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ICT in Education

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This is a longer version of the slides used at the session on the 14th of Nov 2011.

This is a longer version of the slides used at the session on the 14th of Nov 2011.

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  • even in most developed countries, about one-quarter or even one-third of the population has no access to computers and internet. [BBC figures] what are the issues arising from some sections of the population having access to ICT and others not? the more ICT is immersed in society and pervades everyday life, the more it becomes attached to all existing social divisions. differential information and communication skills might lead to an increase of unequal (network) positions in society. is digital divide primarily a technological problem? a physical access problem?
  • even in most developed countries, about one-quarter or even one-third of the population has no access to computers and internet. [BBC figures] what are the issues arising from some sections of the population having access to ICT and others not? the more ICT is immersed in society and pervades everyday life, the more it becomes attached to all existing social divisions. differential information and communication skills might lead to an increase of unequal (network) positions in society. is digital divide primarily a technological problem? a physical access problem?
  • in the 1980s only a small part of the population in the West had access to personal computers and internet. the arrival of the world wide web in the early 1990s (1993) and the mass availability of personal multimedia computers the ICT was beginning to reach a mass of the population. the issue of some sections of the population not having access to ICT was beginning to be highlighted.
  • Trickle down principle: the idea that some sections of the population always get access to ICT / media first, buying the new technology when it is expensive and forcing the prices to drop. they pay for the access of the others who get access to new media little later. the proponents of trickel-down principle hold the view that market will do the job and would finally solve the access problems.
  • Divides are by-products of old inequalities digital technology is intensifying inequalities new inequalities are appearing (p. 6). Is digital divide a new phenomenon? Digital divide a matter of old inequalities reproduced in the appropriation of new technology? are new inequalities appearing due to a digital divide? what are the implications for education? what can we do to close the digital divide?
  • More claims ‘ Today in our cities, most learning occurs outside the classroom. The sheer quantity of information conveyed by [new media] far exceeds the quantity of information conveyed by school instruction and texts. This challenge has destroyed the monopoly of the book as a teaching aid and creaked the very walls of the classroom so suddenly, we’re confused, baffled... [Many teachers naturally view the offerings of the new media as entertainment, rather than education. but this carries no conviction to the student. (p. 1).
  • Livingstone (2008) asks is mastering the technical aspects all that matters? [Compared with the previous new media - books, comics, cinema, radio, television - ], ‘the demands of the computer interface are significant, rendering many parents “dinosaurs” in the information age inhabited by their children. but attention to these demands blinds us to the real challenge of using digital media, namely the potential for engagement with information and education content, and participation in online activities, networks, and communities. ’‘The very difficulty of accessing and using the internet beguiles many adults into believing that if only they could master “clicking” on links with the mouse, then they - like their children - would be internet “experts”. This is not a belief that we hold for the pen, else we’d stop teaching pupils English once they had learned to read and write., but the child who “whizzes” around the screen seems so skilled that, we conclude comfortably, they know all they need to know already. (p. 24).
  • new forms of media literacy and changes in the modes of media participation new ICT is a combination of interactive media (such as games), online networks (e.g., ...), and existing media forms (audio, video, listening viewing), and production (using digital cameras). so ‘Navigating this media ecology involves a palette of literacies that are being defined through practice but require more scholarly scrutinity before they can be fully incorporated pervasively into educational initiatives. (p. viii). ‘ media literacy involves not only ways of understanding, interpreting and critiquing media, but also the means for creative and social expression, online search and navigation, and a host of new technical skills. (p. viii). ‘the potential gap in literacies and participation skills creates a new challenge for educators who struggle to bridge media engagement inside and outside the classroom’ (p. viii). digital media: interactive, peer-to-peer forms of communication, and many-many forms of distribution --> types of participation that are more bottom-up and driven by the “user” or the “consumer”. unlike with corporate media such as television and radio, new digital media with low or no cost production and sharing capability, online distribution means, much more dynamic range of who participates, how they participate in the production, distribution / sharing of media. ‘ new low-cost digital production tools, and online distribution means that amateur and casual media creator can author, edit, and distribute video and other rich media forms that were once prohibitively expensive to produce and share with others’ (p. viii). Intellectual property rights loss of control and shift in power. children - historically subject to a high degree of systematic and institutional control in the kinds of information and social communication to which they have access’. digital media ‘disrupts the existing power relations between adult authority and youth voice. digital media ‘increasingly insists that we acknowledge the view point that young people as competent and full social subjects. fear and panic? ‘some see “digital kids” as our best hope for the future, others worry that new media are part of a generational rift and a dangerous turn away from existing standards for knowledge, literacy, and civic engagement.’
