2Introduction:If synthetic fiber, such as polyester, has more hydrophilic properties, especiallywater/perspiration absorbency with wash-fast resistance, its use will further broaden.Meanwhile, cases of cellulosic fiber, which originally possesses great water absorption,turning water-repellent have become frequent recently, resulting from the use of complexfinishing composites (e.g. fixing agents, resins, softening agents etc) inhibiting thehydrophilic properties of fiber.Superior hydrophilic properties (water/perspiration absorbency) will allow varieties of fibermaterials, knits, wovens and industrial materials a broader scope of use. Gingham shirting,bedding, knits, toweling, sportswear, casual wear, upholstery, sheeting and table linens aresome examples.Here, the use of a ‘durable, water-absorbent & quick-dry SR finishing agent’, i.e. a fiberfinishing auxiliary capable of a) inhibiting degradation of hydrophilic properties due torepeated home laundering, b) repelling oil and c) soil release (SR) during laundering, willresult in the creation of products of high practicality with a broader scope of use.While the traditional rendering of oil/water-repellent SR, for which fluorocarbon polymeris mainly used, stood for the effect of inhibiting oil adhesion, the practical meaning is rathersoil-repellent, soil-proofing, soil-guard or soil-resistance.Originally, the idea of SR finishing was to impart some hydrophilic properties to highly-hydrophobic polyester in order to prevent soil adhesion, especially oil stains, and to producea fiber surface with oil-release properties.When hydrophobicity is high, the charging tendency becomes strong, soil adhesion morelikely and, ultimately, a stain-darkened material will result. Oil stains also adhere heavily,which makes their removal and washing off difficult.Taking the above points into consideration, the surface treatment with sufficient hydrophilicproperties will bring out the following advantages: Water/perspiration absorbency Easy oil removal, improved SR and OR (oil-release) properties Improved anti-static propertiesThe use of polymers and chemical compounds other than fluorine-based polymer can alsobe considered for water absorbent SR. In addition, since the kind of oil staining and the oilconcentration often vary, oil-releasing results will differ.Thus, the application of many different types of hydrophilic stain-resistant agent should betaken into consideration.This article will deal with two unique products, developed by L.N. Chemical Industries witha view to the multiple purposes mentioned above.
3Quest-DCO: Water-absorbent, quick-dry, wash-fast anti-staining SR (OR) and softener forpolyesterQuest-CSR: Durable water-absorbent anti-static SR, hydrophilic improver for all kinds offiber, including cotton and polyesterThe features of the two products are compared in Table 1.Textile-finishing polymers are mainly concerned with the development of such products,however, it is also important to know from what chemical substances we need to select anoil-repellent component and an oil-releasing component. The use of a hydrophilic type asthe main chain and the selection of copolymerizing, bond-reacting groups from hydrophilicgroups will be called into account, as well as the addition of a water-absorbent and a cross-linking groups. A functional group (polymer) formed in this manner needs to bepredetermined to act as a stronger cross-link with or a strengthener of adhesion to the fibermaterials.Based on the standpoint above, a short account of some proposals is given in the nextchapter.2. Outline of durable, hydrophilic SR agent
4 Figure 1 Example of durable, water absorbent SR agent structureSome proposals are indicated in Figure 1. First of all, for the skeletal, principal chainstructure of polymer, a selection should be made from the vinyl group, water-absorbentsilicone, isocyanate (urethane), polyester polymer, polyamide, fluorocarbon polymer and theepoxy group in order to attain hydrophilicity to the fullest extent possible. The structurethen is bound, combined, or reacts with another hydrophilic group, for which theincorporation of a cross-linking group or a hydrophilic moisture-retentive component willwork effectively.
5In general, as hydrophilic groups there are ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, triethyleneglycol, alkylene oxide polymer, PEG, PPG, PEG block polymer, polyether, glycerin, sorbitoletc.For uses also as a cross-link, both end-terminal groups of chemical compounds should takethe form of the vinyl, glycidyl or allyl groups before application.Squalane, chitosan, hyaluronic acid, collagen, sericin, natural protein, cellulosic substancesand thickeners are regularly used as moisture-retentive components. Hydrophilic vinyl-polymer in Figure 1 Various devices will be possible based on Figure 2-1, which shows an example of incorporating an acrylic acid copolymer to each hydrophilic group. Durability will be added and stains can be removed easily. Chemicals listed have been long used as bases for practising anti-staining techniques. Water-absorbent silicone which carries reactive groups already possesses in its structure cross-linking and hydrophilic properties and is also capable of producing soft hand. Since it can cross-link with other hydrophilic groups, it is highly valued for use in a durable, water-absorbent finishing agent or as an SR agent (see Figure 1 and Figure 2-2).
