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Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
Inventing arguments chap 1 2
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Inventing arguments chap 1 2


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  • 1. Inventing Arguments Chapters 1-2 Information College Comp II
  • 2. Argument
    • An argument is the act of asserting, supporting, and defending a claim.
    • A claim is the statement the author makes that he/she is trying to convince the reader is true.
    • Argument is found everywhere around us from commercials to text and media.
  • 3. Argument Cont.
    • Argument does not always involve beating an opponent, but it deals with making others see the wisdom of a position or perspective.
    • Each academic area has its own arguments on the fields of study within the dicipline.
  • 4. Argument Cont.
    • Many often say that everyone is entitled to his/her own opinion; however, this ignores how people actually work together to build, transform, and trading opinions.
    • Opinions are only just that
    • if not accurately supported.
  • 5. Rhetoric
    • Rhetoric is a process of recognizing and using the most effective strategies for influencing thought.
    • Every time someone offers information, describes something a particular way, or arranges information in a particular way so that someone else will accept a claim, he or she is making rhetorical decisions.
  • 6. Five Categories of Rhetoric
    • Invention: the discovery and development of ideas
    • Arrangement: the organization of ideas in a coherent and engaging fashion
    • Style or voice: the personal or individualized use of language conventions, with attention to appropriateness, situation, and audience
  • 7. Five Categories of Rhetoric Cont.
    • Memory: the recollection of prepared points
    • Delivery: the presentation of ideas
  • 8. Rhetorical Situation
    • The rhetorical situation refers to an opportunity to address a particular audience about a disputed or disputable issue.
    • Is an opportunity to gather and use the available means of persuasion
    • Involves exigence—an occasion when something happens or does not happens that results in some uncertainty.
  • 9. Rhetorical Situation
    • Includes:
      • Exigence
      • Arguer (Speaker/writer)
      • Audience
      • Method of communication
      • Rules of communication
      • Text message
    • None are independent from each other
  • 10. The Academic Essay and Rhetoric
    • The student is usually the speaker/writer.
    • The audience is normally the student’s peers and instructor.
    • The rules are defined by the syllabus and the assignment, which is the exigence or opportunity to address the audience and make an assertion
  • 11. Academic Essay Cont.
    • A savvy writer will include social, cultural, and historical situations to his/her advantage.
    • They will try to make a conncetion by sharing the audience’s values, assumptions, emotions, and beliefs as well as cultural, past and present political trends, discoveries, local events, and widely used literature.
  • 12. Academic Essay Cont.
    • In academic writing, the writer brings forward unfamiliar topics while introducing them in new and revelatory situations.
    • They do not reinforce what the audience already thinks, but bring in new claims, assumptions, hopes, and even fears.
  • 13. Structure of Argument: Claims
    • The claim is the main argumentative position (or thesis) being put forward.
    • Support give substance and legitimacy to a claim and allows or convinces the audience to accept the claim.
      • Facts
      • Statistics
      • Scenarios
      • Appeals to logic, emotion, character, value, & need
  • 14. Argument Structure: Claims Cont.
    • Basic format for an argument is a claim with support information.
    • More complex form is to give a main claim and then give the subclaims or supporting claims with support information for those subclaims/supporting claims.
  • 15. Types of Claims
    • Claims of fact: argue that a condition exists, has existed, or will exist. (Facts must be proven to be truth.)
    • Claims of value: argue that something possesses or reflects a particular quality whether it be good/bad, unreasonable, practical, unfair, fair, etc.
  • 16. Types of Claims Cont.
    • Claims of policy: argue that some action should be taken or some change made. This requires some change in behavior, policy, approach, or even attitude.
  • 17. Characteristics of Claims
    • Focused claims: guide the reader’s and writer’s attention to a specific issue, even to a particular aspect of a specific issue. This means a focused thesis to gain depth.
    • Arguable claims: make assertions that could be challenged on various grounds that invite or directly address opposition.
  • 18. Characteristics of Claims Cont.
    • Revelatory: writing attempts to do more than argue for the opinions, but it reveals an unfamiliar topic or reveal a new layer of a familiar topic. The object is to change the reader’s thinking.
    • A good thesis statement is a declarative sentence with three subtopics/claims, and it comes as the last sentence in the introduction of the essay.
  • 19. Arguable Claim Issues
    • A thesis statement is not a question.
    • It does not state an obvious fact.
    • It invites several positions or multiple perspectives on the same topic.
  • 20. Argument Structure: Support
    • Called grounds or proof, support comes in many forms:
      • Evidence: authorities, testimony, facts, statistics
      • Examples: allusions, anecdotes, illustrations, scenarios
      • Appeals: to logic, emotion, character, value, need
  • 21. Evidence
    • Evidence support already exists.
      • Authorities: are experts who offer specialized knowledge—give credibility to a writer’s claim
        • Support own claim
        • Support opposing claims
        • Help explain a topic
        • Help to give some history or context to argument
  • 22. Evidence Cont.
      • Testimony: eyewitness or firsthand account
      • Facts: agreed-upon bits of knowledge that do not require further support in an argument
      • Statistics: figures drawn from surveys, experimentation, and data analysis
  • 23. Examples
    • Examples are specific occurrences of a phenomenon.
      • Allusions: references to some public knowledge from history, current events, popular culture, religion, or literature. Used for formal essays, informal articles, and literary works.
  • 24. Examples Cont.
