Jarrar.lecture notes.aai.2011s.ontology part5_egovernmentcasestudy

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Jarrar.lecture notes.aai.2011s.ontology part5_egovernmentcasestudy

  1. 1. Lecture Notes <br />University of Birzeit<br />2nd Semester, 2010<br />Advanced Artificial Intelligence (SCOM7341)<br />Ontology<br />Part 5 Case Study: The Palestinian e-Government Interoperability Framework <br />Dr. Mustafa Jarrar<br />mjarrar@birzeit.eduwww.jarrar.info<br />University of Birzeit<br />
  2. 2. Case Study<br />The Palestinian e-Government <br />Interoperability Framework <br />Ministry of Telecom Information Technology<br /> Another Case Study is the Customer Complaint Portal –CContology <br />
  3. 3. What is e-government?<br />e-Government is an (framework) to enable electronic services: government-to-government (G2G), government-to-business (G2B), and government-to-citizen (G2C).<br />Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry D<br />?<br /><br />12345<br />Payment <br />Server<br />Metadata<br />################################<br />Authenticate Users <br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Health <br />Name: <br />PIN: <br />###########<br />###########<br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  4. 4. What is e-government?<br />Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry D<br /><Query><br /><Query><br />Payment <br />Server<br />Metadata<br />List of allowed services<br />Choose Renew Driving License<br />################################<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  5. 5. What is e-government?<br /><ul><li>Servers interoperate among each other and exchange data messages.
  6. 6. Exchanging data messages is like exchanging documents, but in a digital world.</li></ul>Ministry A<br />Ministry D<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry B<br /><Query><br /><Query><br /><Query><br /><Query><br />= = = = = <br />= = = = =<br /><Query><br />= = = = = <br />= = = = =<br />Payment <br />Server<br />Metadata<br />List of allowed services<br />Choose Renew Driving License<br />################################<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Vvvvbbbbb<br />Name: <br />Name: <br />Name:<br />ccc<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Aaa aaa aaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbb bbbb a bb aaa<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Portal<br />
  7. 7. What is e-government?<br /><ul><li>Servers interoperate among each other and exchange data messages.
  8. 8. Exchanging data messages is like exchanging documents, but in a digital world.</li></ul>Ministry D<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Payment <br />Server<br />Metadata<br />List of allowed services<br />Choose Renew Driving License<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Vvvvbbbbb<br />Name: <br />Name: <br />Name:<br />ccc<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br /><br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  9. 9. What is e-government?<br /><ul><li>Servers interoperate among each other and exchange data messages.
  10. 10. Exchanging data messages is like exchanging documents, but in a digital world.
  11. 11. A framework is needed for Interoperability (Organizational, Technical, Semantical).</li></ul>Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry D<br /><Query><br /><Query><br /><Query><br />= = = = = <br />= = = = =<br />Payment <br />Server<br />Metadata<br />################################<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Vvvvbbbbb<br />Name: <br />Name: <br />Name:<br />ccc<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br /><br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  12. 12. What is e-government?<br />Data Message <br /><SOAP-ENV:Envelopexmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/"<br /> SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"> <br /><SOAP-ENV:Header><br /> . . .<br /><SOAP-ENV:Header><br /><SOAP-ENV:Body> <br /> . . .<br /> <Person><br /> <PersonID>123456789</PersonID><br /> <FName>Rula</FName><br /> . . .<br /> <Nationality>PAL33</Nationality><br /> . . .<br /></SOAP-ENV:Body> <br /><ul><li>Servers interoperate among each other and exchange data messages.
  13. 13. Exchanging data messages is like exchanging documents, but in a digital world.
  14. 14. A framework is needed for Interoperability (Organizational, Technical, Semantical).</li></ul>Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry D<br /><Query><br /><Query><br /><Query><br />= = = = = <br />= = = = =<br />Payment <br />Server<br />Metadata<br />################################<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Vvvvbbbbb<br />Name: <br />Name: <br />Name:<br />ccc<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br /><br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  15. 15. Why e-government in Palestine?<br />Egov for Palestine is not a luxury, but a must (political, economy, social)<br />Like other countries:<br /><ul><li>To make the life of citizens easier
  16. 16. For effectiveness and transparency in public services.