  • Transcript

    • 1. 14 th Nov 2011 10.00am – 12.00pm MA International Education core module: Contemporary Issues in Education , Session 9 Dr Palitha Edirisingha Beyond Distance Research Alliance University of Leicester 105, Princess Road East, LE1 7LG [email_address] +44 (0)116 252 3753 +44 (0)7525 246 592
    • 2. This is a ‘longer’ and slightly ‘modified’ version of the slides I used during the session on the 14 th of November 2011. Please email me at [email_address] if you have any questions regarding this set of slides.
    • 3. Learning outcomes Gain an in-depth understanding of the developments of ICT in various national and cultural contexts Understand the nature and implications of differential access to technology for educational and social inclusion Develop critical awareness of young people’s  new digital media skills and their implications for teaching and learning in schools Recognise the potential uses of new technologies to support learning in schools The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 4. Learning activities
      • Pre-session: internet research
      • Pre-session reading
      • Group activities
      • Discussions
      • Post-session reading
      • A presentation, an essay?
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 5. Key themes and concepts Digital divide Digital exclusion and inclusion Learners: digital generation, Net generation Digital literacy Pedagogy, learning The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 6. Key concepts and terms The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 7. 1). ICT? What do we mean by it?
      • Responses from the class..
      • [---]
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 8. 2). Digital natives? Who are they?
      • Responses from the class..
      • [---]
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 9. 3). Digital divide? What is it?
      • Responses from the class..
      • [---]
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 10. 4). Digital literacy? What is it?
      • Responses from the class..
      • [---]
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 11. Internet use across the world The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 12. Internet access (Source: http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm , accessed 14 Nov 2011) The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 13. Internet Use across the World
      • There are roughly the same number of Internet users in the G8 countries as in the whole rest of the world combined
      • The top 20 countries in terms of Internet bandwidth are home to roughly 80% of all Internet users worldwide.
      • The entire African continent - home to over 50 countries - has fewer Internet users than France alone.
      • There are more Internet users in London than in the whole of Pakistan .
      • Denmark has more than twice the international Internet bandwidth that the whole of Latin American and the Caribbean combined.
      • There are still 30 countries with an Internet penetration of less than 1 %
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 14. International Picture 1. Western Europe:
      • ICT widely available to general public in both accessibility & cost. 47% between the ages of 16 & 74 used the Internet
      • But gaps remain, e.g:
        • Age; Employment status; Educational level; Rural/urban location
      • Contributory factors
        • Poor infrastructure; Low ICT literacy; Lack of incentives to use ICT
      • Largest gaps between higher & lower educated in Portugal, Slovenia & Spain [70%, 68% & 61% respectively]
      • Smallest in Lithuania (11%), Sweden (24%) & Germany (25%)
        • ( EU Study: Eurostat, 2004/5)
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 15. International picture 2. Global digital divide
      • Unlike the traditional notion of digital divide between social classes, the "global digital divide" is essentially a geographical division.
      • Originally referred to disparity in Internet access between rural/urban areas of the US
      • Now, generally used to describe gap between developed & developing world
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 16. Global divide
      • Differing rates of technological progress widen economic disparity between most developed nations…..
