Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Palau Climate Change Campaign Presentation

588

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
588
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. An advertising campaign onthe Public Health impactsof Climate Change in Palau
  • 2. Agency 1244 SpecialInstructorJerry Bush thanks to:Teacher’s Assistant Centers for DiseaseJack Piatt Control and Prevention Dr. Mark Keim, M.D.Agency President Mollie Mahany, M.P.H.Sarah Hubbs Palau MinistryAgency Creative of HealthDirector Dr. Stevenson Kuartei, M.D.Julia Fromme Pearl Marumoto, BPHAgency Dekei NgiramengiorSiania Allen Jane OlsudongShakari Burton Sharp SakumaNicholas Campise Gaafar J. UherbelauJeffrey Chandler Deidre YamanguchiLauren EdelLauryn FisherkellerJeremy GarrettKristina KaganerCassie KeysAndrea LikesAriel RunyonBrittany SchorfheideRichard SerritellaKendra TorresEric WallacePhotographersGenna OrdJulia RendlemanTV/Radio ProducerChu Batsaihan
  • 3. Table of Contents2 Introduction3 Situation Analysis19 Climate Change Matrix20 Primary Research24 Key Idea25 Target Market Profile26 Objectives27 Strategy34 Budget36 Evaluation Section37 Conclusion38 References42 Appendix Table of Contents 1
  • 4. Introduction This campaign is designed to raise the awareness show the correlation between these climatic events and level of select target audiences about the public health the increased health risks associated with each. risks associated with the impacts of global climate The main focus of the campaign is on the population change. The campaign is scheduled to take place that is already “healthy.” The “key idea” for the during a six-month period between April 1st, 2011 and campaign centers on an interview with Palau’s Minister October 1st, 2011. of Health, Dr. Stevenson Kuartei. He uses an analogy Primary research was conducted between based on flight instructions that airlines use during September 18th, 2010 and October 26th, 2010 measuring flight safety demonstrations. Passengers are instructed awareness levels of citizens of Palau. The first step of the to make sure their own oxygen masks are securely in primary research was to acquire awareness level data place before assisting other passengers or children. through a survey. A sample of one hundred and forty According to Dr. Kuartei, the most vulnerable population eight Palauan’s from a variety of ages and occupations is the one that is already “healthy.” Dr. Kuartei’s theory responded to a ten-question survey. Based on the total stems from the fact that this population must remainIntroduction population size of 20,000 and survey sample size of 148 healthy in order to provide assistance to those that are respondents, a confidence interval (margin of error) of “less healthy” or “less capable” of helping themselves. 8.03 can be expected. It is from this analogy that we derived our campaign The second step in obtaining primary research theme: data was through a series of interviews conducted with “PROTECT, PROVIDE, UNITE.” “Protect (yourself), Palauan public health officials, fishermen, farmers, etc, Provide (assistance to others), Unite (for a healthier as well as numerous photographs and videos pertaining Palau).” The advertising messages were creatively to climate change issues in Palau. designed to demonstrate both the health risks Secondary research was gathered through a variety associated with climate change as well as desired of resources (see “references” page) and has been preventative measures. Messages will be delivered at 2 categorized into three climatic events (extreme heat, seal-level rise, el Niño effects). A matrix was designed to a high rate of frequency through a variety of mediums and events, over the six-month campaign time frame.
  • 5. Situation Analysis crops in Palau is critical to “socio-economic development Sea-‐level Rise and cultural as well as religious obligations” (Palau Global climate change has been a popular area of Project Proposal, 2008). A survey done in 2007, bystudy and the field of research has been growing in Dr. Mark Keim, reported on the damage in two Pacificrecent years. Scientific research has addressed many island countries, Lukonoch and Oneop. These islandsaspects of climate change, but very few studies have faced severe crop damage that resulted from salt-watercovered the health impacts related to the climate. The intrusion, an effect of sea level rise (Keim, 2010b). Thehealth impacts are becoming greater for Palau and other two countries from the study lost a significant amountsmall island developing states in the South Pacific due to of taro; the main dietary source of carbohydrate (Keim,their high vulnerability to climate change (Palau Project 2010b). Twelve of 40 homes on one island reportedProposal, 2008). Of the climate change impacts that Palau partial loss and damage, while another six of 40 homesis facing, sea level rise poses one of the greatest threats reported a complete loss of the crop (Keim, 2010b).to the country’s social, economic, and environmental Palau has also felt the effects of salt-water intrusion onsustainability (Republic of Palau, 2002). Based on taro crop. The taro that was destroyed during the Elfuture projections for the 21st century, the incidence of Niño event of 1998 resulted in a 0.7% loss of their GDPincreased sea level is 66-90% more likely to occur (Keim, (Republic of Palau, 2002). Saltwater intrusion, stemming2010a). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change from sea level rise and the El Niño event resulted in a(IPCC) also reported on this trend in 2001, stating “the loss of 75-100% of taro crops in the states of Angaur andsea level is estimated to rise 50-90 mm within the next Peleliu (Permanent Mission, 2009).50-100 years” (Republic of Palau, 2002). With continued Sugar cane and tapioca are other crops commonlysea level rise, increasing damage from coastal flooding cultivated on many islands in the South Pacific. Excessareas will occur in the Pacific region, resulting in crop water and salt-water intrusion caused by sea leveldamage and other health hazards creating threats for rise, deter the growth of the crops (Gawander, 2007).the public health of Palau. The roots of sugar cane extend one meter into the Crop Damage While the agricultural industry only makes up 6.2% ofthe islands Gross Domestic Product (GDP), cultivation of CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE Situation Analysis 3
  • 6. Situation Analysis cont’d ground, making lower water tables desirable for growth Dr. Kuartei goes on to say, “When we begin to build a (Gawander, 2007). The water table where sugar cane narrow definition of health or medicine, we lose some is planted is typically three to 13 meters below ground of the flavor of what we traditionally think of as health level. With a rise in sea level, there is potential for the or healing” (Minister of Health, 2010b). Through this water tables to rise and hinder the quantity and quality interview, we are shown the importance of medicinal of the sugar produced (Gawander, 2007). plants to the health and culture of Palauans. Taro, tapioca, and sugar cane are main staple With climate change causing a decrease in foods in Palau, however they are not the only crops the availability of traditional crops available for being damaged by sea level rise and salt-water consumption, there has been a shift towards a diet intrusion. Most medicinal plants “grow relatively containing more processed foods. As a result, dietary fast, have high reproduction rates, and are typically education is gaining importance. Two of the health resistant to salt water, making them more resilient to areas for the most concern and education in Palau are some of the predicted effects of global climate change” diabetes and obesity. Due to sea level rise, the growing (Cavaliere, 2009). Although medicinal plants appear to conditions for crops are unfavorable and “penetration be resilient, their biggest threat from sea level rise is of local markets by cheap, poor quality imported the complete loss of the island they inhabit, which has foods with little nutritional value has brought health the potential to occur given the rate of the increasing problems with increased rates of non-communicable sea level (Cavaliere, 2009). diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and heart disease” For Palauans, the loss of medicinal plants impacts (Barnett, 2007). the public health and also cultural significance. In an The main non-communicable disease threatening interview with Dr. Stevenson Kuartei, Minister of Health Palau as a result of a shifting diet is obesity. Currently for Palau, the importance of traditional medicine “Palau ranks seventh in the world when it comes to in the Palauan culture was discussed. In regard to obesity, according to the World Health Organization” Western medicine, Dr. Kuartei said, “we as Palauans (Island Business International, 2010). A Palau need to think of our traditional healing as the healing for us and actually Western medicine coming in, is the alternative healing” (Minister of Health, 2010a). CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGESituation Analysis 4
  • 7. Situation Analysis cont’d. population who has been diagnosed with diabetes. According to the disease registry in Palau, in 2004, there were 776 people admitted into the diabetes registry (Republic of Palau, 2005). Diabetes was also listed in the ten leading causes of death for Palauans. The average age that people in this region are developing diabetes is becoming lower every year. Only 16% of the population in Fiji is above the age of 55, due to premature deaths that are related to diabetes. In this region, diabetes accounts for 75% of all deaths and 40-60% of healthcare costs (World Health Organization, 2010). The rise in diabetes is related to crop damage and the access to traditional food that provides proper nutrients. Dr. Temo K. Waqanivalu of the World Health Organization also notes that, “promotion of traditional foods has fallen by the wayside. They are unable to compete with the glamour and flashiness of imported foods” (World Health Organization, 2010). Again, dietary education is important to combat this. As suggested by Ateca Kama, a nutritionist at Fiji’s National Food and Nutrition Centre, a consistent program that translates the importance of knowledge into behavior would be beneficial in helping lower these risks (World Health Organization, 2010). Vector Borne Infections Destructive and invasive water borne and vector borne diseases, including dengue fever, malaria, andCommunity Health Assessment Survey indicated that encephalitis, are increasingly affecting those areas in58% of Palauan males and 62% of Palauan females the ecosystem that are most susceptible to flooding,are obese (Republic of Palau, 2010b). School children such as low-lying homes and regions in standing water.account for 18.5% of the obese population in Palau and For developing island nations such as Palau, a majorityan additional 15% of children are at risk for obesity of water-borne infectious diseases results in cluster(Island Business International, 2010). To lower these outbreaks. Vector-borne diseases, such as malaria andnumbers, the Ministry of Health is working alongside dengue fever, are projected to increase as warmerthe Ministry of Education to develop a Healthy Lifestyle temperatures facilitate vector range expansion andcurriculum for school age children (Island Business speed up virus replication. The potential increase in theInternational, 2010). Dr. Stevenson Kuartei proposed spread of such vector-borne diseases depends primarily Situation Analysismore balanced meals for schools, dietary education, on the climactic factors and the effectiveness of Palau’sand also suggested a reduction in the amount of rice public health system (World Health Organization, 2003).and flour that is consumed. He suggested the “need In 2008, low-latitude regions of Palau had reachedto go more local with fish and taro” (Island Business epidemic levels of Dengue fever, confirming 31 casesInternational, 2010). With crop damage to local food of people having been exposed. Palau’s Minister ofas a result of the sea level rise and the availability of Health Dr. Stevenson Kuartei said, “Palau is at risk of alocally grown foods decreasing, proper education on a major dengue fever epidemic that will have long lastingnew diet is needed. Without education, obesity will health and economic consequences” (Carreon, 2008).continue to increase. The dengue fever virus is transmitted from one person Obesity and being overweight increase the risk for to another by the Aedes mosquito. These mosquitoeschronic diseases, such as diabetes. Diabetes is on the are prone to bite during the dawn and dusk hours ofrise in the South Pacific with a staggering 40% of the the day, and are most susceptible to biting in areas9.7 million people in the region being diagnosed (WorldHealth Organization, 2010). This number is extremelyhigh compared with the 13% of the United States CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 5
  • 8. Situation Analysis cont’d of standing or stagnant water. Those bit by the Aedes individuals and their families include: purchase of drugs mosquito start showing symptoms within five to 15 for treating malaria at home; expenses for travel and days of the initial bite. Symptoms of dengue fever can treatment at dispensaries and clinics; lost days of work; last up to two weeks and involve flu-like symptoms, absence from school expenses for preventive measures; such as headaches, rashes, cramps and back and expenses for burial in case of deaths (CDC, 2010a). muscle pain (Republic of Palau, 2010a). However, if Finally, with respect to infectious disease disasters compliant health measures and treatment is delayed or we can provide personal protective equipment and not met, this disease can be fatal to those susceptible. adequate sanitation and hygiene so as to prevent the Kuartei said that because of budget reductions, there exposure of healthy populations to biological hazards, remains sufficient difficulty in retrieving adequate like infectious disease. In the case of epidemics, we fight resources for community mobilization, vector control, human disease by reducing exposures to the cause, surveillance and critical management for those who which is a bacteria or virus (Keim, 2010b). have been and are susceptible to infection (Carreon, Dr. Keim reported that we reduce people’s 2008). In 2008, Kuartei also raised the concern that susceptibility to epidemics by “providing them with the Belau National Hospital is running at almost the adequate nutrition and preventive health care. We then full capacity because of the regular admissions and increase people’s resilience or ability to bounce back the dengue fever cases (Carreon, 2008). Though there after catching the disease, through access to curative has been no new information regarding the amount of health care and health promotion,” (Keim, 2010b). dengue fever cases seen by the hospital, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued an Unpredictable Tides Low-lying coastal areas will be at increased risk Outbreak Notice in June 2010 regarding the infection. from coastal inundation due to sea level rise and The notice reported that individuals should continue to storm surge, with major implications for coastal take preventive measures because dengue fever is still communities, infrastructure, natural habitats, and circulating throughout the region (CDC, 2010b). resources (Ministerial, 2000). Flooding will become In areas with high transmission, the most vulnerable more frequent due to higher storm tides, and coastal groups are young children and pregnant women. land will be permanently lost as the sea inundates According to the CDC, malaria is the fifth leading cause low-lying areas and the shorelines erode (United of death for infectious diseases in low-income regions. States, 2009). Populations that remain isolated from Increased rainfall and standing water due to flooding allow the transmission of this vector borne disease to be highly transmissible all year round (CDC, 2010a). Costs to CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGESituation Analysis 6