  17. 17. Improve economy: more income, less spending </li></ul>More than this: <br /><ul><li>To serve Palestinians who live inside but unable to reach public offices because of the hundreds of Israeli check-points between cities.
  18. 18. To connect and serve Palestinians refugees and foreigners (70% of Palestinians)</li></li></ul><li>Five levels of challenges<br /><ul><li>Should ministries be linked through the internet, or have own network?
  19. 19. Who manages the network?
  20. 20.
  21. 21. e-government Network…. Done!</li></ul>Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry D<br />= = = = = <br />= = = = =<br />Payment <br />Server<br />Metadata<br />################################<br />1. Infrastructure (البنية التحتية)<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Vvvvbbbbb<br />Name: <br />Name: <br />Name:<br />ccc<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br /><br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  22. 22. Five levels of challenges<br /><ul><li>Ministry A is sure about the message sources (Ministry B).
  23. 23. Ministry B cannot deny sending the message.
  24. 24. The message cannot be changed in the middle.
  25. 25. ….
  26. 26. Estonian Project….!</li></ul>Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry D<br />= = = = = <br />= = = = =<br />Payment <br />Server<br />2. Security Framework (إطار أمن المعلومات)<br />Metadata<br />################################<br />1. Infrastructure (البنية التحتية)<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Vvvvbbbbb<br />Name: <br />Name: <br />Name:<br />ccc<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br /><br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  27. 27. Five levels of challenges<br /><ul><li>The content of the exchanged messages understood.
  28. 28. Organizational procedures compatible.
  29. 29. Technical issues and systems are compatible.
  30. 30. ….
  31. 31. National Interoperability Team….!</li></ul>Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry D<br />= = = = = <br />= = = = =<br />3. Interoperability Framework (إطار التبادل البيني)<br />Payment <br />Server<br />2. Security Framework (إطار أمن المعلومات)<br />Metadata<br />################################<br />1. Infrastructure (البنية التحتية)<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Vvvvbbbbb<br />Name: <br />Name: <br />Name:<br />ccc<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br /><br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  32. 32. Five levels of challenges<br /><ul><li>All communications are legally accepted.
  33. 33. Can a ministry deny providing a service?
  34. 34. What information is private, cannot be exchanged with other ministries
  35. 35. ….
  36. 36. Legal-Information Team….!</li></ul>Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry D<br />4. Legal Framework (الإطار القانوني)<br />= = = = = <br />= = = = =<br />3. Interoperability Framework (إطار التبادل البيني)<br />Payment <br />Server<br />2. Security Framework (إطار أمن المعلومات)<br />Metadata<br />################################<br />1. Infrastructure (البنية التحتية)<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Vvvvbbbbb<br />Name: <br />Name: <br />Name:<br />ccc<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br /><br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  37. 37. Five levels of challenges<br /><ul><li>Which services to provide now/later.
  38. 38. Who should benefit from services (Green ID, Blue IDs, refugees and foreigner)?
  39. 39. ….