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7 By incorporating an etherizing compound, a polyether, alkoxylating compound to diisocyanate, polyurethane with high hydrophilic properties can be obtained. It is a very interesting cross-linking polymer which allows the formation of a highly durable polymer by cross-linkage between hydrophilic groups and polyurethane, binding of fluorine alcohol, as shown in Figure 2-3, or copolymerizing of hydrophilic vinyl groups. Since a hydrophilic polyester resin polymer skeleton is one that displays highest affinity to polyester, it is used as a base in a wash-fast & water-absorbent SR agent for polyester in the form of polymer such as PEG with improved hydrophilic properties. Nowadays, it is often used as a high function compound, bound or mixed with melamines, cationic silicones, block isocyanates, and hydrophilic group compounds as shown in Figures 1 and 2-4. As fluorine groups are fundamentally based on acryl or methacrylic acid type vinyl groups, they are often copolymerized, as shown in Figures 1 and 2-5, with: o diisocyanates (urethane adducts) o hydrophilic groups (PEG with cross-linking group) o acrylates, vinyliden chlorides etcor, their adhesive properties can be strengthened with fluorine alcohol, amide and PEG, orcross-linking resin polymer, their use is highly valued as oil-release properties can beattained from a hydrophilic group, and oil-repellency from a fluorine-group chain.Polyamide polymer and epoxy polymer are convenient polymer groups that allow a widerange of applications such as below. Incorporation of a hydrophilic group using carboxylic acid Use of an epoxy group as a cross-linking agent Copolymerization with a functional polymer Use as an interactive cross-linkingAlthough the above is an overview that would only scratch the surface, crucial basics havebeen included. In the following chapters 3 and 4, a description of the products, developedbased on our long-accumulated research data, will be given with references to Figures 1 and3. Quest-DCOThis is a wash-fast, water-absorbent, quick-dry, anti-stain SR agent/softener for polyester.The addition of durable hydrophilicity to polyester and its blends will bring about durableanti-static properties, facilitate removal of oil stains and therefore result in superior oil-release properties.This product, which also works as a softener other than giving SR properties, is an agentcapable of upgrading polyester with multiple functions. Having different uses andapplication areas from water/oil-repellent SR finishing, it allows a considerably wider scopeof application as mentioned earlier.
8This is a hydrophilic polymer which displays strong adhesive properties to polyester, andthe performance of treated fabric will not deteriorate even after 10 launderings. In brief, itimparts to PET, E/C and E/R fibers the following properties: Durable water absorbency, quick-dry, SR, and easy oil-stain removing OR properties during laundering Hydrophilic and anti-static properties Soft hand, smoothness and flexibility High fastness to washing, with minimal deterioration due to home laundering It forms a highly-durable film on the fiber surface by undergoing padding, drying and curing treatments (150-180°C x 30sec.). Oil stains could be heavy oil, motor oil, lubricant, grease, spice oils, butter, mayonnaise, ketchup, vegetable oils, lipstick etc, all very hard to remove, however, stains on fabric treated with Quest-DCO wash out easily by washing and the effect (OR properties) will not deteriorate even after repeated washes. Table 2 shows the characteristics, effects and physical properties (appearance, pH and ionicity) of Quest-DCO with directions for use.
9 Table2 Characteristics, performances, physical properties and directions for use Quest-DCO Quest-CSRMaterials to which Polyester fiber, other blended cloths Cotton, cellulose, polyester fiber,they are applied other all fibresUse as Wash fast, water absorbent, quick Wash fast, laundering, dry cleaning, drying, anti-stain. SR plus softener high absorbency, hydrophilic agentProperties: Hydrophilic, water absorbency, Wash-fast, DC fast, non- quick dryness, SR plus softening yellowing, soft hand, highly water / perspiration absorbent and hydrophilicEffect: Durability, antistatic property Durability, antistatic property Anti-oil staining, anti soil re- deposition, oil removing / oil Using resin plus finishing agent at release property the same time leads to low water repellency and higher water absorbency Sports wear, casual wear, shirting, underwear, dress shirts etc SmoothnessCharacteristics This is a hydrophilic polymer which has This has a good compatibility with a strong adhesive property towards all resin polymers, catalysts, polyester fiber, and the cloth treated softeners, Si, all finishing agents and with this will not have low water fluorescent dyes absorbency even after 10-20 times launderingComposition Cross linking, hydrophilic polymer Highly molecular surfactant dispersionAppearance Colourless semiopaque paste Opaque white liquidIonic property Nonionic Nonionic, weak anionicpH 5–6 6-7 Dissolves easily in water inSolubility Disperse easily in water arbitrary proportions Polyester fibre Cotton, rayon, PET, synthetic fiber Quest-DCO : 1-3% Quest-CSR : 0.5 – 4% Resin polymer Resin, catalyst, finishing OK to use with other agents, silicone, softener, finishing agents cationic activator ο ο Dry [100-120ºC Cure [180ºC x 30 sec] ο Durability improvement Cold bath
10It is an extremely convenient finishing agent which can easily be combined with otherchemicals without causing yellowing, color alteration, or any factors that will degradedyeing fastness. Figure 3 shows the water absorbency (150mm in 10 min.) and the oil-removing properties of DCO-treated polyester tropical cloth, padded with 3% DCO solutionand then dried. The initial performance is maintained after 1, 5 and even 10 washes.Note: Home laundry detergent: 1.5g/L 45°C x 5min A cycle of cold rinsing -dehydration-drying counted as 1 wash Water absorbency: 150mm (10min) at the beginning and 130mm (10min) after 10 washes Durable OR properties indicated in the performance index of 90 after 10 washes, as opposed to the initial 100 DCO’s performance is rated highly as both the water absorbency and oil release properties remain poor in the untreated fabric.