  • 9. Situation Analysis cont’d.the primary population are increasingly vulnerable to a magnet for other health entities. While this may beacquiring necessary health care and provisions in the positive for current access to health care, in the eventevent of climactic flooding as a result of unpredictable of extreme weather, health services are not spreadtides. Kayangel and Peleliu are states of Palau that out enough to serve the community and could all beremain highly susceptible for emergency medical aid damaged by their location to the ocean (Minister ofor access to health care in the event of flooding (World Health, 2010c).Health Organization, 2003). These isolated regions Loss of land will affect living things in coastalare at a disadvantage “specific to the quality and ecosystems. Storm surges have major impacts onaccessibility of healthcare, medical workforce training Pacific coastal island communities, including loss ofand availability” (PEHI, Executive Brief, 2010). life and damage to infrastructure and property (Joyce, Sea level rise is attributable to higher tides and 2007). Critical infrastructure, including homes andstorm surges, which will reduce or cut off health roads tend to be located along the coast. Flooding Situation Analysisaccess in all populations, not just isolated ones (Joyce, related to sea level rise negatively impacts port2007). Tides reaching surmounting heights increase the facilities and harbors, and causes closure of roadslikelihood of roads and main emergency evacuation and bridges. “Long-term infrastructure would affectroutes to flood, and medical services to be inaccessible. social services such as disaster risk management,Dr. Stevenson Kuartei was asked about the issue of the health care, education, management of resources,Belau National Hospital being so close to the ocean. He and economic activity in sectors such as tourismrecognized that the hospital is in a very vulnerable spot and agriculture” (United States, 2009). Sea level rise,due to it being connected to the general population by increased storm surges, flooding, beach erosion, andonly one causeway. If the causeway were to be washed increased invasion of vector-borne diseases are amongout by a tidal surge, healthcare would be inaccessible to the threats that endanger the ecosystems that providea main segment of the population (Minister of Health, safety, sustenance, economic viability, and cultural2010c). The hospital itself is very close to the water as and traditional values to these island communities.well and a tidal surge could also overtake the hospital,again making healthcare inaccessible and unavailable.Dr. Kuartei also noted that the hospital has served as CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 7
  • 10. Situation Analysis cont’d the terms of the contract were reviewed and the two governments made necessary modifications. According to the U.S Government Accountability Office, the United States aid to Palau exceeded $852 million from 1995- 2009. “Compact direct assistance will account for 48 percent of U.S. assistance; this assistance provides general budgetary support for Palau’s government operations, including initial investment in a trust fund intended to provide annual distributions of $5 million in 1999-2009 and $15 million in 2010-2044” (Government Accountability Office, 2008). Although Palau is a small island, its land provides the country with a vast amount of plausible opportunities for growth. Tourism continues to be Palau’s leading source of income accounting for the majority of the nation’s income. Tourism is one of the few resources that allow Resiliencies Palau to consistently bring in large profit independently, Although Palau and many islands in the South Pacific without the help of other nations. The nation’s unique are susceptible to the health risks of climate change, and scenic marine life makes it one of the more popular the opportunities for education and the robustness of destinations in the world. Hotel resort investments as their economy make them resilient. well as cruise line partnerships continue to keep Palau’s The most significant piece of reducing vulnerability economy aloft (Republic of Palau, 2007). however, is overall human resilience. Dr. Keim’s “Six R’s” of resilience all incorporate some form of human Extreme Heat behavior. The “Six R’s” include readiness, robustness, redundancy, resourcefulness, rapid response, and Crop Damage For the small island states of the Pacific, one of recovery, all risk reducers that are affected by human the concerns is drought. The extreme heat can lead to behavior (Keim, 2010a). These resiliencies are excessive dry land. Drought can then lead to thirst due comprised of adaptive capability, response capacity, to little water supply, wildfires due to the low moisture and recovery capacity. Educating the community on and little rainfall, and also crop damage or not being ways to be resilient can ultimately reduce individuals’ able to grow crops at all due to the land being too dry susceptibility to the health impacts of climate change. (West, 2010). Along with drought, there are also seasonal Dietary education can also increase resilience and changes that come in to play because of global climate improve the health of Palauans (Palau Community change. Since climate change has become an issue, College, 2010). Opportunities for dietary education exist the seasons for harvesting crops have changed and the with children between the age of eight and sixteen. numbers of crops harvested each season have declinedSituation Analysis Dietary education can stress the importance of good tremendously (Minister Stevenson J. Kuartei, personal dietary practices. According to Dr. Stevenson Kuartei, communication, September 14, 2010). The heat damage $10,000 has recently been obtained for use in the to the crops has been an issue also. The taro has not development of programs to combat childhood obesity been as healthy as it has been in the past. Because of (Island Business International, 2010). the low rates of crops being harvested, it has affected The economic situation that Palau is in is partly the attitudes of the people since they have no control in result of the Compact of Free Association between over how much of the crops survive and this problem the United States and Palau. The Compact of Free can also effect the safety of the food (Minister Stevenson Association was established in 1995 and the United J. Kuartei, personal communication, September 24, 2010). States continues to assist Palau through direct Since there is crop damage and not as much assistance to their national government, investment harvested, Palauans depend on imported goods in trust funds, federal postal, weather, and aviation (Minister Stevenson J. Kuartei, personal communication, services as well as construction of a major road September 14, 2010). Although the Palauans have been (Government Accountability Office, 2008). The compact provides up to 15 years of economic assistance to Palau 8 from the United States. In the recent 2009 fiscal year, CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
  • 11. Situation Analysis cont’d.getting accustomed to imported canned foods, they do pollen season leading to more allergies and respiratorynot realize the health concerns that go along with that problems amongst people (Rasmussen, 2002).diet. As mentioned before, obesity is a major concern The elderly population has the highest rate ofin Palau. Extreme heat also affects the medicinal plants mortality from respiratory diseases, largely becausethat are very important to the culture of Palau. Many of pre-existing conditions that tend to be presentmedicinal plants cannot hold up in certain environments. (“Elderly Have Higher”, 2006). Chronic ObstructiveTemperatures can affect chemical compounds in these Pulmonary Disease, also called COPD, is an illnessplants that are the source of the medicinal activity that affects many people who live in extremely hot(Cavaliere, 2009). environments (Leader 2009). When it is hot outside, the body uses more energy to maintain a normal body Respiratory Diseases temperature. Because of the excess energy that is Risks of respiratory diseases such as chronic used to try to keep the body cool, the body demandsobstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and bronchitis more oxygen (Leader 2009). People with COPD sufferare on the rise due to extreme heat in Palau. shortness of breath while being in hot temperatures According to Deschenes & Moretti (2007), the because the body is using extra energy to try to keepmain mechanism underlying the increased mortality in it cool, instead of using all of the energy to maintainperiods of excessive temperature is the additional stress steady breathing. Since people with COPD haveimposed on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems trouble breathing in hot environments, this can leadby the demands of body temperature regulation. (p.7) to a Bronchospasm; a breathing problem where the The additional stress on the body causes an internal airways reduce in size making it difficult to get air intovulnerability for other diseases. and out of the lungs. To avoid this problem, the people There are many different causes for respiratory of Palau need to pay attention to the weather reports,diseases that have to do directly with extreme heat. take medications as the doctor prescribes them, andIncreased temperatures may trigger forest fires, which keep cool by staying indoors (Leader 2009).lead to a higher amount of soot in the air and thenconsequently higher levels of respiratory disease(Haines & Patz, 2004). The temperature increase in theSouth Pacific is also causing an earlier start to birch CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE Situation Analysis 9
  • 12. Situation Analysis cont’d The government is also taking measures to limit weakened, the heart is beating at a rapid pace, but the repercussions of extreme heat by making sure body temperature is normal (“Syncope”, n.d.). Some all government sector housing is set up with energy of the symptoms of Syncope include blurred vision, efficient matters that will make the needs for air sweating, nausea, lightheadedness, and yawning conditioning obsolete. As earlier mentioned, a large excessively (University of Maryland Medical Center amount of the Palauan population has a relatively 2010). People who are most at risk are older adults low-income, the government has taken the initiative over the age of 65, as well as people who already have to make air conditioning units a thing of the past in a history of heart disease, diabetes, or high blood order to reduce cost and improve quality of life (“Draft pressure. Pregnant women are also at higher risk. National Energy Policy”, 2009, p.9). According to the To avoid Syncope, drink plenty of fluids, eat meals Draft National Policy (2009), “all new and refurbished regularly, avoid standing for long periods of time, government buildings will incorporate energy-efficient stay away from caffeinated drinks and alcohol, and designs such as shading and orientation of buildings sleep with the head of the bed raised (University of to reduce heating of buildings and reflective roof paint Maryland Medical Center 2010). and attic heat radiation barriers to reduce the need for Dehydration is also an issue related to the extreme air conditioning” (p.9). The government is doing all they heat. This occurs when the amount of water exiting can to reduce the amount of these respiratory illnesses the body is greater than the amount of water being by taking these certain precautions and making it easier taken in. Several things can cause dehydration. These for people to breath in the extreme heat. include diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, diabetes, burns, and the inability to drink fluids or the lack of fluids. Heat-‐Related Illnesses Diarrhea is the most common way a person becomes Syncope occurs when a person loses consciousness dehydrated because a considerable amount of water temporarily and faints. It is usually due to lack of blood is lost with each bowel movement. Sweating is also a flow to the brain (“Syncope”, n.d.). Being exposed to extremely high temperatures and overheating is one of the main causes to syncope. The pulse is usually CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGESituation Analysis 10
  • 13. Situation Analysis cont’d.major cause of dehydration, especially in the case of cool environments (“MD- Travel Health”, 2010).the Palauans; the environment is extremely hot and it The South Pacific region is one of the mostis very difficult for them to retain water when they are vulnerable and prone to disaster in the world.constantly exposed to the heat (“MD- Travel”, 2010). Although the risks are incredibly high for heat Heat Strokes are a more severe case of heat related illnesses to occur, the medical sectors arecramps and heat exhaustion that can be caused by not prepared well enough to respond to these typesdehydration in some cases. A heat stroke is a form of of emergencies (Keim, 2002). Differing from thehyperthermia. The body temperature keeps rising to other concerns of global climate change is the factsdangerous levels and the victim loses consciousness. that heat related illnesses affect all populations. TheA heat stroke is considered a medical emergency and other vulnerability previously mentioned with thecan take the life of someone if it is severe enough. other extreme heat issues is the health care accessThe individuals who are most vulnerable to having problem. It is hard to get treatment in Palau due Situation Analysisheat strokes are infants, elderly, athletes, and people to the limited access that the people have to thewho work outside in hot environments (“MD- Travel hospitals as well as the little access the medicalHealth”, 2010). To prevent heat strokes, like many providers have to the people (Keim, 2002).of the other preventative measures, the Palauans Dr. Mark Keim outlined recommendations forneed to drink ample amounts of fluids, wear cool emergency health management in the Pacific islands.clothing, plan out the day so the work is done in The ones that relate to heat related illnesses include:the cooler parts of the day, keep indoor areas cool, Promoting education and training for any type ofavoid physical activity on extremely hot days, and disaster. It is important to prevent these specific illnessesstay tuned to the weather reports (Leader 2010). by developing prevention strategies, and improving Heat cramps are basically contractions in the emergency operations plans among the public health ofmuscles that are very painful. These mainly take Palau and the medical sectors (Keim, 2002).place in the calf muscles. They tend to be causedby dehydration, exposure to excessive amountsof heat, and poor physical conditioning, and areprevented by drinking a lot of water and staying in CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 11
  • 14. Situation Analysis cont’d Micronesia and the highest density of tropical marine El Niño Effects habitats of comparable geographic areas around the El Niño is a weather event that begins in the Pacific world. In addition to coral reefs, mangroves, and and occurs when trade winds are weakened (Joyce, seagrass beds, Palau has deep algal beds, mud basins, 2010). It has worldwide effects despite its humble current swept lagoon bottoms, rich tidal channels, and origin. When this happens, weather conditions in the anoxic basins within the rock islands. Many of these Pacific region are altered. In a strong El Niño, ocean environments contain corals. (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 3) temperatures in the Pacific can increase as much as Palau boasts an impressive coral diversity, with two degrees above normal (Joyce, 2010), which can findings of at least 385 coral specimens, in 66 genera contribute unpredictable extreme weather (Joyce, (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 3). Fish and other invertebrate 2010) and lead to coral damage (Freeman, 2003). In are also extremely diverse, as there are 1,278 known the eastern region near South America, warm water species of reef fish in Palau. This is the highest diversity accumulates and causes an unusually high amount within Micronesia (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 3). of rainfall that can cause flooding. On the western side of the Pacific, the opposite effect is experienced. Coral Bleaching Since the trade winds are not carrying moisture west Coral reef bleaching is “the whitening of from South America, areas near Indonesia experience diverse invertebrate taxa, (that) results from the drought that sometimes results in wild fires (Joyce, loss of symbiotic zooxantheallae and/or a reduction 2010). in photosynthetic pigment concentrations in zooxanthellae residing within scleractinian corals” Coral Damage (Buchheim, 1998, p. 1). Coral bleaching outbreaks in A barrier reef encompasses the majority of the Palau are considered to be one of the greatest threats main cluster of islands that stretches from the northern to Palau’s coral reef ecosystems (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. tip of Babeldaob to the southern lagoon, and merges 3). Sea temperature, solar irradiance, sedimentation, with Pelelui in the south (Golbuu, Bauman, Kuartei, and Victor, 2005, p. 3). Palau has the most diverse coral fauna of CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGESituation Analysis 12