  40. 40. OECD project….!</li></ul>5. Policy (السياسات)<br />Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry D<br />4. Legal Framework (الإطار القانوني)<br />= = = = = <br />= = = = =<br />3. Interoperability Framework (إطار التبادل البيني)<br />Payment <br />Server<br />2. Security Framework (إطار أمن المعلومات)<br />Metadata<br />################################<br />1. Infrastructure (البنية التحتية)<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Vvvvbbbbb<br />Name: <br />Name: <br />Name:<br />ccc<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br /><br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  41. 41. Palestinian Interoperability Framework Components<br />The Semantic & organization Interoperability Framework<br />ONTOLOGY SERVER<br />Ontology Modules<br />ORM, Gloss, Business Rules<br />DATABASE OF STATE DATABASES<br />Metadata about governmental databases and registries<br />ENTITY SERVER<br />Standard Classifications<br />SERVICE REPOSITORY<br />Business Processes (Government Services)<br />Web Service Repository (UDDI)<br />XML Schemas of Web Services<br />ADDRESS SERVER<br />Building Numbers<br />Street Names<br />ZIP Codes/Areas<br />The Technical Interoperability Framework<br />e-gov Service Bus<br />Tech standards<br />SOAP, WSDL, UTF-8…<br />
  42. 42. Palestinian Interoperability Framework Components<br />The Semantic & organization Interoperability Framework<br />ONTOLOGY SERVER<br />Ontology Modules<br />ORM, Gloss, Business Rules<br />DATABASE OF STATE DATABASES<br />Metadata about governmental databases and registries<br />ENTITY SERVER<br />Standard Classifications<br />All public services are described and modeled (AsIs, ToBe)<br />SERVICE REPOSITORY<br />Business Processes (Government Services)<br />Web Service Repository (UDDI)<br />XML Schemas of Web Services<br />ADDRESS SERVER<br />Building Numbers<br />Street Names<br />ZIP Codes/Areas<br />The Technical Interoperability Framework<br />e-gov Service Bus<br />Tech standards<br />SOAP, WSDL, UFT-8…<br />
  43. 43. Palestinian Interoperability Framework Components<br />The Semantic & organization Interoperability Framework<br />ONTOLOGY SERVER<br />Ontology Modules<br />ORM, Gloss, Business Rules<br />DATABASE OF STATE DATABASES<br />Metadata about governmental databases and registries<br />ENTITY SERVER<br />Standard Classifications<br />All state databases are described<br />SERVICE REPOSITORY<br />Business Processes (Government Services)<br />Web Service Repository (UDDI)<br />XML Schemas of Web Services<br />ADDRESS SERVER<br />Building Numbers<br />Street Names<br />ZIP Codes/Areas<br />The Technical Interoperability Framework<br />e-gov Service Bus<br />Tech standards<br />SOAP, WSDL, UFT-8…<br />
  44. 44. Palestinian Interoperability Framework Components<br />The Semantic & organization Interoperability Framework<br />ONTOLOGY SERVER<br />Ontology Modules<br />ORM, Gloss, Business Rules<br />DATABASE OF STATE DATABASES<br />Metadata about governmental databases and registries<br />ENTITY SERVER<br />Standard Classifications<br />All entities in all ministries are formally described.<br />SERVICE REPOSITORY<br />Business Processes (Government Services)<br />Web Service Repository (UDDI)<br />XML Schemas of Web Services<br />ADDRESS SERVER<br />Building Numbers<br />Street Names<br />ZIP Codes/Areas<br />The Technical Interoperability Framework<br />e-gov Service Bus<br />Tech standards<br />SOAP, WSDL, UFT-8…<br />
  45. 45. Palestinian Interoperability Framework Components<br />The Semantic & organization Interoperability Framework<br />ONTOLOGY SERVER<br />Ontology Modules<br />ORM, Gloss, Business Rules<br />DATABASE OF STATE DATABASES<br />Metadata about governmental databases and registries<br />ENTITY SERVER<br />Standard Classifications<br />All entities/classifications are standardized and cataloged .<br />SERVICE REPOSITORY<br />Business Processes (Government Services)<br />Web Service Repository (UDDI)<br />XML Schemas of Web Services<br />ADDRESS SERVER<br />Building Numbers<br />Street Names<br />ZIP Codes/Areas<br />The Technical Interoperability Framework<br />e-gov Service Bus<br />Tech standards<br />SOAP, WSDL, UFT-8…<br />
  46. 46. 1. Entity Server<br />