        • (primarily Western, Northern America, Europe, Canada, Japan)
      • … & the underdeveloped/developing ones…
        • (primarily Latin America, Africa, & Southeast Asia)
      • … .create a digital (or digitally fostered ) divide
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 17. Schools: UK
      • 100% of UK schools have internet access
      • The majority of schools are well-equipped with modern technology
      • Main divide is for home access which disadvantages students with limited access to or no ICT at home:
        • Schools increasingly require homework to involve use of ICT
        • School intranets
        • Online submission & marking
        • eLearning portals / virtual learning environments
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 18. Schools: Developing countries
      • Example: Namibia
      • Namibia is a vast country with a population of less than two million. A major portion of the country's annual budget is being spent on education, but state coffers are stretched to the limit ….Towns & villages are far apart, many do not have running water & electricity, let alone access to phone lines. There is a general lack of clinics, schools, qualified teachers, libraries & educational materials.
      • Namibia has 1,519 schools of which 924 presently do not have a telephone, electricity or a library.
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 19. Pre-class activity -1: Access The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 20. Activity 1: What does it mean to have access to, and devices for using internet for education? (Think about your chosen sector of education) The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 21. Access to hardware and the internet
      • Useful websites
      • http://www.nationmaster.com
      • http://www.nationmaster.com/cat/med-media
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_number_of_mobile_phones_in_use
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 22. Access in your country / region?
      • Internet
      • Computers
      • Mobile phones
      • Other digital devices
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 23. Digital divide The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 24. Digital divide
      • ‘ the gap between the technology rich and the technology poor, both within and between societies’ (Buckingham, 2008, p. 10)
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 25. Digital divide
      • 'the gap between those who do and those who do not have access to computers and the Internet’. … access considered as ' physical access ' - 'having personal computer and Internet connection.' (van Dijk, 2005, p. 1)
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 26. Digital divide
      • ‘ the gap between individuals, households, businesses and geographic areas at different socio-economic levels with regard both to their opportunities to access information and communication technologies (ICTs) and their use of the Internet for a wide variety of activities (OECD, 2001).
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 27. Can we close the digital divide? If so, how? The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 28.
      • What are the limitations with this view/ approach to solving the access problem?
      The ‘trickle-down’ principle The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 29.
      • digital divide as a ‘ social and political problem ’ (van Dijk, 2005, p. 3), not a technical one.
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 30.
      • physical access is only one kind of (material) access among at least four: motivational, material, skills and usage .
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 31.
      • Does digital divide intensify the existing social inequalities (of age, gender, ethnicity, social class, disabilities)?
      What are the disadvantages of being in the ‘have not’ side of the digital divide? What are the consequences of digital divide for learners, for teachers, for schools, and for education as a whole? The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 32. Digital divide – examples In pictures: Nairobi's digital divide ‘ … with broadband internet access costing more than the average Kenyan annual wage, the digital divide appears set to remain’ (BBC, 2010) http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_pictures/8259533.stm The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 33. Access The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 34. Access
      • Four kinds :
      • Motivational access -- motivation to use digital technology
      • Material or physical access -- possession of computers and Internet connections / permission to use them and their content
      • Skills access - - possession of digital skills: operational, informational, and strategic
      • Usage access -- number and diversity of applications, usage of time
      • (van Dijk, 2005).
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 35. Approaches to closing digital divide?
      • Hole in the Wall - Sugta Mitra’s video on YouTube
      • Your reflections … any similar approaches in your context?
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 36. Innovative projects using new ICT BBC Janala has been awarded the prestigious Microsoft Education Award at the 2010 Tech Awards in Silicon Valley, California. The Tech Awards celebrate the power of technology to address global challenges in the environment, economic development, education, equality and health. "BBC Janala’s genius is it uses the existing cellular network to provide people with educational content rather than waiting for what we have in the developed world.” BBC Janala impressed judges with its use of mobile technology to reach some of the poorest people in the country, offering a simple and affordable way to learn. http ://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/trust/whatwedo/where/asia/bangladesh/2010/11/ 101020_tech_award_for_bbc_janala.shtml BBC Janala receives Tech Award for educational innovation Bangladesh The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 37. Digital / net generation The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 38. A digital generation
      • ‘ a generation defined in and through its experience of digital computer technology’ (Buckingham, 2006, p. 1).