  • 15. Situation Analysis cont’d.xenobiotics, subaerial exposure, inorganic nutrients, Ecotourismfreshwater dilution, and epizootics are all natural and Coral reefs are useful to people and theiranthropogenic causes of coral bleaching (Buchheim, environment in numerous ways. They protect shores1998, p. 1). Coral reef ecosystems are especially from the impact of waves and storms, supply foodsusceptible to the effects of climate change. “Exposure and medicine, and are economically beneficial toto maximum ocean temperatures just a few degrees local communities as their beauty attracts thousandsabove the long-term average at any location, can cause of tourists each year.corals to become stressed, bleach, and die” (Munday, Increasingly frequent El Niño occurrences haveJones, Pratchett, and Williams, 2008, p. 2). Scientific lead to more cases of coral bleaching, which canevidence shows that an increase in water temperatures ultimately lead to decreases in tourism. Betweenwhen El Niño occurs is the primary stressor that causes the years of 1992 to 1997, tourist arrivals nearlycoral bleaching. Even the slightest increase in water doubled from 30,000 to 60,000 in Palau. However, Situation Analysistemperatures has the potential to bleach and kill many Palau experienced a 3.3% decrease in their GDP inspecies of coral. While a temperature rise in itself can 1998. This significant decline may be attributed tobe enough to cause corals significant damage, “the the 1997-1998 coral bleaching event, as Palau’s coralstress is compounded by the presence of any other reefs were severely damaged from this occurrencestress factors, such as windless days allowing more (Golbuu, 2005). According to the U.S. Global ChangeUV-light to reach corals, or low tides causing increased Research Program (2009) “the loss of income by 2015saltiness in lagoons” (McCormack, 2000, p. 1). from degraded reefs is conservatively estimated at Palau’s reefs were significantly harmed by coral several hundred million dollars annually.” Revenuebleaching during the 1997-1998 occurrence of El Niño, lost through tourism causes many of Palau’s citizensand the reefs have not fully recovered from the damage to be affected financially. According to the Republiccaused. It is estimated that approximately one-third of Palau (2007), 54.4% of households have an incomeof Palau’s corals died during this event (Golbuu et al., below $15,000, and loss in family income can lead to2005, p. 3). It is possible that global climate change poor spending on food.may play a role in the increase of coral bleachingevents, which could lead to destruction and extinctionof numerous coral species (Buchheim, 1998, p. 1). CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 13
  • 16. Situation Analysis cont’d Although tourism plays a critical role in Palau’s fisheries indicated that 87% of households have economy, tourists are also partially responsible for someone that fishes either for subsistence or damage incurred to the reefs. Tourists who are commercial purposes, and often both. Only 13% of uneducated about reefs can damage the coral Palauan households were not involved in any type significantly. “Snorkelers and divers who are not of fishing. (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 7) trained in proper behavior around reefs can trample Palau’s marine resources have a long-standing delicate soft corals, damage reef structures and history of being rich and diverse, and Palau is injure fish by attempting to feed them” (Freeman, known for having some of the best sport fishing 2003). areas in the world. However, coral reef damage can be prevented Subsistence fishing within the reef is a major in many ways. One way that Palau is monitoring its activity and dominates market production. Deep-sea coral reefs is through the Palau International Coral fishing for pelagic species resulted in a tuna catch Reef Center (PICRC). In 2001, the PICRC launched a of 51 tons in 2000. Seasonal trochus harvesting forSituation Analysis nationwide coral reef monitoring program. shell button manufacture is an important source The objectives of the program are to: establish of income for most fishermen. Other marine permanent monitoring sites, determine status resources include pearls, shrimp, ornamental fish, of Palau’s reefs, assess changes to the benthic seaweed (agar agar), and mollusks. (Encyclopedia and fish communities at each site over time and of the Nations, 2010, p. 1) examine the recovery process from the 1997-1998 bleaching event at each site (Golbuu et. al., 2005). Fish Distribution Physical and biological changes that occur in our Fishing in Palau oceans during El Niño events can vastly affect fish Fishing is more than a popular sport in Palau. distribution. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Rather, fishing is just as relevant to Palau’s culture Administration (NOAA) states: as it is to their diet, and it is an integral component Among the variations in oceanographic features of how Palauans live their daily lives. that are observed following an El Niño event are: In 2001, 835 people (16% of Palau’s population) 14 sold their catch to local fish markets at least once during the year. A 2003 survey of subsistence CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
  • 17. Situation Analysis cont’d.changes in sea-surface temperatures, changes in the Weakened Trade Windsvertical, thermal structure of the ocean (particularly Trade winds were originally seen as a tool forin coastal regions), and altered coastal and upwelling commerce, but scientists later discovered that they arecurrents. These changes can directly affect the species vital to the climate and biological balance of the Pacificcomposition and abundance of fish. (National Oceanic as they provide much of the rainfall. As the air movesand Atmospheric Administration, 2010) west, it picks up moisture and rises. By the time the During the years that El Niño is not occurring, air reaches the end of the cycle, it is saturated anddeep, cold ocean water rises, and with it comes releases the moisture in the form of rain. After this,nutrients that reside near the bottom of the ocean the air travels back toward South America and the cyclefloor. Fish in the upper waters feed on plankton starts again (Than, 2006). In addition to providing rainfallthat depend on the nutrients transported in with in the Western Pacific, trade winds act as a driving forcethe cooler water temperatures. In addition, kelp in ocean currents. These currents are key to the survivalforests also rely on these cooler, nutrient-rich water of ecosystems that exist in the shallow waters. As thesupplies to survive and grow. El Niño reduces the currents drive west, they bring colder, nutrient-rich waterupwelling of cooler water that supply the nutrients toward the surface and provide nourishment for marineso crucial to life in more shallow waters. Because life in the shallow areas of the Pacific (Sample, 2006).of this, fish either die or attempt to migrate to Research has shown that the trade winds haveareas with more food available (Department of Fish been slowing down since the industrial revolution.and Game, 2010). The decrease in number of fish Since the mid 1800s, the strength of the trade windspopulations has not gone unnoticed by Palauans. have weakened by 3.5%. In addition, the oceanChanges in fish distribution directly affect those currents they propel have weakened by 7.5% (Sample,who depend upon fish as a primary food source, 2006). Scientists predict that the winds will weaken byas well as those that rely on fish as a source of another ten percent by the year 2100 (Hopkin, 2006).income. Field surveys and fish aggregation studiesshow a decline in fish populations in Palau over thelast decade (Golbuu et al., 2005, p. 7). CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE Situation Analysis 15
  • 18. Situation Analysis cont’d Scientists theorize that the slowing of trade winds Extreme Weather Events has a direct connection to global climate change. Due According to Dr. Mark Keim, Center for Disease to rising temperatures, more water is evaporating Control and Prevention, there will be an increase in and being absorbed by the atmosphere. However, the probability of extreme weather events due to more the rate of rainfall is not increasing. In order for the frequent El Niño oscillation caused by global climate cycle to sustain itself, the winds have to slow down change. The likelihood of future trends of heat waves to give the increase in moisture enough time to be and heavy precipitation events is said to be 90% - 99%; released by the atmosphere (Than, 2006). widespread drought, the incidence and severity of This vital cycle is being damaged by El Niño and cyclones, as well as increased incidence of extremely threatens to change the marine ecosystems in the high sea level is said to range from 66% - 99% (Keim, Pacific. If the currents are weakened, less nutrient rich 2008, p. 508). These extreme weather events can cold water will be able to rise to the surface (Than, 2006). cause a multitude of natural disasters and “ninety-five Microscopic organisms such as plankton and kelp rely percent of natural disaster deaths occur among sixty- on these nutrients to live. If the plankton population six percent of the poorest countries” (Anderson, 1991). suffers, larger populations of marine life will also suffer. There are many impacts on public health, from Fish rely on these smaller organisms for food. If the fish both high and low precipitation events caused by the cannot find enough food, they will either die or be forced recurrence of El Niño. Loss of clean water, shelter, to migrate to different areas. Regardless of whether the personal and household goods, sanitation, routine fish die or migrate, the number of fish in areas that are hygiene, disruption of solid waste management, public warmed by El Niño will decrease (Department of Fish risk perception, increased pests and vectors, loss or and Game, p. 1). The decrease of the food supplies for damage to health care system, worsening of existing fish combined with the increase in water temperature chronic illnesses, and toxic exposures are all effects are causing a great change in the ecosystem in which of increased number of storms, floods, drought, and fish reside. This decrease in fish population threatens wildfire (Keim, 2008, p. 510). to damage the fishing industry in areas that are being affected by El Niño conditions, weakening trade winds, and currents (Than, 2006). CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGESituation Analysis 16
  • 19. Situation Analysis cont’d. The trend of more areas affected by drought is living are known to lessen the health impacts ofsaid to be 66% - 90% more likely to happen within flood disasters” (Keim, 2008, p. 513).the twenty-first century. Agricultural, economic, Tropical cyclones, like drought, are also predictedand health problems are most often associated with to be more likely to strike within the twenty-firstdrought-related deaths (Keim, 2008, p. 511). To cope century. “In the past two centuries, tropical cycloneswith public health emergencies caused by drought, have caused an estimated 1.9 million deathsthere needs to be both preparation before and action worldwide.” (Keim, 2008, p. 513). In order to prepareafter such an event. The principal interventions need for tropical cyclones, weather monitoring andto focus on: food security, safe water and adequate forecasting is essential. This can allow for timelysanitation, hygiene, infection in healthcare settings, implementation of safe evacuations to preventsurveillance, and temporary shelter for displaced drowning (the leading cause of cyclone death). Situation Analysispopulations (Keim, 2008, p. 512). Public education in schools, home, and at the work “Meteorological forecasting and early warnings place can raise awareness of evacuation routes andhave decreased morality of flash floods by greater plans (Keim, 2008, p. 514).than fifty percent” (Keim, 2008, 513). However, there Many populations of Palau have vulnerabilitiesare still many public health impacts of flooding caused by cases of extreme weather. Dr. Kuartei,which include: damage to homes and displacement Palauan Minister of Health, explains that the vulnerableof occupants, compromised personal hygiene, populations do not have the mechanisms to rise abovecontamination of water sources, disruption of their vulnerabilities. However, he believes the women,sewage service and solid-waste collection, injuries children and elderly only become highly susceptible tosustained during cleanup, stress-related mental the dangers of extreme weather when the healthy arehealth and substance abuse problems, as well as not looking after them. This is why he believes thosedeaths caused by drowning. Drills and exercises who are healthy are the most vulnerable. Unless Palaushould include population protection as well as analert and notification system for such an event. “Anearly return of victims to routine activities of daily CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 17
  • 20. Situation Analysis cont’d adopts a model that educates and protects those that of the secondary health facilities would be taken out. are healthy and reside in the main cluster of islands, Palau has taken many steps to tackle this issue. Dr. then the vulnerable will also suffer. (Kuartei, J, personal Kuartei states how they have initiated “project uphill,” communication, September 24, 2010). an effort to build new structures uphill to higher, safer A portion of Palau’s population lives on islands grounds. He states that people are now very careful not that are outer lying, posing yet another risk as there to build houses near the sea, because people have seen is a rise in the occurrence of extreme weather events. the level rise throughout the years (Kuartei, J, personal Dr. Kuartei, explains how the people of Palau have communication, September 24, 2010). always believed they have the power to turn the tide Dr. Mark Keim explains that vulnerability to natural away if it ever becomes a problem. He discusses how disaster has two sides: susceptibility and the exposure Palauans believe time is not linear, but circular and if to dangerous hazards as well as resilience and theSituation Analysis some of the outer lying islands were to be lost, then capacity to cope with or recover from such events. something new would one day come along to replace He also explains that “resilience has two components, them. Palauans take life in stride. The challenge is to those provided by nature, and those provided through convince them to plan ahead in order to adequately human action” (2008, p. 509). He believes that prepare for potential extreme weather events (Kuartei, “community based risk-reduction activities lessen J, personal communication, September 24, 2010). human vulnerability to the vagaries of natural disasters The location of the main hospital in Palau poses that threaten public health” (2008, p. 515). Palau may yet another threat as it is located very close to the not be protected by its surroundings, but benefits ocean shoreline. Dr. Kuartei explains that the hospital is through human action. Dr. Kuartei states how the located where it is because it is “aesthetically pleasing.” ability of Palauans to respond as a community is their However, one earthquake or a tidal wave could easily greatest strength, not necessarily the government’s over-take the ward. He also explains that it is not just response to such disaster. The people of Palau are the hospital that is located close to the sea. Once the willing and able to be resilient to the effects of global hospital was built, it became a magnet to other health climate change. However, he states that its biggest 18 entities, such as private clinics. In turn, if an extreme weather event were to occur, the hospital and many threat to health is lack of coordination. (Kuartei, J, personal communication, September 24, 2010).