  47. 47. Standard Classifications: The Entity Serverمكتبة الكينونات والتصنيفات المعيارية<br />Governmental Agencies cannot communicate without the Entity Server.<br />Using the same names when transferring data between governmental agencies<br />لا تستطيع المؤسسات الحكومية تبادل البيانات بدون استخدام نفس المسميات والتصنيفات (مثل أسماء وأرقام المدن، الدول، أنواع السيارات، الفحوص الطبية).<br />
  48. 48. The need for Entity Server<br />We also need to agree on entity names and codes (an entity is an instance of a concept).<br />Entity Server<br />. . . <br /><NationalityCode>PSE<NationalityCode/><br />. . .<br />Governmental Agency A<br />Governmental Agency B<br />
  49. 49. How to use the Entity Server?<br /> Entity Server<br />All entity codes and names in all exchanged messages must be mapped to those in the Entity Server<br />Ministry D<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Payment <br />Server<br />Metadata<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Vvvvbbbbb<br />Name: <br />Name: <br />Name:<br />ccc<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Message3<br />Message4<br />Message1<br />Message2<br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  50. 50. Entity Server: What is done so far?<br />10. الوظائف الحكومية<br />11. العلاوات<br />12. الخصميات<br />13. الشهادات<br />14. التصنيف الوظيفي الحكومي<br />15. التصنيف الفلسطيني المعياري للتعليم<br />16. التصنيف المهني<br />17. تصنيف السلعي الصناعي<br />1. الجنسيات والدول<br />2. العملات المتداولة<br />3. المحافظات الفلسطينية<br />4. الأجناس البشرية<br />5. الديانات<br />6. المدن الفلسطينية<br />7. المصارف المحلية<br />8. الحالة الزوجية<br />9. الدرجات العلمية<br />
  51. 51. Entity Server: What is done so far?<br />For each Entity, we:<br />provide the classification in different formats: (Web service (XML), xls, sql, html).<br />provide Documentation that also serves as log/history document of the Entity.<br />make sure the developed standards cover tables used in different governmental agencies.<br />
  52. 52. Entity Server<br />
  53. 53. Entity Server<br />
  54. 54. Entity Server<br />
  55. 55. Entity Server<br />
  56. 56. Entity Server<br />
  57. 57. Entity Server<br />
  58. 58. Entity Server<br />
  59. 59. 2. Ontology Server<br />
  60. 60. Palestinian Government Ontology أنطولوجيا الحكومة الفلسطينية<br /><ul><li>The Government Ontology can be viewed as a framework(standard) that consists of the agreed-upon Vocabulary (naming), meaning, structure and business rules pertaining to the data exchanged in e-Government services.
  61. 61. أنطولوجيا الحكومة الفلسطينية تحتوي على وصف دقيق (ومتفق عليه «يلتزم به الجميع») لمسميات ومعاني وتركيب البيانات المتبادلة. </li></li></ul><li>Government Ontology: Why do we need it?<br /><ul><li>Why do we really need a “Framework” to agree on the naming, meaning, structure of the data, …?
  62. 62. Can’t we simply agree on all of this “ad-hoc”?
  63. 63. Governmental agency A provides a certain service to agency B.
  64. 64. The developers from agency B must understand/(agree with the developers from agency A) on the naming, meaning, structure of the data, business rules, …</li></ul>B<br />A<br />C<br />D<br />F<br />This must be done for all other agencies that want to consume certain services from A.<br />E<br />
  65. 65. Government Ontology: Why do we need it?<br /><ul><li>Why do we really need a “Framework” to agree on the naming, meaning, structure of the data, …?
  66. 66. Can’t we simply agree on all of this “ad-hoc”?</li></ul>B<br />A<br />C<br />B is the provider of the services …<br />D<br />F<br />E<br />
  67. 67. Government Ontology: Why do we need it?<br /><ul><li>Why do we really need a “Framework” to agree on the naming, meaning, structure of the data, …?
  68. 68. Can’t we simply agree on all of this “ad-hoc”?</li></ul>B<br />A<br />C<br />C is the provider of the services …<br />D<br />F<br />E<br />
  69. 69. Government Ontology: Why do we need it?<br /><ul><li>Why do we really need a “Framework” to agree on the naming, meaning, structure of the data, …?
  70. 70. Can’t we simply agree on all of this “ad-hoc”?</li></ul>B<br /><ul><li>Building the Palestinian e-Government “ad-hoc” is not scalable. </li></ul>A<br />C<br />D<br />F<br />E<br />
  71. 71. Government Ontology: Why do we need it?<br /><ul><li>Why do we really need a “Framework” to agree on the naming, meaning, structure of the data, …?