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 39. A digital generation
      • Other terms
      • the Nintendo generation (Green and Bigum, 1993)
      • the Playstation generation (Blair, 2004)
      • the ‘ net generation’ (Tapscott, 1998)
      • ‘ cyberkids ’ (Holloway and Valentine, 2003)
      • ‘ thumb generation’ - in Japan (Brooke, 2002)
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 40. A generation?
      • ‘ an age cohort that comes to have social significance by by virtue of constituting itself as a cultural identity ’ (Edmunds and Turner, 2002, p. 7).
      • ‘ a cohort of individuals born within a particular time frame ’ (Buckingham, 2008, p. 2)
      • a cohort having a relationship with a particular traumatic event’ (Edmunds and Turner, 2002), for example a world war..., a defining moment in the history.
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 41. Generations
      • Generations (according to Tapscott, 1998)
      • The Boomers - born between 1946 - 1964. The TV generation. conservative, Hierarchical, inflexible, centralised (like the TV medium). incompetent technophobes.
      • The Bust - born between 1965 - 1976.
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 42.
      • The net generation: expressive, savvy, self-reliant, analytical, creative, inquisitive, accept diversity, socially conscious. Possess intuitive, spontaneous relationship with digital technology.
      • ‘ using new technology is as natural as breathing ’ (Tapscott, 1997, p. 40).
      • generational differences are produced by the technology.
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 43. Claims about the digital generation
      • ‘ Although specific forms of technology uptake are highly diverse, a generation is growing up in an era where digital media are part of the taken-for-granted social and cultural fabric of learning, play, and social communication’ (Ito et al, p. vii, 2008).
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 44. Claims about the digital generation
      • ‘… those immersed in new digital tools and networks are engaged in an unprecedented exploration of language, games, social interaction, problem solving, and self-directed activity that leads to diverse forms of learning.’ (Ito et al, p. vii, 2008).
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 45. Research on digital natives
      • Please click on the link at the bottom of this slide to download a keynote address by Dr Chris Davies (Oxford University) .
      • Abstract of the keynote address:
      • Ever since the inflated claims about how technology can transform learning during the 1980s, education professionals have been scanning the horizon for the first signs of the future to arrive, and complaining about how long the wait has been. This paper will argue that the big transformation has already happened, but in the form simply of very many small and relatively unremarkable changes that are rapidly becoming embedded in the lives and learning of young people. The paper will discuss these issues with reference to findings from a current Becta-funded research project: The Learner and their Context.
      • Click on the URL below and download the 1 st and the 2 nd files from the top. Named “day3_keynote_cd_present_med” AND “ ‪day3_keynote_cd_qa_med”‬
      • After downloading, you can play back these files on your iPod, mobile phone, iPad or laptop.
      • https://skydrive.live.com/?cid=1371316d87c549bf&id=1371316D87C549BF%21211
      • If there is a problem accessing this keynote address and/or playing back the files, please email me and I’ll try to help..
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 46. Activity 2: Questions…
      • Do young people who are growing up with digital media have a different orientation to the world, a different set of dispositions or characteristics?
      • How do the net generation learn? what are the characteristics of their learning? based on your own experience, own educational context?
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 47. Digital native’s own claims
      • ‘ I don’t find it hard to use a computer because I got into it quickly. You learn quick because it’s a very fun thing to do.” (Amir, 15, from London).
      • ‘ My Dad hasn’t even got a clue. Can’t even work the mouse.... So I have to go on the Internet for him” (Lorna, 17, from Manchester).
      • (Livingstone, 2008).
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 48. How true are these claims?
      • ‘ While these claims contain a sizeable grain of truth, we must also recognise their rhetorical value for the speakers. Only in rare circumstances in history have children gained greater expertise than parents in skills highly values by society.’ (e.g., diasporic children’s learning of the host language before their parents, youthful expertise in music, games, play).
      • (Livingstone, 2008).