  • 21. Climate Change MatrixClimatic Results Vulnerabilities/ Resilienciesevent Increased Risks Crop damage: heat damage, Taro, Tapioca, Sugar cane, Adaptive capabilities: drought, seasonal changes medicinal plants, dietary dietary education,Extreme concerns, wildfires, safe drinking water preparedness, cultural bondingheat Vector borne infections: Developing country, Readiness: Health education, Dengue fever, Malaria, resource poor, low-income alliance with more Encephalitis populations developed nations Respiratory diseases: Chronic Elderly, isolated populations, Readiness: Health education, obstructive pulmonary health access, low-income higher awareness level disease, asthma, bronchitis populations Heat-related illnesses: All populations: health access Readiness: Health education, Syncope, cramps, exhaustion, higher awareness level dehydration, stroke Crop damage: Salt water Taro, Tapioca, Sugar cane, Adaptive capabilities: dietary intrusion, flooding medicinal plants, dietary education, cultural bondingSea level concernsrise Flooding, Vector borne Populations close to the Readiness: Health education, infections: Dengue, Malaria, ocean, Koror hospital, Vector higher awareness level Encephalitis borne diseases Climate Change Matrix Unpredictable tides: Health Populations close to the ocean, Readiness: Health education access, flooding mental health, health access Coral damage Tourism (economy), Fishing Eco-friendly tourism: environmental educationEl Niño Weakened Trade winds: Fish distribution warmer water Extreme weather: Droughts, Vulnerable populations Preparedness: education, floods, extended and (location), farming, beach readiness, redundancy shortened seasons, erosion, health access, cyclones, typhoons emergency evacuations, cultural and historical sites (mental health) 19
  • 22. Primary Research Part 1: Survey Method: A ten-question survey designed to measure current awareness levels of climate change issues was distributed among a sample size of 148 citizens of Palau between September 18th, 2010 and October 26th, 2010. Based on a population size of 20,000 citizens, the expected margin of error would be around 8%* with a confidence level around 95%**. *The margin of error is the amount of error that you can tolerate. If 90% of respondents answer yes, while 10% answer no, you may be able to tolerate a larger amount of error than if the respondents are split 50-50 or 45-55. Lower margin of error requires a larger sample size. **The confidence level is the amount of uncertainty you can tolerate. Suppose that you have 20 yes-no questions in your survey. With a confidence level of 95%, you would expect that for one of the questions (1 in 20), the percentage of people who answer yes would be more than the margin of error away from the true answer. The true answer is the percentage you would get if you exhaustively interviewed everyone. A higher confidence level requires a larger sample size. Palau Climate Change Survey with Results 1. How aware are you of global climate change in Palau? a. Very aware Male: 27 Female: 39 Total: 66 45% b. Somewhat aware Male: 21 Female: 37 Total: 58 39% c. Slightly aware Male: 10 Female: 12 Total: 22 15% d. Not aware at all Male: 2 Female: 0 Total: 2 1% Question 1 Conclusion and Recommendations: Approximately 84% of the population surveyed range between somewhat aware to very aware of climate change in Palau. 16% of the population was only slightly aware or not aware at all. Objectives should be set to increase the number of citizens at the “Very Aware” level. 2. How aware are you of the possible effects of global climate change on your health and wellbeing? a. Very aware Male: 24 Female: 39 Total: 63 43% b. Somewhat aware Male: 18 Female: 38 Total: 56 38% c. Slightly aware Male: 13 Female: 8 Total: 21 14% d. Not aware at all Male: 5 Female: 3 Total: 8 5% Question 2: Conclusion and Recommendations: Approximately 80% of the population surveyed range between somewhat aware to very aware of climate change in Palau. 20% of the population was only slightly aware or not aware at all. Objectives should be set to increase the number of citizens at the “Very Aware” level.Primary Research 3. How concerned are you about the possible effects caused by climate change on the health of Palauan citizens? a. Very concerned Male: 34 Female: 57 Total: 91 61% b. Somewhat concerned Male: 18 Female: 24 Total: 42 28% c. Slightly concerned Male: 6 Female: 6 Total: 42 8% d. Not concerned at all Male: 2 Female: 1 Total: 3 2% Question 3: Conclusion and Recommendations: Approximately 90% of the population surveyed range between somewhat concerned to very concerned about possible health impacts caused by climate change. Only 10% of the population was only slightly concerned or not concerned at all. These results show the need to address the high level of concern among Palauan citizens about their health issues.20
  • 23. Primary Research cont’d4. How often are you exposed to information about global climate change? a. 4 or more times per month Male: 15 Female: 19 Total: 34 23% b. 2 – 3 times per month Male: 22 Female: 24 Total: 56 38% c. 1 time per month Male: 17 Female: 23 Total: 40 27% d. 0 times per month Male: 6 Female: 12 Total: 18 12%Question 4: Conclusion and Recommendations: Approximately 39% of the population surveyed are exposed only0 to 1 time per month to climate change information. It is key to increase levels of frequency and repetition ofmessages and information in order to raise awareness levels among the audience.5. How much of a problem do you consider global climate change on the future of wellbeing of Palau? a. A major problem Male: 43 Female: 63 Total: 106 72% b. Somewhat of a problem Male: 14 Female: 19 Total: 33 22% c. A slight problem Male: 2 Female: 4 Total: 6 4% d. Not a problem at all Male: 1 Female: 2 Total: 3 2%Question 5: Conclusion and Recommendations: 72% of the population surveyed consider global climate changeto be a major problem on the future well being of Palau. Only 6% of the population considered it only a slightproblem or not a problem at all. These results show the need to address the high level of concern amongPalauan citizens about the future well being of Palau.6. What do you consider the biggest communication problem when addressing the health impacts of climatechange to your family, friends, and community? a. A lack of awareness on the issues Male: 14 Female: 33 Total: 47 32% b. A lack of education on the issues Male: 16 Female: 21 Total: 37 25% c. A lack of concern about the issues Male: 20 Female: 20 Total: 40 27% d. A lack of evidence about the issues Male: 4 Female: 3 Total: 7 5% e. Other (please specify) ____________ Male: 6 Female: 11 Total: 17 11%Question 6: Conclusion and Recommendations: Results were closely distributed when asked about the biggestcommunication problem when addressing health impacts of climate change. 32% of the population blamed alack of awareness; 25% believed that a lack of education on the subject was at fault; 27% believed that a lack ofconcern was the biggest problem. The campaign should address all of these shortcomings.7. Which public health aspect of climate change do you feel needs the most immediate attention? a. Security of drinking water Male: 14 Female: 23 Total: 37 25% b. Food security Male: 7 Female: 10 Total: 17 11% Primary Research c. Saltwater intrusion of farmland Male: 13 Female: 14 Total: 27 18% d. Immunization against disease Male: 10 Female: 15 Total: 25 17% e. Emergency medical response Male: 5 Female: 12 Total: 17 11% f. Economic impact (tourism, fishing, etc) Male: 11 Female: 14 Total: 25 17%Question 7: Conclusion and Recommendations: A wide range of beliefs about which public health aspectneeds most immediate attention was also measured. 25% believe that secure drinking water is the mostimmediate concern; 18% believe saltwater intrusion of farmland; 17% economic impact on tourism and fishing;17% immunization against disease, and 11% for both food security and emergency medical response. Thecampaign should address all of these health aspects. 21
  • 24. Primary Research cont’d Part 2: Personal Interviews Method: During a weeklong data-gathering trip to Palau, numerous personal interviews were conducted with fishermen, farmers, tourism experts, public health officials, and media experts. A consistent set of questions was used in order to monitor similarities and differences among people in the various industries. All interviews were recorded via video and audio. Interview Questions for Palau Project Fishermen 1. How has climate change affected farming in Palau? 2. Has there been any loss of farmland due to flooding, erosion, or saltwater intrusion? 3. Are there any adjustments that Palauans have had to make in their farming methods due to climate change issues? 4. Has the negative agricultural effects of climate change caused any dietary concerns in the health of Palauans? 5. Have there been more cases of crop damage from flooding than in the past? 6. Have there been more cases of crop damage from draught than in the past? 7. Is there a fear that the farming industry might someday be ruined due to climate change? 8. Are there food security issues in Palau due to global climate change? Public Health Officials 1. What health risks associated with global climate change are immediate concerns? 2. What health risks in the future do you foresee stemming from global climate change? 3. How well prepared is the health system of Palau to address the health issues caused by climate change? 4. Have you made any changes to your health system in response to increased risks resulting from climate change, and if so, what are those changes?Primary Research22
  • 25. Primary Research cont’d 5. What are the main constraints and obstacles in addressing the health issues related to climate change in Palau? 6. What types of warning and evacuation plans are in place in Palau in case of extreme weather events? 7. What are the threats to Palau’s water supplies due to saline intrusion or any other climate related event? 8. How informed do you consider the general public of Palau on issues of global climate change in Palau? 9. What climate change issue poses the greatest threat to Palauans? 10. Are some Palauans more susceptible than others to health issues due to economic class, location, education, etc? 11. Are there any waste management concerns related to global climate change? 12. What are your thoughts on how Palau will develop in the next 100 years if global climate change keeps affecting the world? 13. In the event of an extreme weather disaster, what type of programs does Palau have in place to ensure medical assistance (physical and mental) for citizens, speedy recovery, resilience of community, etc? 14. Do you feel Palauan media addresses public health issues and information adequately?Tourism 1. With tourism rates on the rise in Palau, are there any concerns that climate change issues might impact Primary Research tourism in the future?Media 1. How many households have television in Palau? 2. How many households have radio in Palau? 3. How many households have Internet in Palau? 4. What is the most read magazine in Palau? 5. What is the most read newspaper in Palau? 6. Has there been previous ad campaigns related to global climate change in Palau? 7. Are there billboards on the roads on Palau? 8. Are there any non-traditional or alternative ways that Palauans get their information?Conclusions and Recommendations: From the numerous interviews conducted we were able to find common responses and concerns froma variety of people in similar professions. Information gathered from these interviews served as additionalevidence in our decision making process. 23
  • 26. Key Idea The key idea for the campaign was developed diet and removing themselves from exposure to air after conducting an interview with Palau’s Minister pollutants. Limiting the amount of time spent in of Health, Dr. Stevenson Kuartei. According to Dr. extreme heat, drinking water regularly to prevent Kuartei, the most vulnerable population in Palau is dehydration, and wearing protective clothing can aide comprised of the healthy citizens. He explains that in lowering the risk of heat-related illnesses. Regular the healthy population must remain healthy in order visits to the doctor for check-ups will also help lower to assist citizens who are less healthy or less capable the risk for many of these diseases. In the event of a of helping themselves. It is from this interview that person being affected by any of the diseases, regular we developed our key idea, “Protect, Provide, Unite.” check-ups with a doctor could help catch and treat a Each word serves a purpose in raising the awareness disease early. Doctor’s also can encourage positive of increased health risks due to climate change and and healthy behaviors among individuals. also creates a memorable tagline for the campaign. Through education on protective measures, we will be teaching individuals in the primary Protect audience that protecting their own health is making Through primary and secondary research, it was an investment into the health and well-being of found that climate change has contributed to a rise all Palauan citizens. This initiative leads us to the in the number of vector-borne infections, respiratory second part of the key idea, “Provide.” diseases, heat-related illnesses, and dietary problems. The target audience is at a higher risk of exposure to Provide vector-borne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, When individuals have protected themselves, and encephalitis. Respiratory diseases are also on they can then provide help and assistance to family, the rise among our target audience and include friends, and the community. By providing assistance chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and to others, the primary audience will aide in lowering bronchitis. Heat-related illnesses include syncope, the risk and susceptibility of other individuals to cramps, exhaustion, dehydration, and stroke. certain health issues. The education that the primary Individuals also face a greater risk of having dietary audience gains on health risks related to climate problems including diabetes and obesity. change and the ways to lower the risks will be passed While individuals are at a greater risk of exposure on to future generations of Palau, providing a safer to certain health issues, protective measures can be and healthier environment to live in. taken to lower the risk of susceptibility and infection. The second part of the key idea seeks to provide Individuals should wear protective clothing, apply assistance to others while bringing the primary and insect repellent frequently, and also use window secondary audience together. The act of coming screens to defend against many vector-borne together symbolizes the already strong sense of infections. Protective measures can also be taken community that exists in Palau. Ultimately, this lead against respiratory diseases by developing a healthy to the final piece of our key idea, “Unite.” Unite Through the process of protecting and providing education and assistance to others, we are uniting all citizens for a healthier Palau. Again, the idea that individuals must protect themselves first empowers them with the ability and knowledge to provide assistance to the less fortunate and to unite the community. Increasing unity among individualsKey Idea should raise awareness about the health risks associated with climate change among all audiences. All three words serve a separate purpose, but all three words need to exist together to be effective. The three words behind our key idea will be incorporated into all of our creative.24