  72. 72. Can’t we simply agree on all of this “ad-hoc”?</li></ul>B<br /><ul><li>Building the Palestinian e-Government “ad-hoc” is not scalable. </li></ul>A<br />C<br /><ul><li>We need a framework (Ontology), such that:
  73. 73. The WSDL of a service “commits” to the Ontology.
  74. 74. The consumer of the service refers to the ontology to understand the meaning, structure and business rules pertaining to the data. </li></ul>Ontology<br />D<br />F<br />E<br />
  75. 75. The Government Ontology <br />The Government Ontology is a formal description of the terminology (concepts and their interrelationships) communicated in the Government domain; so that all the terminology in the web services is mapped to (commits to) this ontology.<br />
  76. 76. The Government Ontology <br /><ul><li>The Government Ontology is engineered by modularizing it into connected modules (e.g., Legal Person, Address, Organization, Car, Land, …).</li></li></ul><li>Government Ontology (Example)<br /><ul><li>Each Module consists of three components: (1) ORM Diagram, (2) Glossary, (3) Business Rules.</li></li></ul><li>Government Ontology (Example)<br /><ul><li>Each Module consists of three components: (1) ORM Diagram, (2) Glossary, (3) Business Rules.</li></ul>1- ORM Diagram<br />
  77. 77. Government Ontology (Example)<br /><ul><li>Each Module consists of three components: (1) ORM Diagram, (2) Glossary, (3) Business Rules.</li></ul>2- Glossary<br />
  78. 78. Government Ontology (Example)<br /><ul><li>Each Module consists of three components: (1) ORM Diagram, (2) Glossary, (3) Business Rules.</li></ul>3- Business Rules<br />
  79. 79. How to use the Ontology?<br /> Ontology<br />All the terminology and tags in all exchanged messages must commit to the Ontology<br />Ministry D<br />Ministry C<br />Ministry A<br />Ministry B<br />Payment <br />Server<br />Metadata<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Vvvvbbbbb<br />Name: <br />Name: <br />Name:<br />ccc<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Xxxxxxxx<br />Aaaaaaaaa a aaaaa<br />Bbbbbbbbb a bb aaa<br />Transport<br />Transport<br />Interior <br />Interior <br />Health <br />Health <br />Renew License <br />Register Car<br />Renew Passport<br />Register New born Copy of Birth Certificate <br />Message3<br />Message4<br />Message1<br />Message2<br />Portal<br />Authentication<br />Server <br />
  80. 80. Ontology Server: What is done so far?<br /><ul><li>The following modules are accomplished/being finalized:</li></ul>Legal Person Module<br />Natural Person Module<br />Organization Module<br />NGO Module<br />Bank Module<br />Political Party Module<br />Company Module<br />Address Module<br />Passport Module<br />Currency Exchange Module<br />Vehicle Module<br />
  81. 81. Ontology Server<br />
  82. 82. Ontology Server<br />
  83. 83. Ontology Server<br />
  84. 84. Ontology Server<br />
  85. 85. 3. Address Server<br />
  86. 86. The address server: Why do we need it?<br /><ul><li>Addresses are not consistent across all governmental agencies
  87. 87. E.g., different agencies register different names/numbers for the same building/street/area/region.
  88. 88. In order to interoperate, different governmental agencies must use the same address for a certain person.</li></ul>Agency A<br />Agency B<br />Agency C<br />
  89. 89. The address server<br />As a solution to this problem, we propose the address server. The address server can be used in many different ways:<br />Exchanging address information between different agencies (for e-Government Interoperability purposes).<br />Ensuring the Integrity of addresses.<br />Allowing the citizen to browse and query addressing information.<br />
  90. 90. The address server – What has been done<br />The Palestinian Postcode system (the first step towards a Palestinian addressing system): the West Bank and Gaza Strip were divided into 900 postcode zones. <br />

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