Inventing arguments chap 3 5


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Inventing arguments chap 3 5

  1. 1. Inventing Arguments Chapters 3-5 College Comp II
  2. 2. Values and Beliefs <ul><li>The claim will emerge from underlying values and beliefs of the arguer and audience. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand an argument, the reader must understand the appeals that can be explicit or hidden. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ideology <ul><li>Collection of unstated values and beliefs that information people’s understanding of the world. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every argument has deep layers beneath the surface opinions that are found by analyzing an argument’s claims and support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sophicated arguers do more than trade opinions or bash opponents as they explore the deeper layers of argument and go to the place where arguments emerge. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Arguments in Disguise <ul><li>Often the most persuasive arguments are those in disguise like reports, histories, songs, advertisements, or harmless statements. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have often hidden, indirect and subtle claims, appeals, and assumptions that still affect the audience. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Arguments in Disguise Cont. <ul><li>Objectivity disguise: fools the audience into thinking that presented information is entirely unbiased by just presenting facts. However, the person has made a choice on what facts to include and which to leave out, thus revealing bias. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>News does this all the time </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Argument in Disguise Cont. <ul><li>Personal Taste Disguise: camouflages an argument in an appeal to the audience’s personal tastes and desires. Text conceals a hidden argument. May come in the form of genre but often comes in the form of advertising. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Arguments in Disguise Cont. <ul><li>Spin: heavily biased portrayal of information. Involves turning its obvious or apparent meaning into something else—meaning that is more favorable to the spinner’s cause or position, and that sometimes bears no resemblance to reality. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often puts a positive spin on a negative situation—is often dishonest and harmful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shifts meaning by focusing the audience’s attention away from one aspect toward another more worthy. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Arguments in Disguise Cont. <ul><li>Propaganda: is a complex set of strategies used to drive audiences into a uniform way of thinking or feeling by using: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vague or ill-defined words/phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition of simple words/phrases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong emotional appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong appeal to human needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong appeal to character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual and moral certainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflation of groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical fallacies </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Arguments in Disguise Cont. <ul><li>Words: cause both positive and negative reactions from some individuals and a savvy arguer studies these reactions and uses the particular words that will elicit the desired reaction. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reading Images <ul><li>Images can be read as well, and they often make a main claim through their visual elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content: subject pictured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing: what has been placed in the boundaries of the image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composition: how the visual elements of the image are arranged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus: the areas that are focused on while others are blurry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting: how light and shadow are used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Texture: how some things look as if they could be touched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angle, vantage point, and perspective: angle the image is presented in </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Reading Actions <ul><li>Actions can be read as well. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action elements are like an image or written text in that they are made up of elements that support a claim. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the purpose? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who is the audience? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the voice of the action? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does the selection and arrangement of elements support the main claim? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the action appeal to the reader’s logic? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How does the action provide evidence for a claim? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Connecting with the Audience <ul><li>An arguer must find common ground with his/her audience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The audience is the people or individuals who will be reading or receiving the message, and it usually refers to a group or collection of individuals. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Academic Audiences <ul><li>Revelatory rather than familiar points </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals to logic rather than emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis rather than packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion rather than exclusion </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bridging Values <ul><li>Rogerian Argument attempts to build common ground with the reader and suggests that most personal feelings are also the most common and likely to be understood by others. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First seek to understand the opposition’s point of view and build a bridge, but not uncover any weaknesses. Job is to find similarities between the two views and synthesize for a single position based on opposition and writer’s </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Understanding Writer’s Voice <ul><li>Formality vs. Informality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adheres to conventions of grammar and sentence structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not use novel phrasing or dramatics shifts in tone. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not use a lot of figurative language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts remain transparent—draws attention to ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses third person point of view </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Understanding Writer’s Voice Cont. <ul><ul><li>Informality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Veers away from standard conventions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intentionally breaks rules of conventional grammar or sentence structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Draws attention to itself with unique or quirky phrasing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freely uses slang or street phrasing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Draws attention to the writer, the reader, or both </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses first and sometimes second person point of view </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Understanding Writer’s Voice Cont. <ul><li>Voice and Word Choice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word choice impacts the writer’s voice more than any other aspect. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word choice is determined by the topic, the readers, the writer, the rules and policies, and the time and place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must always consider the reader and what information needs to be included for the reader. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Understanding Writer’s Voice Cont. <ul><li>Voice and Sentence Variety: without variety, the writer’s voice comes off dry and lifeless. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use short sentences to emphasize a specific point and longer ones to bring the reader into the complexities of an idea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety can be used to emphasize points and to create an insistent or urgent voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is creating a rhythm that takes the reader smoothly through the written text </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Understanding Writer’s Voice Cont. <ul><li>Voice and Pronouns: Most academic writing is completed in third person, not first or second. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using first person draws attention to the person writing the essay and not the subject matter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second person addresses the reader directly and is seldom, if ever, used in academic writing. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Understanding Writer’s Voice Cont. <ul><li>Voice and Asides: any phrase, clause, or sentence that is slightly removed from the main idea is an aside. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They briefly pull the reader’s attention away from the primary flow the sentence and offer a small comment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created with dashed, parentheses, or commas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes used to clarify a point </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Understanding Writer’s Voice Cont. <ul><li>Voice and Figurative Language: words, phrases, or sentences that are not literal or that redirect meaning away from the literal definition of words. Used mainly in informal writings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antonomasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperbole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metonymy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understatement </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Understanding Writer’s Voice Cont. <ul><li>Clichés: are worn out phrases and they should not be used in formal writing. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Integrating Sources <ul><li>Listen closely to others </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize them in a recognizable way </li></ul><ul><li>Make your own relevant argument </li></ul><ul><li>Use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>paraphrasing: re-wording the original sources using your own words and expressions—covers the detail and complexity of the original text. Not done by just changing words using a thesaurus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>summarizing: expressing only the main ideas from a course in your own words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quoting: Using the exact words of the source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MUST GIVE IN-TEXT FOR ALL OF THESE </li></ul>
  24. 24. Inventing Arguments <ul><li>Invention is the development and discovery of ideas. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate process or not on the journey using probing questions and strategies to discover a topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to probe once the topic is found. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inventive arguments are the ones that require writers to learn to see the lurking arguments. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Stasis Theory <ul><li>Provides a framework for argument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjecture: Does it exist? Did something happen? (origin and cause) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition: What is the nature of it? What do we call it? (related to meaning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality: Is it right or wrong? What or whom does it involve or affect? (related to value) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure: What should be done? (related to policy and procedure) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Hegelian Logic <ul><li>Dialectical Reasoning requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put forward the idea one believes (thesis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doubt that idea (antithesis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Come to new understanding about the idea (synthesis) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Outline for Essay Construction <ul><li>Find a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Entering the argument by understanding the context in which it exists </li></ul><ul><li>Invent the thesis </li></ul><ul><li>Inventing the support </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange ideas in logical format </li></ul><ul><li>Take into account audience and voice </li></ul><ul><li>Revise </li></ul>