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 49. Growing up ‘analogue’ Vs growing up digital
      • Please read the extract from Heverly (2008, pp.199-200) and identify any similarities and differences between your own, your parents’ and your pupils’ generations.
      • How far is this true as far as yourself and your pupils are concerned? Does a ‘digital generation’ exist in your context? What do they do with digital technologies? Do they use technologies for their learning? if so, how? Make notes and share with the class.
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 50. Implications for learning: digital literacy The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 51. Digital literacy
      • […] is much more than a functional matter of learning how to use a computer and keyboard, or how to do online searches. […] As with print, they also need to be able to evaluate and use information critically if they are to transform it into knowledge. This means asking questions about the sources of that information, the interests of its producers, and the ways in which it represents the world.
      • (Buckingham, 2006, p. 267)
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 52.  
    • 53. Three concerns that need our attention:
      • 1. The participation gap. An unequal access to the opportunities, experiences, skills, and knowledge that will prepare youth for full participation in the world tomorrow.
      • 2. The transparency problem . The difficulty that the young people face in making sense of how the new media tools that they use can shape their perceptions of the world.
      • 3. The ethics challenge . The use of new media tools which can breakdown the traditional norms and practices as professionals, such as the fair use of content and consideration for intellectual property rights, and young people need support in understanding these issues as they are socialised in a Web 2.0 world.
      • Jenkins et al (2006, p. 3)
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 54. Digital literacy – implications for learning The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 55. Implications for learning   Pupils without internet 'disadvantaged in education'   An increasing amount of homework requires use of the internet More than half of teachers believe that children with no internet access are seriously disadvantaged in their education, a survey has suggested. A fifth of the 585 teachers surveyed for the Times Educational Supplement and charity E-Learning Foundation said internet access was essential for pupil's homework. The charity also warned it was seeing support from the government cut. It is estimated two million children live in homes without internet access. An increasing amount of schoolwork, especially at secondary school, is dependent on computer use. [ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-11738519 ] The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 56. More questions..
      • How might we deploy new ICT to improve learning and studying at schools / universities / other contexts?
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 57. More questions..
      • How can schools / formal education system help pupils growing in a digital age?
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 58. Towards a model of educational digital inclusion The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 59. Activity 3
      • In your groups,
        • Identify a Scribe ; Facilitator & Timekeeper
      • Add to/build upon the existing model on the previous slide:
        • Identify additional factors which affect digital inclusion:
          • generally
          • which are likely to relate to education
      • Scribe presents (2 minutes) summary of discussion
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 60. Activity 4
      • In your groups,
        • ( NEW Scribe ; Facilitator & Timekeeper)
      • ‘ Think about your own national/cultural context
        • Where do you see the key barriers to inclusion?
        • What would be required to bring about greater inclusion:
          • generally
          • which are likely to relate to education
      • Identify possible intervention points
      • Scribe presents (2 minutes) summary of discussion
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 61. Finally, a question for educators: How can schools / formal education system help pupils growing in a digital age?
      • equalising access to technology (not only physical access, but other forms of access too..)
      • providing both critical perspectives on technology and creative opportunities to use it. not just teaching ‘ICT skills’.
      • provide opportunities to use the skills they learned outside the school in meaningful ways
      • online safety
      • ethical use of information
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 62. References and further reading
      • Berners-Lee, T. (2000). Weaving the Web: The Past, Present and Future of the World Wide Web by its Inventor, London, Texere.
      • Buckingham, D., and Willett, R. (eds) (2006) Digital Generation: Children, Young People, and New Media , Mahwah (New Jersey): Lawrence Erlbaum.
      • DCMS (2009) Digital Britain: Final Report , URL http://interactive.bis.gov.uk/digitalbritain/report/being-digital/getting-britain-online/. [Accessed 3 Sept 2009].
      • Cuban, L. (2001). Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom, London: Harvard University Press.
      • Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and Machines: The Classroom Use of Technology Since 1920, New York: Teachers’ College, Colombia University.
