Inventing argument chap 9
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Inventing argument chap 9 Inventing argument chap 9 Presentation Transcript

  • Inventing Argument Chapter 9 College Comp II
  • Arguing Crisis
    • Arguing crisis means that we are arguing “What are we going to do?”
    • A crisis is a crucial or decisive situation in which things are about to change with potentially severe or intense consequences.
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Argument in a real world play a vital role.
    • Publics crises almost always lead to a persuasive argument.
    • They loom in nearly every situation, including social, intuitional, professional, or political.
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • One of the main issues is that any one crisis can prompt any number of possible responses.
    • However, most arguments about a crisis can be dwindled down to two possible solutions, and then the arguing of A or B. The problem is that this will blur other possibilities.
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Those individuals who are apt at argument and insightful will see beyond the most common possibilities to other options.
    • The writer must look beyond the common possibilities to see the hidden ones that lie behind a wall of common practices, traditional perspectives, or a perceived either/or choice.
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • The best and often most valuable solution is the one that is most manageable, ethical, practical, economical, and far-reaching.
    • One must also take into account the hidden implications, blurred boundaries, and potential consequences.
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Two layers of a crisis:
      • The actual crisis
      • The solution to the crisis
    • Writers must first convenience the readers that a crisis/problem exist.
    • Writers must also find issues that affect more than one person and an audience would be interested in learning about.
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Starting Places:
      • Local college or national newspaper; school budgets, city government, labor, transportation, etc.
      • Town or neighborhood
      • College campus
      • School-sponsored documents
      • Political talk show
      • Prompts
      • Academic major
      • Bouncing ideas off a group of peers
      • Reading from the chapter
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Analyzing the Situation
      • Use questions to probe
        • What makes the situation a crisis?
        • What are the possible outcomes?
        • Who or what caused the crisis?
        • When might it climax?
        • What can be done to resolve the crisis?
        • How did the situation evolve into a crisis?
        • What can be done to resolve the crisis?
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Entering Argument
      • Find out what the circulating opinions are about the crisis.
      • Build a bridge so that doubtful or even hostile readers will consider a claim.
      • Using the library, find periodicals or Internet sources that discussion the crisis.
      • Do research at the local paper if it is a local issue.
      • Use arguments that are related to yours to understand the values and claims being made.
      • Make sure not to stop exploring ideas and thinking when you feel you have a solution or possibility—keep digging deeper.
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Inventing a Thesis
      • Go through the Hegelian process to find your thesis
        • Thesis
        • Antithesis
        • synthesis
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Inventing Support:
      • Authorities
      • Testimony
      • Appeals to logic
      • Appeals to value
        • What analogies can I make?
        • What personal situations can I use?
        • What logical appeals are necessary for my argument?
        • What appeals to value can I make?
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Arrangement
      • Description of the crisis
      • Description of life without the crisis
      • Evidence or appeals about the crisis
      • Counterarguments
      • Description of the solution
      • Support for the solution
      • Counterarguments of other solutions
      • Concession about other solutions
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
      • Begin with an introduction that introduces the crisis
      • End with either rephrasing the main points or giving a final solution.
      • Give counterarguments, concessions, and/or qualifiers within the body of the paper.
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Do not be narrow minded that your opinion is the only one or always the best one.
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Audience and Voice
      • Informality
      • Formality
      • Accusation
  • Arguing Crisis Cont.
    • Revision
      • Personal review
      • Peer review
      • Instructor review