  • 27. Target Market Profile Based on the analogy that was provided by frequently, most listen to Diaz Broadcasting, 89.5 FM.Dr. Kuartei, we chose two target audiences for the Our primary audience also obtains their informationcampaign. The primary audience we are targeting with from the three local newspapers; Island Times, Palauour campaign is healthy Palauan citizens both male and Horizon, and Tia Belau. Of the 11,000 televisions infemale between the ages of sixteen to sixty-five years Palau, 5,000 households subscribe to the digital cableold. According to Palau census data, 13,270 individuals network, Palau National Communication Corporationof the population account for this age range. The data (PNCC). Our primary audience mostly accessesalso showed us that 68% of this audience resides in the four local channels broadcasted through PNCC,Koror, with the average household size being four specifically Channel 23, Oceania Television Network,persons. The primary audiences average household and Channel 26, Diaz Broadcasting.income is $11,117.68 with the majority of this income The secondary audience we chose for the campaigncoming from public sector work. These individuals is children and adolescents ages eight to fifteen yearsspend the largest portion of their income, roughly old. This audience accounts for 4,888 individuals of20%, on miscellaneous expenses, which are expenses the total population. We have selected this audiencethat do not fall under the general categories of rent, because we recognize them as the future of Palau.household expenses, food, leisure, or transportation. Starting education about the health risks associated Our primary target audience also engages with climate change with a young audience will allowin many informal activities. The most common the campaign to have an even greater impact andactivities include farming, food preparation, fishing, extend past its six-month parameters.and woodcarving. While farming contributes to Our secondary audience uses most traditionala significant amount of the food supply for this media and has been joining social media sites suchaudience, many continue to shop at local stores. For as Facebook in recent years. Our secondary audienceregular grocery needs, many in this audience visit uses radio to receive information and listens to 88.9WCTC Shopping Center and Surangels, both located KRFM most often. This radio station is among thein Koror. Individuals also shop at Yano, a market most popular based on its broadcast of current music,that supplies locally grown foods. The primary playing both American and Palauan songs. The localaudience utilizes radio, newspapers, and television television stations are among the most watchedto receive their information. Although very few radio in Palau with Oceania Television Network and Diazstations exist in Palau, this audience uses radio Broadcasting being the most popular. Target Market Profile 25
  • 28. Communication Objectves (What the campaign should accomplish) 1. 2. Increase awareness level to 75% of the primary Increase awareness level to 80% of the target audience (healthy citizens of Palau) about the secondary target audience about the need for them need to protect themselves against the increased to be the “future healthy generation” of Palau. health risks associated with climate change. This Increase awareness that there is a need to protect will be accomplished within the first half of the six- themselves, their families, friends, and community month campaign. against increased health risks associated with Rationale: Dr. Kuartei’s statement that healthy Palau climate change. This will be accomplished within the citizens are the most vulnerable creates a need to six-month campaign. raise awareness levels among this audience. Rationale: Teaching future generations to protect His analogy of the airline procedure with oxygen themselves first, so that they are then able to provide masks (you must first make sure your own mask is assistance to others and education about the increased in place and working properly; then you can assist health risks associated with climate change. This is others) helps solidify this objective and rationale. important in ensuring a healthy future for citizens of Palau. Advertising Objectves (What the message should accomplish) 1. 2. 3. Establish in the minds of 75% Establish top-of-mind awareness Reinforce in the minds of 75% of the two target audiences that in 80% of the two target audiences of the two target audiences that protecting their own health in order that there are increased levels of climate change is related to certain to provide assistance and education health risks that are associated with health issues in Palau. This will be to others is an investment into the certain aspects of climate change. accomplished during the second half health and well being of all Palauan This will be accomplished during the of the six-month campaign. citizens. This will be accomplished first half of the campaign. Rationale: Our primary research during the first half of the six-month shows that 57% of Palauan citizens campaign. Rationale: Our primary research surveyed consider a lack of Rationale: Dr. Kuartei’s analogy of shows that 61% of Palauan citizens awareness and education about airline procedure with oxygen masks surveyed are very concerned about climate change the biggest problem (You must first make sure your the possible health effects caused when addressing health impact own mask is in place and working by climate change events. (Survey issues with family, friends, and properly; then you can assist others). question 6) community. (Survey question 9) Media Objectives (What the selected media should accomplish) 1. 2.Objectives Reach 75% of the primary target audience five times Reach 85% of the secondary target audience three per month during the six-month campaign. times per month during the six-month campaign. Rationale: The key to raising awareness levels lies in Rationale: Raising the awareness level among a younger frequency of exposure. Our primary audience needs to audience helps insure a healthier future for Palau and be exposed to our message often in order to motivate helps raise awareness among the children’s family them to action. members, friends, and community.26
  • 29. Advertising and Media Strategy A variety of media will be implemented in order (this size dominates the page without having to buyto raise awareness among our target audiences about the full page) ads that line up behind each other onhealth risks associated with climate change. A media corresponding pages. For example, the first ad wouldmix of newspapers, television, radio, billboards, posters, be placed on the bottom right hand side of page threeinformational brochures, social media, special climate and the second ad would be the same size placedchange events, direct mail, and promotional items are on the bottom right hand side of page five. The firstutilized to obtain the frequency of exposure needed to ad (page 3) would show a checklist of health issuesraise awareness levels to meet the established goals. related to climate change. The question used in the Timing and ad scheduling will be arranged so that ad would ask, “Which of the following health risks dologo and tagline awareness is raised prior to the more you believe increases with climate change events?”individualized messages being released. The heart of There will be boxes to check beside each responsethis media plan is based around frequency of exposure so the reader can respond to the list. When the pageto Palauan citizens. One exposure of an advertisement is turned (to page 5) there is an identical ad, exceptto a target group has little or no effect. After three all of the boxes have bright red (spot color) checkexposures within a campaign cycle and the more marks, showing that all of the responses are actuallyfrequency increases, the more advertisements become increased health risks. The bright red spot color willeffective. be used on an otherwise black and white page. The Wear-out of an advertising campaign is not caused advertisement’s forward placement in the newspaper,by too much frequency but is more related to copy and along with the use of the bright red spot color willcontent problems. Therefore, content will be changed increase recognition of the ad.regularly in order to keep things fresh. Series 2: Logo Ads During the first month of the campaign, four full- Logo strategy page (5 column X 16 inches), full color ads will be The logo uses the traditional Palauan flag colors placed to introduce the campaign logo. One ad willof blue and yellow and contains the words “Protect, appear each week and will rotate among the threeProvide, Unite.” A circular arrow is used to encompass newspapers so as to not overlap with series one ads.the three words to unify the “key idea.” The logo will During the first two weeks of the second month of thebe placed in prominent locations in all of the print campaign, six full-page (5 column X 16 inches), fulland television advertisements. Visual frequency and color ads will be placed. This allows for one of theserepetition of the logo will create familiarity with the ads to run in each newspaper once per week for thekey idea. In radio advertisements where the logo first two weeks of the second month of the campaign.cannot be seen, the tagline will be recited. The logo ads will also be used at strategic times In order for the audiences to better understand throughout the remaining months of the campaign asthe logo’s meaning, a series of advertisements are a reminder of the mission of the campaign. These adsused that introduce each word of the tagline through will show the campaign logo in full color. The ad copythe use of powerful images and explanations. With below the logo will be used to explain the “Protect,repetition, seeing the logo should trigger a mental Provide, Unite” tagline to the readers. During the firstconnection between health risks and climate change. two weeks of the campaign’s second month, theseAlso, the active tagline, “Protect, Provide, Unite” ads will be used to establish familiarity with the logoencourages behavior change and modification among and tagline. These ads will also be mixed into theour audiences. Logo recognition is critical in creating scheduling during the latter half of the campaign forcampaign awareness. reinforcement of the key idea. Series 3: Fact Ads Newspapers Strategy Also, during the second month of the campaign, a series of more individualized newspaper ads will begin Newspaper Advertising Strategy to be placed. These ads will be black and white, 3 Newspaper advertisements have been categorized (column) X 8 (inch) in size with a page 3 placement ininto three series: each of the three newspapers. Each ad in this series willSeries 1: Checklist Ads state facts that relate to the health risks associated to During the first month of the campaign, a pagepositioning strategy will be utilized in all threenewspapers. There will be two, 3 (column) X 9 (inch) CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 27