      • Facer, K. (2011) . Learning Futures: Education, technology and social change , Routledge: London.
      • Facer, K., Furlong, J., Furlon, R., and Sutherland, R. (2003). ScreenPlay: Children and Computing in the Home , London: RoutledgeFalmer.
      • Gill, T. (ed) (1996) Electronic children: How children are responding to the information revolution , London: National children's Bureau.
      • Heverly, R. A. (2008). Growing Up Digital: Control and the Pieces of a Digital Life, in in T. McPherson (ed.). Digital Youth, Innovation, and the Unexpected, Cambridge (Massachusetts): The MIT Press. (pp. 199 – 218)
      • Hawkridge, D. (1983). New Information Technology in Education , London: Croom Helm.
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 63. References and further reading
      • Hellawell, S. (2001). Beyond Access: ICT and social inclusion , London: Fabian Society.
      • Holloway, S. L., and Valentine, G. (2003 ) Cyberkids: children in the information age , London: RoutledgeFalmer.
      • Jenkins, H., Purushotma, R., Clinton, K., Weigel, M., & Robinson, A. (2006). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century . Cambridge, MA: Comparative Media Studies Programme at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. URL http://www.projectnml.org/files/working/NMLWhitePaper.pdf [Accessed 2 Nov 2010].
      • Livingstone, S. (2008). Internet Literacy: Young People’s Negotiation of New Online Opportunities, in T. McPherson (ed.). Digital Youth, Innovation, and the Unexpected, Cambridge (Massachusetts): The MIT Press. (pp. 101– 122).
      • McPherson, T. (ed) (2008) Digital Youth, Innovation, and the Unexpected , London: The MIT Press.
      • Melville, D. (2009) Higher Education in a Web 2.0 World: Report of Committee of Enquiry into the Changing Learner Experience, URL http://www.clex.org.uk/CLEX_Report_v1-final.pdf. [Accessed 29 May 2009].
      • Sharpe, R., Beethem, H., and De Freitas, S.( eds) (2010). Rethinking Learning for a Digital Age: How learners are shaping their own experiences, London: Routledge. [see Chapter 12].
      • van Dijk, J.A.G.M. (2005). The Deepening Divide: Inequality in the Information Society, London: Sage.
      • Wilhelm, A.G. (2004) Digital Nation: Towards an Inclusive Information Society, London: The MIT Press.
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 64. Resources - UK The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011 Organisation URL Futurelab http://www.futurelab.org.uk/ Becta http://www.becta.org/postnuke/index.php BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/ict/
    • 65. Resources - Europe
      • European Union
      • http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/
      • http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/projects/home_en.html
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 66. Resources - International
      • Unesco
      • http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/themes/icts/
      • Commonwealth of Learning
      • http://www.col.org/ [then use search terms such as ‘ict learning schools’]
      • The World Bank
      • http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTINFORMATIONANDCOMMUNICATIONANDTECHNOLOGIES/0,,menuPK:282828~pagePK:149018~piPK:149093~theSitePK:282823,00.html ]
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 67. ICT for Education: look out for!!
      • OERs (Open Educational Resources, e.g., OpenLearn, MIT open resources, OpenCulture.
      • ‘ Folk teachers’ (e.g., Khan Academy)
      • Repositories of recorded lectures (e.g, TED Talks)
      • Learning material on iTunes U
      • Informal and formal learning material on YouTube and other social media
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 68. And finally … some fun!
      • Visualising the internet growth and use
      • http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/8552410.stm
      The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011
    • 69. Thank you! hope you enjoyed the class 
      • If you have any questions or suggestions to improve / contribute to this presentation, please feel free to contact me at:
      • [email_address]
      • @palithaed
      • +44 (0)116 252 3753
      • +44 (0)7525 246 592
      Office location: No. 105, Beyond Distance Research Alliance, University of Leicester, Princess Road East, LE1 7LG The Role of ICT in Education, Session 9, MA IE Core Module Contemporary Issues in Education, Dr Palitha Edirisingha, 14 Nov 2011

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