literacy, and lack of incentives to use ICT.Largest gaps exist between higher and lower educated in Portugal, Slovenia andSpain, 70%, 68% and 61% respectively.Smallest gaps have been observed in Lithuania (11%), Sweden (24%) andGermany (25%). (Eurostat, 2004/5) The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 26. Internet access and use in UKschools 100% of UK schools have internet access. The majority of schools are well-equipped with modern technology. Main divide is for home access which disadvantages students with limited access to or no ICT at home. Schools increasingly require the homework to involve use of ICT. Schools’ use of ICT and internet include: intranets, online submission and marking and eLearning portals, also called Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs). The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 27. ICT access in developingcountries – Namibia as anexample Namibia is a vast country with a population of less than two million. A major portion of the countrys annual budget is being spent on education, but state coffers are stretched to the limit. Towns and villages are far apart, many do not have running water and electricity, let alone access to phone lines. There is a general lack of clinics, schools, qualified teachers, libraries and educational materials. Namibia has 1,519 schools of which 924 presently do not have a telephone, electricity or a library. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 28. A digital divide? The differences in access to the Internet and ICTs - number of questions and challenges for educators. A divide between the developed and developing countries in terms of access to technology. Also even in most developed countries, divides exsit: ‘a considerable proportion of [young people] are not using the Internet’ (Reisdorf, 2011, p. 401). The issues arising from some sections of the population not having access to ICT The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 29. A digital divide? The non-users of Internet are at the risk of being disadvantaged economically or socially, ‘… missing out on offers that are only available online, skills needed to get a well-paid job, etc.’ (ibid, p. 401). The non users tend to be from already disadvantaged social groups. The more ICT and internet is immersed in society and pervades everyday life, the more it becomes attached to all existing social divisions. Differential information and communication skills might lead to an increase of unequal positions in society. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 30. Summary of Theme 3 Responses from Activity 1 Explored the question of access to internet and other ICTs in the world and what it means to be on the ‘have’ and ‘have not’ sides of access. Is access primarily a technological problem? Is it mainly a physical access problem? Next section  Digital Divide The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 31. Theme 4Digitaldivide The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 32. Two guiding questions1. What do we mean by digital divide? Why is it important to talk about it? How does it manifest?2. Can we afford to ignore digital divide? What are the implications for learning in different educational contexts (age groups, learning settings, geo political settings)? The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 33. International picture2. Global digital divide Unlike the traditional notion of digital divide between social classes, the "global digital divide" is essentially a geographical division. Originally referred to disparity in Internet access between rural/urban areas of the US Now, generally used to describe gap between developed & developing world The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 34. Differences in Access:[Based on Activity 1] The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 35. What does it mean to have access to,and devices for using internet foreducation? (Think about your chosensector of education) The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 36. Access to hardware and theinternetUseful websites http://www.nationmaster.com http://www.nationmaster.com/cat/med-media http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_number_ of_mobile_phones_in_use The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 37. Access in your country /region? Returning to the outputs from pre- class activity 1  Internet  Computers  Mobile phones  Other digital devices The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 38. Digital divide ‘the gap between the technology rich and the technology poor, both within and between societies’ (Buckingham, 2008, p. 10) The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 39. Digital divide the gap between those who do and those who do not have access to computers and the Internet’. …access considered as physical access - having personal computer and Internet connection. (van Dijk, 2005, p. 1) The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 40. Digital divide ‘the gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with regard both to their opportunities to access information and communication technologies (ICTs) and their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities (OECD, 2001). The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 41. Can we close the digital divide? If so, how?The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 42. The ‘trickle- What are the limitations with thisdown’ view/ approach toprinciple solving the access problem? The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 43. Digital divide as a ‘social andpolitical problem’ (van Dijk, 2005,p. 3), not a technical one. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 44. Physical access is only one kind of(material) access among at leastfour: motivational, material,skills and usage. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 45. What are thedisadvantages of beingin the ‘have not’ side ofthe digital divide? Whatare the consequences ofdigital divide forlearners, for teachers,for schools, and foreducation as a whole? Does digital divide intensify the existing social inequalities (of age, gender, ethnicity, social class, ability levels/types)? The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 46. Digital divide – examplesIn pictures: Nairobis digital divide‘… with broadband internet access costing more thanthe average Kenyan annual wage, the digital divideappears set to remain’ (BBC, 2010)http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_pictures/8259533.stm The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 47. Access to digital technologiesThe Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 48. (van Dijk, 2005)The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 49. Approaches to closingdigital divide?Returning to Pre-class Activity 2Hole in the Wall - Sugta Mitra’s video onYouTubeYour reflections … any similar approaches inyour context? The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 50. BBC Janala receives Tech Award for educational innovationInnovative projects using Bangladeshnew ICTBBC Janala has been awarded the prestigious Microsoft Education Awardat the 2010 Tech Awards in Silicon Valley, California.The Tech Awards celebrate the power of technology to address globalchallenges in the environment, economic development, education,equality and health."BBC Janala’s genius is it uses the existing cellular network to providepeople with educational content rather than waiting for what we have inthe developed world.”BBC Janala impressed judges with its use of mobile technology to reachsome of the poorest people in the country, offering a simple andaffordable way to learn.http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/whatwedo/where/asia/bangladesh/2010/11/1 The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 51. Theme 5Learners ina digitalage – a ‘netgeneration’?The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 52. Guiding questions1. What do we mean by: ‘digital natives’ (and other related terms) and ‘digital immigrants’?2. The notion of ‘generations’?3. The contested nature ?of these terms? What lies behind these contested concepts?4. Can we afford not to consider these terms? What are the implications for education The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 53. A digital generation ‘a generation defined in and through its experience of digital computer technology’ (Buckingham, 2006, p. 1). The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 54. A digital generationOther terms the Nintendo generation (Green and Bigum, 1993) the Playstation generation (Blair, 2004) the ‘net generation’ (Tapscott, 1998) ‘cyberkids’ (Holloway and Valentine, 2003) ‘thumb generation’ - in Japan (Brooke, 2002) The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 55. A generation? ‘an age cohort that comes to have social significance by by virtue of constituting itself as a cultural identity’ (Edmunds and Turner, 2002, p. 7). ‘a cohort of individuals born within a particular time frame’ (Buckingham, 2008, p. 2) a cohort having a relationship with a particular traumatic event’ (Edmunds and Turner, 2002), for example a world war..., a defining moment in the history. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 56. GenerationsGenerations (according to Tapscott, 1998) The Boomers - born between 1946 - 1964. The TV generation. conservative, Hierarchical, inflexible, centralised (like the TV medium). incompetent technophobes. The Bust - born between 1965 - 1976. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 57. The net generation: expressive, savvy,self-reliant, analytical, creative, inquisitive,accept diversity, socially conscious.Possess intuitive, spontaneousrelationship with digital technology.‘using new technology is as natural asbreathing’ (Tapscott, 1997, p. 40).generational differences are produced bythe technology. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 58. Claims about the digitalgeneration ‘Although specific forms of technology uptake are highly diverse, a generation is growing up in an era where digital media are part of the taken-for-granted social and cultural fabric of learning, play, and social communication’ (Ito et al, p. vii, 2008). The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 59. Claims about the digitalgeneration ‘…those immersed in new digital tools and networks are engaged in an unprecedented exploration of language, games, social interaction, problem solving, and self- directed activity that leads to diverse forms of learning.’ (Ito et al, p. vii, 2008). The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 60. Research on digital natives Please click on the link at the bottom of this slide to download a keynote address by Dr Chris Davies (Oxford University). Abstract of the keynote address: Ever since the inflated claims about how technology can transform learning during the 1980s, education professionals have been scanning the horizon for the first signs of the future to arrive, and complaining about how long the wait has been. This paper will argue that the big transformation has already happened, but in the form simply of very many small and relatively unremarkable changes that are rapidly becoming embedded in the lives and learning of young people. The paper will discuss these issues with reference to findings from a current Becta-funded research project: The Learner and their Context. Click on the URL below and download the 1 st and the 2nd files from the top. Named “day3_keynote_cd_present_med” AND “ day3_keynote_cd_qa_med” After downloading, you can play back these files on your iPod, mobile phone, iPad or laptop. https://skydrive.live.com/?cid=1371316d87c549bf&id=1371316D87C549BF%21211 If there is a problem accessing this keynote address and/or playing back the files, please email me (pe27@le.ac.uk) and I’ll try to help. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 61. Question forconsideration.. Do young people who are growing up with digital media have a different orientation to the world, a different set of dispositions or characteristics? How do the net generation learn? what are the characteristics of their learning? based on your own experience, own educational context? The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 62. Digital native’s own claims ‘I don’t find it hard to use a computer because I got into it quickly. You learn quick because it’s a very fun thing to do.” (Amir, 15, from London). ‘My Dad hasn’t even got a clue. Can’t even work the mouse.... So I have to go on the Internet for him” (Lorna, 17, from Manchester). (Livingstone, 2008). The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 63. How true are these claims? ‘While these claims contain a sizeable grain of truth, we must also recognise their rhetorical value for the speakers. Only in rare circumstances in history have children gained greater expertise than parents in skills highly values by society.’ (e.g., diasporic children’s learning of the host language before their parents, youthful expertise in music, games, play). (Livingstone, 2008). The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 64. Growing up ‘analogue’ Vsgrowing up digital Please read the extract from Heverly (2008, pp.199-200) and identify any similarities and differences between your own, your parents’ and your pupils’ generations. How far is this true as far as yourself and your pupils are concerned? Does a ‘digital generation’ exist in your context? What do they do with digital technologies? Do they use technologies for their learning? if so, how? Make notes and share with the class. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 65. Theme 6DigitalliteracyThe Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 66. Guiding questions1. Why do we mean by digital literacy? How do we define it? What are the other related terms / concepts?2. What are the implications for learning The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 67. Digital literacy […] is much more than a functional matter of learning how to use a computer and keyboard, or how to do online searches. […] As with print, they also need to be able to evaluate and use information critically if they are to transform it into knowledge. This means asking questions about the sources of that information, the interests of its producers, and the ways in which it represents the world. (Buckingham, 2006, p. 267) The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 68. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IEThe Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Programme 20 Issues in Education , MA IE programme 2012 – 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha. Contemporary - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 69. Three concerns that needour attention: 1. The participation gap. An unequal access to the opportunities, experiences, skills, and knowledge that will prepare youth for full participation in the world tomorrow. 2. The transparency problem. The difficulty that the young people face in making sense of how the new media tools that they use can shape their perceptions of the world. 3. The ethics challenge. The use of new media tools which can breakdown the traditional norms and practices as professionals, such as the fair use of content and consideration for intellectual property rights, and young people need support in understanding these issues as they are socialised in a Web 2.0 world. Jenkins et al (2006, p. 3) The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 70. Digital literacy –implications for learning The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 71. Implications forlearningPupils without internetdisadvantaged in educationAn increasing amount of homework requires use of the internetMore than half of teachers believe that children with no internet access areseriously disadvantaged in their education, a survey has suggested.A fifth of the 585 teachers surveyed for the Times Educational Supplement andcharity E-Learning Foundation said internet access was essential for pupilshomework.The charity also warned it was seeing support from the government cut.It is estimated two million children live in homes without internet access.An increasing amount of schoolwork, especially at secondary school, isdependent on computer use.