      • Anecdote: short accounts of a particular event or incident and often presented as brief stories that support the arguer’s claim.
      • Illustrations: graphic descriptions or representations of an idea by carefully describing the details to create an image in the reader’s mind.
  • 25. Examples Cont.
      • Scenarios: fictional or hypothetical examples and can support just about any argumentative claim
  • 26. Appeals
    • Sometimes called reasoning, appeals are major forms of support that help the arguer create a connection between the audience and the topic.
      • Advertisements are probably the most abundant examples of appeals used.
  • 27. Appeals Cont.
    • Appeals to Character: draw attention to the arguer’s personal nature, integrity, experience, wisdom, or personality. Fend off doubts about arguer’s credibility and make the audience comfortable so as to accept the arguer’s claim.
  • 28. Appeals Cont.
    • Appeals to logic: usually done with statistics and facts. Line of reasoning or logic appeals to engaging the audiences intellect and reasoning.
      • Inference: process of deriving a logical conclusion based on premises known to be true; logical step from one idea to another
  • 29. Appeals Cont.
    • Line of reasoning: refers to a series of logical steps that lead arguer and audience to a main claim.
      • Type of Reasoning:
        • Deductive logic: builds a conclusion from accepted premises or general principles
        • Inductive logic: builds a conclusion from particular observations or examples
        • Analogical logic: borrows the logic from one situation and applies it to another.
  • 30. Appeals: Reasoning Cont.
    • Deductive reasoning allows the arguer to conclude only what the premises allow; even if it is false, the logic may be valid.
      • Found behind legal or ethical decisions
      • Syllogisms: are lines of deductive reasoning that require three steps—premise 1 + premise 2= Conclusion
        • Require support and sometime significantly more reasoning, examples, or evidence to be accepted as truth.
  • 31. Appeals: Reasoning Cont.
        • Enthymemes: are not certain in all situations but emerge in particular situations; contain a number of steps or premises—more than three; contain a missing or unstated premise—those that are obvious are often not state.
          • Do not require a lot of support, if any, to be taken as truth
  • 32. Appeals Cont.
    • Appeals to Emotion: bring about some type of emotional reaction from the reader.
      • Can be used dishonestly and should be used sparingly.
    • Appeals to Need: make a connection between the subject and a basic human need such as food, shelter, belonging, intimacy, self-realization, etc.
      • Reach inside an audience to people’s essential requirements of living
  • 33. Appeals Cont.
    • Appeals of Value: connection between the topic and general value of fairness, equality, honor, kindness, selflessness, duty, responsibility, economics, pragmatics, etc.
      • Values may compete with one another, so good arguers know how to bring a particular value to the forefront and make it seem the most important or pressing one.
  • 34. Appeals: Reasoning Cont.
    • Inductive reasoning: builds from a specific point or premises and leads to a general claim or conclusion.
      • Deductive vs. induction: go together constantly in everyday life and often operate in the same argument.
      • Deductive arguments reinforce some standing assumptions people have while inductive arguments create particular benefits or liabilities in people’s minds.
  • 35. Appeals: Reasoning Cont.
    • Analogical reasoning: depends on comparisons or analogies.
      • Arguer moves from one particular to another particular through the use of comparisons, metaphors, allegories, parables, and examples.
  • 36. Other Elements of Argument
    • Counterargument: refute claims or positions opposed to those that the writer or speaker is trying to prove. It is often called refuting the opposition.
      • Good arguers carefully examine others’ positions and try to imagine contrary points to help draw a clear distinction between the two camps of thought.
  • 37. Other Elements of Argument Cont.
    • Concession: involves acknowledgement or granting value to an opposition claim and usually done through qualifiers.
      • Concede the good points that an opposition may make and qualifying others makes for a strong argument. (The ideas the arguer agrees with the opposition on.)
  • 38. Other Elements of Argument Cont.
    • Qualifiers: they acknowledge the limits of an arguer’s claims. By qualifying one’s claims, the arguer acknowledges there are limitations.
      • Words such as perhaps, seems, maybe , some , several , many , could , and might .
  • 39. Logical Fallacies
    • Ad hominem: attack the person instead of the idea the person puts forth—often seen in politics and everyday life.
    • Straw person: misrepresenting a position and then proving it wrong.
    • Post hoc, ergo propter hoc: faulty cause-effect that one thing happened before another when they are not really related
  • 40. Logical Fallacies Cont.
    • Either/or: claims only two opinions exist when there are more.
    • Hasty generalizations: draw conclusions based on too little evidence.
    • Non sequitur: skips or confuses logical steps—does not follow logic.
    • Slippery slope: claims that a certain way of thinking or acting will necessarily lead to more of the same
  • 41. Logical Fallacies Cont.
    • Begging the question: no support is provided, but only the restating of the claim.
    • Red herring: deliberate attempts to change the subject.
    • Bandwagon: everyone else is doing it, you should, too because it is commonplace that makes it okay.
  • 42. Logical Fallacies Cont.
    • Association: claims that two people or things share a quality just because they are somehow associated, connected, or related.
  • 43. Toulminian Logic
    • Six Components:
      • Claim: conclusions or assertion
      • Support: appeals, evidence, and examples
      • Warranting Assumption: statement to connect claim and support in logical way
      • Backing: evidence that supports warrant
      • Modal Qualifiers: words or phrases that limit scope
      • Rebuttal: refutes an opposing claim or charge