  • 30. Strategy cont’d climate change. Each ad will individualize a word from Horizon are both published on Tuesdays and Fridays the tagline, Protect, Provide, Unite, and employ the fact while Tia Belau is published every Monday. All strategy to a variety of climate related health risks. The three newspapers are sold throughout Palau from ads will create awareness of health related issues and Babeldaob in the north, to Angaur in the south. their association with climate change. The ads are also Because of the limited media in Palau, readership is designed to educate the reader on various actions they high across all three newspapers. can take to help lessen the impact or prevent these All three newspapers are tabloid-sized format and health issues. There will be nine different ads in this sixteen pages in length. Mechanically, they are all series that will be strategically mixed among the three five-column formats with full-color available only on different newspapers. Duplicate ads will not run in any front and back pages and the double-truck (pages of the three newspapers during the same week. The 8-9). Spot colors are available on certain pages (2, 7, creative elements in these ads will display continuity, 10, and 15) for additional costs. but will address different subject matter within each. During the first month of the campaign, the All ads will contain the campaign logo and tagline. series 1 ads (checklist ads) will run in two papers per week (Island Times, Palau Horizon), while the Newspaper Media Strategy third paper (Tia Belau) runs the series 2 (full page, The largest portion of the campaign’s advertising full color logo) advertisement. This plan rotates the will be through newspapers. There are three major ads between each of the three papers each week, newspapers that serve Palau and they are: Island during the first month. Times, Palau Horizon and Tia Belau (This is Palau). During the second month of the campaign, the same Each newspaper has a circulation of about 1,200 strategy will be used except during this month the series copies each with Island Times and Palau Horizon publishing twice a week, while Tia Belau only has a weekly issue. The Island Times and Palau CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGEStrategy28
  • 31. Strategy cont’d2 ads (full page, full-color logo) will run in two papers perweek (Island Times, Palau Horizon), while the third paper(Tia Belau) begins to run series 3 (fact) advertisements.This plan rotates between each of the three papers eachweek, during the second month. During the remaining four months of thecampaign, a mixture of all three series (series 1, 2,and 3) of print ads will run with a new ad beingintroduced into the mix each month to preventconsumer wear out. The three papers will notcontain the same ad during any week of the finalfour months of the campaign. Television Television Advertising Strategy Television ads have been designed to followthe idea of stating facts. The commercials are60-seconds long, but can also be edited to 30-secondcommercials. Each commercial uses eye-catchingimages that contain real footage gathered during the right number of times to convey the campaignprimary research. When individuals see a commercial message. The 60-second television ads will firstwith images of people they may know, it resonates appear during prime time (Oceania prime timewith them more and urges them to apply the message is considered 6:00 p.m. – 10:30 p.m.) view twicefrom the commercials to their own lives. an evening on both channels during the first two The facts that we chose to present in the months of the campaign. Ads will appear everydaycommercials will be displayed on the screen for for the first two months mostly after the local news.viewers to read. The typeface that is used in the Only one 30-second commercial would begin to becommercials is consistent with the typeface used introduced as the second month of the campaignthroughout other aspects of the campaign. While is coming to a close. The 60-second commercialswe incorporate background music that suggests the would still appear over the course of the campaign,seriousness of our message, the music used will not just not as frequently. After the third month ofmake our message feel morbid or frighten audiences. the campaign, we will begin using the additionalAfter all of the chosen facts have been represented 30-second commercial so the ads do not seemthrough the commercial, the commercial will come repetitive. We will rotate these commercialsto an abrupt end, with our logo covering the entire throughout the campaign, having them aired mostlyscreen. Having the logo appear in the television in the evening.commercials allows viewers to associate the logo withthe campaign message and identify with the othermediums they encounter.. Radio Television Media Strategy Radio Advertising Strategy Palau National Communications Corporation Only the most important facts that easily(PNCC) is the only television broadcasting company translate into images in the listener’s mind are used in the radio advertisements. The radio ads are kept Strategyin Palau. With 11,000 televisions on the island, thereare only 5,000 households that actually subscribe to simple and to the point so as to not create confusionPNCC. Through PNCC, there are four local channels about the message. The radio ads will be similar tothat are broadcasted. We have selected the two other elements of the campaign and will state factsmost popular local television channels to advertise throughout. The facts recited in the commercial willon, Oceania Television Network (OTV), channel 23 be about health risks related to climate change andand Diaz Broadcasting, channel 26. Commercial placement is important in ensuringwe reach our audiences at the right time and also CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 29
  • 32. Strategy cont’d inserted into the mix monthly to retain freshness. Billboards Billboard Advertising Strategy Billboard strategy will be similar to other mediums and will state facts to create a feeling of continuity with the other ads in the campaign. The billboards will also contain minimal copy to ensure the message can be read quickly by passing traffic. Some billboards will contain an eye-catching image that relates to the health risk that the road sign is representing. We will also break the border of every billboard with either the campaign logo or a checkmark. Two of the six billboards will be rotated so they stand vertically instead of horizontally. The first vertical billboard will feature the same checklist that appears in the series one newspaper ads. The second vertical billboard will feature the circular logo mounted at the also about protective measures. Ads will also feature top, with the logo extending past the top and side engaging sound effects that encourage listeners to edges. Beneath the logo, the billboard will have the stay tuned to the station. All radio advertisements extended tagline that reads, “Protect yourself, Provide will end with the message “Protect, Provide, Unite” assistance to others, Unite for a healthier Palau.” being recited. Although, we are not able to visually The remaining billboards will be horizontal and display our logo through radio, verbal repetition on will feature a fact and checkmark that extends past a frequent basis can also be an affective memory the border. The campaign logo will also appear on reinforcement tool. the billboard and extend to the outside as well. Each Radio Media Strategy of the horizontal billboards will display a fact as well Radio is a frequently used medium in Palau. as an image that corresponds with the fact. There are four local radio stations, but only three Billboard Media Strategy will be used in the campaign. Diaz Broadcasting/ Billboards are small in size, but a very important WWFM 89.5, KRFM 88.9 MHz, and the government medium in Palau. The standard size for all Palau owned station, Eco-Paradise FM/Voice of Palau billboards is 8 feet by 4 feet. Most of Palau’s that broadcasts simultaneously on 87.9 MHz and billboards are located on Compact Road, the main 1584 AM are the three local radio stations where road of Palau. There are also numerous billboards advertisements will be placed. Each station reaches on secondary roads located throughout the country. a variety of listeners and placing advertisements on There are approximately 50 to 75 billboards in Palau. each station will help expand on reach goals. This campaign would utilize 20 – 25 of these signs Given the large number of people driving to and during the six-month campaign. Strategic placement from work every day, both morning (6-10 a.m.) and of signs will yield a high amount of impressions by evening (3-7 p.m.) drive times are utilized to reach vehicular traffic as well as by pedestrian traffic. The the primary target audience. To retain campaign largest number of billboards will be placed in and continuity, two 30-second radio advertisements haveStrategy around the Koror area due to a denser population been developed that feature the “fact” theme. The and high amount of traffic traveling to and from ads will alternate during the morning and evening work on a daily basis. Although only 20-25 of Palau’s drive times. The two radio advertisements will billboards will be utilized, billboard messages will be alternate every day between the three stations changed monthly to prevent wear out. (336 radio ads per month). Two ads will air during morning drive time hours and also during the evening drive time, throughout everyday and every week of30 the campaign. New radio advertisements will be CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
  • 33. Strategy cont’d outlets, meeting locations, etc, will be utilized. Also, Posters strategic outdoor locations will be used during special Poster Advertising Strategy events. Two varieties and sizes of posters will be utilizedduring the campaign. The first poster style will Brochure Advertising andfollow the format of the series 3 (fact) newspaper Media Strategyads. Posters following this format will be 8.5 inches Brochures will be used to provide Palauan’s withby 11 inches in size and full color. There are nine recent and relevant information designed to educatedifferent versions of posters in this format. The them about the public health risks of climate change.second style poster follows the road sign format Brochures are designed in a tri-fold format and willand will be 17 inches by 11 inches in size. Full color use full color images of local places and people.will be utilized in order to draw readers’ attention Brochures will contain preventative or protectiveto the posters. There are four different versions of health measures and information that address healththis poster format. issues related to climate change. A different brochure Poster Media Strategy will be printed each month of the campaign and will By implementing posters into the campaign, both address a different topic. The first month of theprimary and secondary audiences can be reached. campaign a cyclone preparedness brochure will be StrategyCertain audience members who might not be exposed distributed. Other brochures that will be distributedto billboards would stand a higher probability of over the course of the campaign will addressexposure through strategically placed posters. We preparedness measures for vector-borne infections,will print one-thousand copies of each poster. The diet and diabetes, sea level rise and crop damage,posters would be placed both indoors and outdoors in extreme heat and crop damage, and finally, extremeevery state in the country, therefore, reaching isolated heat and protective health measures.populations, such as Kayangel and Peleliu. Indoorareas, such as the hospital, dispensaries, clinics,schools, health and fitness facilities, grocery and retail CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 31
  • 34. Strategy cont’d One-thousand brochures will be printed each 2010 climate change meeting in Koror at the Palasia month. Brochures will be distributed at the events Hotel. Invitations will be sent via direct mail to state aimed at our target audiences (Palasia Hotel event and government and public health officials, teachers, and the children’s camp). Brochures will also be available other parties of interest. as they are released each month through the hospital, The half-day event will be scheduled during clinics, dispensaries, Ministry of Health, and any other the opening month of the campaign in April 2011. strategic location or event that is determined at a later A campaign launch coordinated with Earth Day is time. suggested. The meeting will begin with morning presentations from local climate, health, and tourism Social Media experts. A lunch will be served to all those attending Advertising and and will be followed by a group discussion and interaction. A tote bag containing the campaign Media Strategy promotional materials will be placed at every table The website will contain information regarding the setting and available for all those attending. A DVD campaign, as well as useful health tips and guidance, containing interviews, question and answer sessions, FAQs, contact information, and message boards. The and photos obtained during SIU’s visit to Palau will be website does not contain rich media or anything that among the promotional materials. Closing statements would contribute to a slower page download. and dismissal would conclude by early afternoon. Although Internet access is limited in Palau, user Children’s Camp data suggests that it is a growing medium in the country. Data shows that there were 5,400 Internet Climate Exercise users as of December 2007 or 26% penetration. There The events directed toward the secondary audience were 2,860 (13.8%) Facebook subscribers in Palau as (4,888) are in addition to the children’s camp that of August 31, 2010. The cost is very inexpensive at already takes place during three weeks of summer. only $0.21 per click. Clickable advertising banners The camp schedule is as follows: June 13th – 17th at appearing only on the pages of Palauan Facebook Ngcremlengui, June 20th – 24th at Mclckcok, and June subscribers will direct traffic to the website created 27th – July 1st at Koror. The Ministry of Health and especially for the campaign. the Governor’s Association fund these informational camps for children ages 8-16. During each of these Event Strategy camps, a half-day of team-building exercises, fun informational sessions, and games and contests Yearly Climate Meeting about global climate change will be conducted. In The event recommended to reach the primary addition, campaign t-shirts, coloring books featuring audience (14,241) is a re-creation of the September health topics, and a variety of campaign promotional items will be given to each participant. Team building events such as: Climate Change Jeopardy and a raft- building contest. A tour around Palau will be designed to show children the effects of their environment caused by climate change. Climate Change Awareness Day Another secondary audience event will be held at the local schools. A climate change informational dayStrategy is highly recommended for this campaign. Inviting guest speakers from a variety of related fields will further educate children about public health and global climate change. Throughout the day teachers and staff will come together for planned activities32 CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