[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-11738519] The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 72. More questions.. How might we deploy new ICT to improve learning and studying at schools / universities / other contexts? The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 73. Finally, a question foreducators: How can schools /formal education system helppupils growing in a digital age? equalising access to technology (not only physical access, but other forms of access too..) providing both critical perspectives on technology and creative opportunities to use it. not just teaching ‘ICT skills’. provide opportunities to use the skills they learned outside the school in meaningful ways online safety ethical use of information The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 74. Pre-class activities Pre-class readings Theme 1. What do we mean by ICT? Theme 2. Potential of ICT for learning in various educational contextsSummary Theme 3. Developments of ICT in national and internationalof what we contextshave done Theme 4. Digital divideso far in Theme 5. Learners in a digital age – ‘digital natives’this Theme 6. Digital literacy skills. Implications for learningsession The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 75. REFERENCESAND FURTHERRESOURCESThe Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 76. References and further readingBates, T. (2005) Technology, E-Learning and Distance Education (2nd edn). London: Routledge. Chapter 3.Bennett, S., Maton, K. and Kervin, L. (2008) The digital natives debate: A critical review of the evidence. British Journal ofEducational Technology, 39(5), pp. 775-786.Berners-Lee, T. (2000). Weaving the Web: The Past, Present and Future of the World Wide Web by its Inventor, London, Texere.Buckingham, D. (2006) Is There a Digital Generation. In Buckingham, D. and Willett, R. (eds) (2006) Digital Generation:Children, Young People, and New Media. Mahwah (New Jersey): Lawrence Erlbaum. (A review of this book can be found athttp://www.childrenyouthandmedia.org/cscym/attachments/074_Buckingham%20Digi%20Gen2.pdf).Buckingham, D. (2007) Beyond technology: children’s learning in the age of digital culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.Buckingham, D., and Willett, R. (eds) (2006) Digital Generation: Children, Young People, and New Media, Mahwah (NewJersey): Lawrence Erlbaum.Cuban, L. (1986) Teachers and machines: the classroom use of technology. New York (NY): Teachers College Press.Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and Machines: The Classroom Use of Technology Since 1920, New York: Teachers’ College,Colombia University.Cuban, L. (2001) Computers in the classroom: oversold and underused. London: Harvard University Press.Cuban, L. (2001). Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom, London: Harvard University Press.DCMS (2009) Digital Britain: Final Report, URL http://interactive.bis.gov.uk/digitalbritain/report/being-digital/getting-britain-online/. [Accessed 3 Sept 2009].DfES (2003) Fulfilling the Potential: Transforming teaching and learning through ICT in schools, Department for Education andSkills. URL https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/standard/_arc_Teachingandlearning/Page3/DfES%200265%202003Accessed 20 Sept 2012.Edmunds, J. and Turner, B. (2002) Generations, Culture and Society. Buckingham: Open University Press.Facer, K. (2011) Learning Futures: Education, technology and social change. London: Routledge.Facer, K., Furlong, J., Furlon, R., and Sutherland, R. (2003). ScreenPlay: Children and Computing in the Home, London:RoutledgeFalmer. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 77. References and further readingGill, T. (ed) (1996) Electronic children: How children are responding to the information revolution, London: National childrens Bureau.Gilster, P. (1997) Digital Literacy. New York: Wiley.Hawkridge, D. (1983). New Information Technology in Education, London: Croom Helm.Hellawell, S. (2001). Beyond Access: ICT and social inclusion, London: Fabian Society.Heverly, R.A. (2008) Growing Up Digital: Control and the Pieces of a Digital Life. In McPherson, T. (ed) Digital Youth, Innovation, and theUnexpected. Cambridge (Massachusetts): The MIT Press, pp.199-218.Holloway, S. L., and Valentine, G. (2003) Cyberkids: children in the information age, London: RoutledgeFalmer.Ito, M. et al. (2008) Foreword. In McPherson, T. (ed) Digital Youth, Innovation, and the Unexpected. Cambridge (Massachusetts): The MIT Press.Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Clinton, K., Weigel, M., & Robinson, A. (2006). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Educationfor the 21st Century. Cambridge, MA: Comparative Media Studies Programme at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. URLhttp://www.projectnml.org/files/working/NMLWhitePaper.pdf [Accessed 2 Nov 2010].Kelley-Salinas, G. (2000) Different Educational Inequalities: ICT and Option to Close the Gaps, in OECD (ed) Schooling for Tomorrow: Learning toBridge the Digital Divide. Paris: OECD. Chapter 2. pp. 21 – 36. URLhttp://www.oecd.org/site/schoolingfortomorrowknowledgebase/themes/ict/41284104.pdf[Accessed 20 Sept 2012].Livingstone, S. (2008). Internet Literacy: Young People’s Negotiation of New Online Opportunities, in T. McPherson (ed.). Digital Youth,Innovation, and the Unexpected, Cambridge (Massachusetts): The MIT Press. (pp. 101– 122).McPherson, T. (ed) (2008) Digital Youth, Innovation, and the Unexpected, London: The MIT Press.Melville, D. (2009) Higher Education in a Web 2.0 World: Report of Committee of Enquiry into the Changing Learner Experience, URLhttp://www.clex.org.uk/CLEX_Report_v1-final.pdf. [Accessed 29 May 2009].Pedro, H.K. et al (2004) Technology in Schools: Education, ICT and the Knowledge Society. Instituto de Informática Educativa, Universidad de LaFrontera, Casilla 380 - Temuco, Chile. URL http://www.sca2006.tic-educa.org/archivos/modulo_1/sesion_1/ICT_report_oct04a_Pedro_Hepp.pdf[Accessed 1 Oct 2012]. (see Section VII. Rural Schools: A Special Case (pp. 57 – 67)). The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 78. References and further readingReddi, U.V. (2009) Role of ICTs in Education and Development: Potentials, Pitfalls, and Challenges. A Course Unit within Course 01 ParticipatoryLifelong Learning and Information and Communication Technologies, School of Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. URLshttp://www.unesco.org/education/aladin/paldin/courses.html] andhttp://www.unesco.org/pv_obj_cache/pv_obj_id_3F2FF62117EFB7B773D53279A504D0C6531C0100/filename/unit_13.pdf [Accessed 25 Sept2012].Reisdorf, B.C. (2011). Non-adoption of Internet in Great Britain and Sweden. Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, UK. URLhttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1369118X.2010.543141 [Accessed 01 Oct 2012].Selwyn, N. and Facer, K. (2007) Beyond the digital divide: Rethinking digital inclusion for the 21st century. Bristol: Futurelab. URLwww.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/opening_education/Digitial_Divide.pdf [Accessed 1 Sept 2012].Sharpe, R., Beethem, H., and De Freitas, S.( eds) (2010). Rethinking Learning for a Digital Age: How learners are shaping their own experiences,London: Routledge. [see Chapter 12].Somekh, B. et al. (2002) ImpaCT2: Pupils’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of ICT in the Home, School and Community: ICT in Schools Research andEvaluation Series – No.9. Department for Education and Skills and Becta, UK. URLhttps://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/ICT%20and%20attainment.pdf. [Accessed 9 Sept 2012].UNESCO (2009) Guide to Measuring Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Education, Technical Paper No. 2. UNESCO Institute forStatistics, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. URL http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001865/186547e.pdf. [Accessed 9 Sept 2012].Van Dijk, J.A.G. (2005) The Deepening Divide: Inequality in the Information Society. London: Sage.Welsh Assembly Government (2008) Transforming Schools with ICT: The Report to the Welsh Assembly Government of the Schools ICT StrategyWorking Group, Welsh Assembly Government, Cathays Park, Cardiff. URL URL http://www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk/ictstrategyworkinggroup-e.pdfAccessed 25 Sept 2012.Wilhelm, A.G. (2004) Digital Nation: Towards an Inclusive Information Society, London: The MIT Press.Williams, P.J. (2009) Technological literacy: a multliteracies approach for democracy. International Journal of Technology and Design Education,19(3), pp. 237-254. The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 79. Resources - UK Organisation URL Futurelab http://www.futurelab.org.uk/ Becta http://www.becta.org/postnuke/index.php BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/ The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 80. Resources - EuropeEuropean Union http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/ http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/projects/home_en.h tml The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 81. Resources - InternationalUnesco http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/themes/icts/Commonwealth of Learning http://www.col.org/ [then use search terms such as ‘ict learning schools’]The World Bank http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTINFORMATIONANDCO MMUNICATIONANDTECHNOLOGIES/0,,menuPK:282828~pagePK:149018~piPK:14 9093~theSitePK:282823,00.html] The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 82. ICT for Education: emerging areas OERs (Open Educational Resources, e.g., OpenLearn, MIT open resources, OpenCulture. ‘Folk teachers’ (e.g., Khan Academy) Repositories of recorded lectures (e.g, TED Talks) Learning material on iTunes U Informal and formal learning material on YouTube and other social media Social and participatory media (Web 2.0 technologies) and informal learning Mobile technologies and flexibility of learning The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 83. And finally … some fun!Visualising the growth and the use of the Internethttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/8552410.stm The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha
  • 84. Thank you! hope you enjoyed the class  If you have any questions or suggestions to improve / contribute to this session / presentation, please contact me at: pe27@le.ac.uk @palithaed +44 (0)116 252 3753 +44 (0)7525 246 592 Office location:No. 105, Beyond Distance Research Alliance, University of Leicester, Princess Road East, LE1 7LG The Role of ICT in Education, Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, MA IE Programme 20 - 13, Dr Palitha Edirisingha