  • 35. Strategy cont’drelated to climate change and public health. with Palau. Children’s sizes as well as adult sizes will beA few suggested exercises include: available. A contest where the kids individually draw their The t-shirts will be distributed strategicallyown interpretation of what “Protect, Provide, Unite” throughout the campaign to help supplement its variousmeans to them and hang the final drawings where events and promotions.everyone can see them. The overall goal for the t-shirts is to use a minimal Class photographs of the children wearing their to no-cost advertising medium with a long shelf life tocampaign t-shirts would be taken and given to them assist in creating and retaining awareness about theas a reminder of the event. effects of climate change on the public heath of the A nutrition expert will teach good eating habits as Palauan people.well as dietary issues related to climate change events. Several sponsors will be approached and asked to The school informational day will be a good donate to the campaign to cover the costs of the t-shirts.opportunity to hand out t-shirts, brochures, and Ideally every Palauan will proudly wear a “Protect,promotional materials. This will also reach the children Provide, Unite” t-shirt and to aid in reiterating thewho did not attend the summer camp and provide campaign message.additional exposure to the ones that did attend. Theinformational brochures and promotional materials Tote Bags: 1,000 Tote bags will also be distributed. These werewill be something the children can take home to their selected because they are eco-friendly, reusable,parents at the end of the day. and convenient in that they can hold all of the other Direct Mail Strategy promotional items. Tote bags also have a large area to display the campaign logo and message. Individuals Because of postal limitations, direct mail is not one carrying or shopping with the tote bag will help withof this campaign’s most important mediums. There are exposure and retention goals.also no actual street addresses in Palau, so there is noresidential mail delivery. There are a limited number of Reusable water bottles: 1,000post office boxes available at the post office in Koror. Water bottles were selected because they are aMail to outlying islands is usually addressed to the state’s constant reminder for people to stay hydrated. Thegovernment office where Palauans can receive their mail. water bottles, like other promotional items will feature A direct mail piece will be used as an invitation to the campaign logo and message, helping with exposurethe climate change event at the Palasia Hotel in April and retention goals.2011. The invitation will display the campaign logo onthe front. The reverse side will reveal full details about Fly Swatters: 1,000 Fly swatters were selected to provide and serve asthe event held at the Palasia Hotel on the Saturday after a link to simple preventative measures of insect control.Earth Day. They will also display the campaign logo. Promotional Material Bandanas: 1,000 Strategy Bandanas were chosen because they serve a purpose in sun protection and are popular in Palauan All promotional items were selected based on theirability to carry the campaign message and logo as well culture. The bandanas are designed to display aas being usable products that directly relate to the repetitive pattern of campaign logos.campaign subject matter. Sweatbands: 1,000 T-‐Shirts: 20,000 Sweatbands were selected based on their usability T-shirts are a very important element of this in a hot climate. They can also be used during athletic Strategycampaign. When individuals wear the shirts they will events. They will again display the campaign logo andserve as walking billboards. help with exposure. The t-shirts will be a light blue, similar to the color Baseball Caps: 1,000on the Palauan flag and also have yellow and white Baseball caps provide protection from extremewriting. The t-shirts will feature the campaign logo on sun exposure. They also provide another opportunitythe front and have an explanation of “Protect, Provide, for displaying the logo. Similar to the t-shirts, whenUnite” on the back. The lighter color of the shirt will help individuals wear baseball caps, they will serve asdeflect sunlight as well as display colors closely affiliated walking billboards. 33
  • 36. Budget Budget Allocation Budget EstimatesBudget34
  • 37. Budget cont’d Promotional Items Budget Allocation Promotional Items Budget Estimates Budget This budget reflects the costs that would be incurred if all mediums were implemented. Promotional items havethe potential to be sponsored. Palau media outlets can also be approached for media donations. 35
  • 38. Evaluation Assessment of this campaign is scheduled for selected and the sample size will be at least 148 (the October 2011. At this time, Department of Health size of the first sample) respondents. employees will administer a survey containing the Once data is gathered and analyzed, comparisons same questions as the first survey administered in will be made between the results of the first and second Palau, October 2010. One question will be added that survey. Comparing the results of each question will measures the awareness of the “Protect, Provide, indicate how much awareness levels have changed Unite” campaign. The sample will be randomly between October 2010 and October 2011.Evaluation36
  • 39. Conclusion Agency 1244 has created a campaign that is evaluate the campaign following the six-month plan,engaging and designed to effectively achieve the will also allow us to know whether or not we haveestablished objectives. The “Protect, Provide, Unite” raised the level of awareness among Palauan’s andcampaign resonates with the target market because equipped individuals with the knowledge they needit was created with the target market. Being able to to “Protect, Provide, Unite.” Conclusion 37
  • 40. References Anderson M. (1991). Managing Natural Disasters and the Environment. World Bank Washington, DC. Barnett, Jon (2007). Food security and climate change in the South Pacific. Pacific Ecologist, 32-36. Buchheim, J. (1998). Coral reef bleaching. Retrieved from http://www.marinebiology.org/coralbleaching.htm Carreon, B.H. Dengue Fever Epidemic Grips Palau. CDNN, (2008). Cassels, S. (2006). Overweight in the Pacific: links between foreign dependence, global food trade, and obesity in the Federated States of Micronesia. Globalization and Health. Cavaliere, C. (2009). The Effects of Climate Change on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. og Urter Urtemedicin, 44-57. Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC. February 2010. Malaria. CDC. Retrieved October 23, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/index.html Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC - Frequently Asked Questions - Dengue. (2009, September 3). Retrieved October 26, 2010, from http://www.cdc.gov/dengue/fAQFacts/index.html Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC. June 2010. Update: Dengue, Tropical and Suptropical Regions. CDC. Retrieved October 30, 2010 from www.cdc.gov/travel/content/outbreak-notice/dengue-tropical-sub-tropical.aspx Department of Fish and Game. El Niño information. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.dfg.ca.gov/marine/elNiño. asp Dengue (n.d.). Directors of Health Promotion and Education. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.dhpe. org infect/dengue.html. Deschenes, O., & Moretti, E. (2009). Extreme Weather Events, Mortality, and Migration. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(4), 659–681. Elderly Have Higher Risk For Cardiovascular, Respiratory Disease. (n.d.).. Retrieved October 26, 2010, from HYPERLINK “http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060309081531.htm” t “_blank” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060309081531.htm Draft National Energy Policy, (2009). Konor, republic of Palau. Retrieved from http://www.rep5.eu/files/pages/file/ Palau/Energy%20Policy%20Final%20Draft.pdf Ebi, K. L. (2006). Ebi, K. L.Climate variability and change and their potential health effects in small island states: information for adaptation planning in the health sector.”. Ebi, K. L., N. D. Lewis, and C. Corvalan. 2006. “Climate variability and change and their potential health effects in small islan Environmental Health Perspectives, 114. Encyclopedia of the Nations. (2010). Palau – Fishing. Retrieved from http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Asia-References and-Oceania/Palau-FISHING.html#ixzz146YNz9gd Environmental Protection Agency. April 2010: Climate Change – Health and Environmental Effects. Retrieved October 20, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/effects/health.html Executive Brief. US-Associated Pacific Islands request HHS and CDC support For Pacific Emergency Health Initiative (PEHI). 2010 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1764155/ Freeman, M. (2003). Coral Reef Adventure. Retrieved from http://www.coralfilm.com/about.html#humans38 CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
  • 41. References cont’dGawander, J. (2007). Impact of climate change on sugar-cane production in Fiji. Bulletin of the World MeteorologicalOrganization, 56, 1.Globluu, J., Bauman, A., Kuartei, J., & Victor, S. (2005). The state of coral reef ecosystems of palau. Retrievedfrom http://ccma.nos.noaa.gov/ecosystems/coralreef/coral_report_2005/Palau_Ch17_C.pdfGovernment Accountability Office. June 2008: Compact of Free Association: U.S. Assistance to Palau, AccountabilityOver Assistance Provided, and Palau’s Prospects for Economic Self-Sufficiency. Retrieved October 30, 2010 fromhttp://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-08-858TGubler, D. (1998). Resurgent vector-borne diseases as a global health problem. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 442-450. Retrieved from CAB Abstracts 1990-Present database. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Haines, A., & Patz, J. A. (2004). Health effects of climate change. Jama, 291(1), 99. Joint Declaration on EnergyPolicy Priorities - Powered by Google Docs. (n.d.).. Retrieved October 26, 2010, from HYPERLINK “http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:QJZu00tzpLYJ:www.rep5.eu/files/pages/file/Palau Energy%2520Policy%2520Final%2520Draft.pdf+%22Republic+of+Palau+Draft+National+Energy+Polic&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiSeNIMrERwWa_Vx47NgUTQWIRLS4lSNs2FQZJYDl-7-evS5UPjMQBspltKhee6tFxz5vb4STKq0tPl_hkA9LascedF-Wp1d66zafEMrnIuy8aHybEHjl2Pj_vpaZ9gnGTKZFz&sig=AHIEtbT42Cifs4_0wIaw-Qus90O5K9vJKA” t “_blank” http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:QJZu00tzpLYJ:www.rep5.eu/filespages/file/Palau/Energy%2520Policy%2520Final%2520Draft.pdf+%22Republic+of+Palau+Draft+National+Energy+Polic&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiSeNIMrERwWa_Vx47NgUTQWIRLS4lSNs2FQZJYDl-7-evS5_UPjMQBspltKhee6tFxz5vb4STKq0tPl_hkA9LascedF-Wp1d66zafEMrnIuy8aHybEHjl2Pj_vpaZ9gnGTKZFz&sig=AHIEtbT42Cifs4_0wIaw-Qus90O5K9vJKAHopkin, M. (2006, May 3). Global warming weakens pacific winds. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/news/2006/060501/full/news060501-5.htmlIPCC Working Group II. (2007). Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch/SPM13apr07.pdf.Island Business International. (September 2, 2010). Palau ranks seventh in obesity. Retrieved from http://www.islandsbusiness.com/news/index_dynamic/containerNameToReplace=MiddleMiddle/focusModuleID=130/focusContentID=20774/tableName=mediaRelease/overideSkinName=newsArticle-full.tplJoyce, C. (2010, February 4). Behind the weather: strongest El Niño in a decade. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=123380157Joyce, C. June 2007. Pacific Island Cultures Brace for Climate Change. NPR. Retrieved October 20, 2010 fromhttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=10891261Keim, M. (2002). History of the Pacific Emergency Health Initiative. Pacific Heath Dialog, 145-149. ReferencesKeim, M. (2008). Building Human Resilience The Role of Public Health Preparedness and Response As anAdaptation to Climate Change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(5). Retrieved from BiologicalAbstracts database.Keim, Mark. MD. Preventing Disasters: Reducing the health risks of climate change in the Pacific. 2010.Keim, Mark. MD. Sea level rise disaster in Micronesia: Sentinel event for climate change? Disaster Medicine andPublic Health Preparedness 2010, v. 4.CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE 39
  • 42. References cont’d Knowles, J., & Hennicot, J. (n.d.). Development of a Sustainable Health Financing Scheme (Financed by the Japan Special Fund). Retrieved October 26, 2010, from HYPERLINK “http://74.125.155.132/scholar?q=cache:OEuTYrp422oJ:scho lar.google.com/+Palau:+Development+of+a+Sustainable+Health+Financing+Scheme&hl=en&as_sdt=400000”t“_blank” http://74.125.155.132/scholar?q=cache:OEuTYrp422oJ:scholar.google.com/+Palau:+Development+of+a+Sustainable+Health +Financing+Scheme&hl=en&as_sdt=400000 Kuartei. (2010). Island Business. Retrieved from http://www.islandsbusiness.com/news/index_dynamic/containerNameT oReplace=MiddleMiddle/focusModuleID=130/focusContentID=20774/tableNa Leader, D. (2009, May 21). COPD: The Heat is On. About.com:COPD. Retrieved November 1, 2010. http://copd.about.com/ od/complicationsofcopd/a/copdandsummer.htm Martens, W. J. (n.d.). Potential Impact of Global Climate Change on Malaria Risk. Environmental Health Perspecitves, 458- 463. Medicine.net. (n.d.). Retrieved from medicine.net/heat_stroke/article.htm Maryland Medical Center. (2010). Syncope. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved November 1, 2010. http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/syncope-000059.htm Mayo Clinic Staff (2010). Encephalitis. MayoClinic.com. Retrieved November 1, 2010 http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/encephalitis/DS00226 McCormack, G. (2005). El Niño: Droughts, cyclones and coral bleaching. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. Online at http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org MD Travel Health - Palau - vaccinations, malaria, safety, and other medical advice. (2009). Retrieved October 26, 2010, from http://www.mdtravelhealth.com/destinations/oceania/palau.php Ministerial Conference on Environment and Development in Asia-Pacific. 2000. Retrieved from http://www.uescap.org. Minister of Health Interview. Dr. Stevenson Kuartei. 5:54-6:07. 2010. Minister of Health Interview. Dr. Stevenson Kuartei. 6:37-6:51. 2010. Minister of Health Interview. Dr. Stevenson Kuartei. 7:48-10:04. 2010. Minister Stevenson J. Kuartei, M. (2010, September 14). Climate Change: Health Impacts Photojournalism Project. Ngiwal State Government. Koror, Palau. Munday, P. L., Jones, G. P., Pratchett, M. S., Williams, A. J. (2008). Climate change and the future for coral reef fishes. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/ncri/11icrs/abstract_files/icrs2008-001093.pdfReferences National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2010). Impacts of el Niño on fish distribution from NOAA fisheries. Retrieved from http://www.elNiño.noaa.gov/enso4.html Palau Project Proposal.(2008). Pacific adaptation to climate change. Office of Environmental Response and Coordination. Pacific islanders pay heavy price for abandoning traditional diet. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 88, 7. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/7/10-010710/en/index.html Permanent Mission of the Republic of Palau. (2009). (No. 039/PMDESA/09). New York, NY.40 CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
  • 43. References cont’dProjectedHealthImpactsThurston.pdf - Powered by Google Docs. (n.d.).. Retrieved October 26, 2010, from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:PY7HP59e1G4J:www.co.thurston.wa.us/health/admin/initiatives/PDF/ProjectedHealthImpactsThurston.pdf+Planning+for+Health+Consequences+of+Climate+Change&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESi0DaDpqJUtJfm3GCCpvLj2DPk2oJ-TYFOO_uV3eov9sd12FI-MbJwJb37Y3CgnHDm8InThB3Gi7MapOv80KL48gE1deRzfpwulb1rCs5bbrnOIgoeOsydrRL6X0x1FEt41Cg2I&sig=AHIEtbR1AkyL3Ex8klJ3sHw__hedTZhweQ”t“_blank” http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:PY7HP59e1G4J:www.co.thurston.wa.us/health/admin/initiatives/PDF/ProjectedHealthImpactsThurston.pdf+Planning+for+Health+Consequences+of+Climate+Change&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESi0DaDpqJUtJfm3GCCpvLj2DPk2oJ-TYFOO_uV3eov9sd12FI-MbJwJb37Y3CgnHDm8InThB3Gi7MapOv80KL48gE1deRzfpwulb1rCs5bbrnOIgoeOsydrRL6X0x1FEt41Cg2I&sig=AHIEtbR1AkyL3Ex8klJ3sHw__hedTZhweQRepublic of Palau (2007). Business Opportunities Report. Island Business Opportunities.Republic of Palau (2010). Dengue Fever. Ministry of Health.Republic of Palau (2005). Health facts & figures brochure. Ministry of Health.Republic of Palau. (2002). National report to the United Nations convention to combat desertification. Republicof Palau. Office of Environmental Response and Coordination.Republic of Palau (2010). Obesity facts. Ministry of Health.Republic of Palau. (2007). Retrieved from http://www.raconline.org/states/palau.phpSample, I. (2006, May 4). Trade winds weaken with global warming. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2006/may/04/science.weatherShah, A. (2010). Coral Reefs. Global Issues. Retrieved from http://www.globalissues.org/article/173/coral-reefsSir gilbert walker. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.weatheronline.co.uk/reports/weatherbrains/Sir-Gilbert-Walker.htmSyncope. (n.d.).. Retrieved October 26, 2010, from http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4749Than, K. (2006, May 3). Global warming weakens pacific trade winds. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12612965/Tsai, H. T., & Liu, T. M. (2005). Effects of global climate change on disease epidemics and social instability aroundthe world. Human Security and Climate Change, 21–23.United States Global Change Research Program (2009). Island communities, infrastructure, and ecosystems Referencesare vulnerable to coastal inundation due to sea-level rise and coastal storms. Retrieved October 13, 2010from http://www.globalchange.gov/publications/reports/scientific-assessments/us-impacts/full-report/regional-climate-change-impacts/islandsU.S. Climate Change Science Program. January 2009: Regional Climate Impacts: Islands. Retrieved October 20,2010 from http://downloads.climatescience.gov/sap/usp/prd2/usp-prd-islands.pdfWest, L. (2010). About.com. Retrieved October 21, 2010, from What are the effects of drought?: http://environment.about.com/od/environmentalevents/a/droughteffects.htmWorld Health Organization. The World Health Report 2003 – Shaping The Future. Retrieved October 20, 2010 fromhttp://www.who.int/whr/2003/chapter1/en/index2.html 41
  • 44. Creative Newspaper: Series 1 Checklist AdsAppendix42
  • 45. Creative cont’dNewspaper: Series 1 Checklist Ads Appendix 43
  • 46. Creative cont’d Newspaper: Series 2 Logo AdsAppendix44
  • 47. Creative cont’dNewspaper: Series 3 Fact Ads Appendix 45
  • 48. Creative cont’d Newspaper: Series 3 Fact AdsAppendix46
  • 49. Creative cont’dNewspaper: Series 3 Fact Ads Appendix 47
  • 50. Creative cont’d Newspaper: Series 3 Fact AdsAppendix48
  • 51. Creative cont’dNewspaper: Series 3 Fact Ads Appendix 49
  • 52. Creative cont’d Newspaper: Series 3 Fact AdsAppendix50
  • 53. Creative cont’dNewspaper: Series 3 Fact Ads Appendix 51
  • 54. Creative cont’d Newspaper: Series 3 Fact AdsAppendix52
  • 55. Creative cont’dNewspaper: Series 3 Fact Ads Appendix 53
  • 56. Creative cont’d Palau: 60 Second Television Spot MUSIC: Generic Instrumental Every statistic used will be titled SFX: Swishes of the animation “FACT.” Start off with moving pictures of Palau. The text will be active and moving in a Photos gathered during primary variety of directions across the screen. research will be used. The pictures To transition between facts, the shot correspond with the facts that are will zoom in and out, utilizing the displayed. current letters as the background for the next set of infromation. The color scheme will follow a simple Photos appear sporadically black, white, and yellow pattern as seen throughout the commercial and are throughout the campaign. Yellow is used transitioned by quick movements of as a spot color to create emphasis. the actual photo itself.Appendix After a fact, transitions will appear on The “Protect, Provide, Unite” logo will the screen for 4-5 seconds. The facts be displayed at the end. It will fade54 will cover mosquitoes, dengue fever, sea level, and diabetes problem. out at the end of the commercial.
  • 57. Creative cont’d Radio Appendix 55
  • 58. Creative cont’d Billboards Which of the following health risks do you believe increase with climate change events? Dengue fever Malaria Encephalitis Pulmonary disease Asthma Bronchitis Cramps Exhaustion DehydrationAppendix Stroke56
  • 59. Creative cont’d Billboards Protect yourself Provide assistance to others Unite Appendix for a healthier Palauwww.PalauClimateChange.com 57
  • 60. Creative cont’d Billboards Tropical cyclone activity is predicted to increase within the twenty-first century. www.PalauClimateChange.com Crop damage related to climate change events is linked to theAppendix rise in cases of diabetes. www.PalauClimateChange.com58
  • 61. Creative cont’d Billboards Mosquitoes carry harmful diseases. www.PalauClimateChange.comStaying hydrated helpsprevent heat-related illnesses. Appendix www.PalauClimateChange.com 59
  • 62. Creative cont’d 17 X 11 PostersAppendix60
  • 63. Creative cont’d 17 X 11 Posters Appendix8.5 X 11 Posters on pages 62-‐70 61
  • 64. Creative cont’d Direct Mail Appendix 71
  • 65. Appendix72 What to do before What to do when the cyclone season cyclone strikes Are you Check with your local council or your building Disconnect all electrical appliances. Listen to Brochure control authority to see if your home has been your battery radio for updates. prepared for built to cyclone standards. Stay inside and shelter {well clear of windows) a cyclone? Check that the walls, roof and eaves of your in the strongest part of the building, i.e. cellar, home are secure. internal hallway or bathroom. Trim treetops and branches well clear of Keep evacuation and emergency kits with you. your home (get council permission). If the building starts to break up, protect yourself Preferably fit shutters, or at least metal with mattresses, rugs or blankets under a strong screens, to all glass areas. table or bench or hold onto a solid fixture, e.g. Clear your property of loose material that a water pipeBeware the calm ‘eye’. If the wind could blow about and possibly cause injury or drops, don’t assume the cyclone is over; violent damage during extreme winds. winds will soon resume from another direction. In case of a storm surge/tide warning, or Wait for the official ‘all clear’. Creative cont’d other flooding, know your nearest safe high If driving, stop (handbrake on and in gear) - but ground and the safest access route to it. well away from the sea and clear of trees, power Prepare an emergency kit containing: lines and streams. Stay in the vehicle. a portable battery radio, torch and spare batteries;water containers, dried or canned food and a can opener;matches, fuel lamp, portable stove, cooking gear, eating utensils; and a first What to do after the aid kit and manual, masking tape for windows cyclone strikes and waterproof bags. Keep a list of emergency Don’t go outside until officially advised it is safe. phone numbers on display. Check for gas leaks. Don’t use electric Check neighbors, especially if recent arrivals, appliances if wet. to make sure they are prepared. Listen to local radio for official warnings and advice. If you have to evacuate, or did so earlier, don’t return until advised. Use a recommended route and don’t rush. Beware of damaged power lines, bridges, buildings, trees, and don’t enter floodwaters. Heed all warnings and don’t go sightseeing. Check/help neighbors instead. Don’t make unnecessary telephone calls.* *Adapted from http://www.jcu.edu.au/emergency/cyclone/JCUDEV_005415.html www.PalauClimateChange.com
  • 66. What is a cyclone? What to do when a What to do when a A tropical cyclone is a storm system cyclone watch is issued cyclone warning is issued characterized by a large low-pressure center Re-check your property for any loose material Depending on official advice provided by your and numerous thunderstorms that produce and tie down (or fill with water) all large, local authorities as the event evolves; the strong winds and heavy rain. Tropical cyclones relatively light items such as boats and rubbish following actions may be warranted. strengthen when water evaporated from the bins. If requested by local authorities, collect ocean is released as the saturated air rises, Fill vehicles’ fuel tanks. children from school or childcare center and go resulting in condensation of water vapor Check your emergency kit and fill water home. contained in the moist air. They are fueled by containers. Park vehicles under solid shelter (hand brake a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic Ensure household members know which is on and in gear). windstorms such as nor’easters, European the strongest part of the house and what to do in Put wooden or plastic outdoor furniture in windstorms, and polar lows. The characteristic the event of a cyclone warning or an evacuation. your pool or inside with other loose items. that separates tropical cyclones from other Tune to your local radio/TV for further Close shutters or board-up or heavily tape all cyclonic systems is that any height in the information and warnings. windows. atmosphere, the center of a tropical cyclone will Check that neighbors are aware of the situation Draw curtains and lock doors. be warmer than its surrounds; a phenomenon and are preparing. Pack an evacuation kit of warm clothes, essential called “warm core” storm systems. In the past medications, baby formula, nappies, valuables, two centuries, tropical cyclones have caused an important papers, photos and mementos in estimated 1.9 million deaths wordlwide. waterproof bags to be taken with your emergency kit. How to protect your home Large/heavy valuables could be protected in The most important precaution you can take a strong cupboard. to reduce damage to your home and property Remain indoors (with your pets). Stay tuned is to protect the areas where wind can enter. to your local radio/TV for further information. According to recent wind technology research, it’s important to strengthen the exterior of your house so wind and debris do not tear large openings in it. You can do this by protecting and reinforcing these four critical areas: • The roof and walls, • The windows and doors, and • The garage door(s). • If you are in a flood area, consider what mitigation measure you can do in advance. For example, in highly flood-prone areas, keep materials on hand like sandbags, plywood, plastic sheeting, plastic garbage bags, lumber, shovels, work boots and gloves. Brochure Creative cont’d Appendix73
  • 67. Creative cont’d WebsiteAppendix74
  • 68. Creative cont’d Promotional Items T-‐shirtsFRONT AppendixBACK 75
  • 69. Creative cont’d Promotional Items Fly swatters Reusable water bottlesAppendix76
  • 70. Creative cont’d Promotional ItemsTote bags BandanasSweatbands Baseball caps Appendix 77

×