11Figure 3 Performance of Quest- DCO treated cloth [wash-fast water absorbency, oil- removal] Quest-DCO treatment (3% Pad→ Dry) cloth (polyester tropical) water absorbency (mm) and oil removal properly at initial laundering and after laundering Washing the treated cloth again with Oil stains on after 10 times laundering Water absorbency Oil removal property 150 mm Oil removal property Water absorbency After 10 times laundering After 5 times laundering After 1 time laundering Initial laundering Untreated Quest-DCO
12In Picture 1, water absorbency is compared before and after 10 washes in vertical wickingdistances (cm/10 min.) of dye liquor absorption in fabric (polyester) padded with DCO 3%solution, dried and cured (180°C x 30 sec).From this, it is clear that the untreated cloth has practically no water absorbency, while thetreated fabric maintains significantly higher water absorbency even after 10 washes. Picture 1 Comparison of water absorbency of Quest-treated cloth and untreated before and after washing PET QUEST QUEST QUEST QUEST -DCO -DCO -DCO -DCO 3% Sol. Pad→ 3% Sol. Pad→ 3% Sol. Pad→ 3% Sol. Pad→ORIGINAL dry→Qure dry→Qure ORIGINAL dry→Qure dry→Qure (180º x 30sec) (180º x 30sec) (180º x 30sec) (180º x 30sec) After 0 Home Laundry After 10 times LaundryQUEST-CSR:This is a wash-fast water-absorbency improver which functions effectively with all kinds offiber material, including cotton, cellulose, synthetics (polyester, nylon, acryl etc), blends andunion cloths.In combined use in the durable water-absorbent, anti-static finishing of synthetic fiber, orwith other chemicals and finishing auxiliaries (resins, cationic surfactants, softeners, siliconesofteners and fixing agents) which turn natural fiber water-repellent, Quest-CSR will beeffective in degrading water repellency, upgrading water absorbency and penetration.Moreover, it is suitable for all treatments that require durable, high water/perspiration-absorbent finishing. Superior wash and dry cleaning fastness without color alteration, yellowing, or deterioration in fastness Superior compatibility with resins, catalysts, fluorescent brighteners and finishing agents, with good in-bath stability The addition of potent water absorbency results in improved oil repellency and easier oil release (SR, OR). Imparts soft hand
13 Table 2 is an outline of the characteristics and physical properties of Quest-CSR with directions for use. In the evaluation of water absorbency, the following two points need to be considered: • The speed of water absorption (sec) • The amount of water absorbed within given time (water absorption) The speed of water absorption is important and can be figured by measuring the time (sec) it takes for a drop of water on a fabric surface to be absorbed completely. Figure 4 compares speed of water absorption before and after 50°C x 30 min washing (drying) of PET, cotton and E/C blend fabric, each padded with Quest-CSR, dried and cured. Figure4 Water absorption speed of Quest-CSR according to the type of fiber 0 Polyester cloth Cotton broad (with Rf) PET/C blended broad absorbency cloth 140 Quest-CSR Quest-CSR Quest-CSR 1.5% sol. 3% sol. 3% sol,Absorbency speed (sec) Initial laundering 100 After laundering (50ºC x 30 mins) 60 40 20 0 Untreated Quest-CSR C makers N makers Untreated Quest-CSR C makers N makers Untreated Quest-CSR C makers N makers Even fabric with virtually no water absorbency in its original state absorbs water instantaneously or within a few seconds after treatment with Quest-CSR. Some deterioration due to washing can be recognized, however, superiority to our competitors products is significant as the absorption is instantaneous in cotton and takes around 50 seconds in synthetics.
14The indication of "Rf-combined" for cotton broad in Figure 4 denotes combined use of theresin finishing solution (10% glyoxal resin + 3% catalyst).Figure 5 shows water absorbency measured in the vertical wicking distance (cm) of a givenperiod of time (10 min) from the bottom of the Quest-CSR treated cloth. Figure5 Quest-CSR wash-fast water absorbency Water absorbency (height of dye liquid absorbed) Cotton Polyester fiber Water absorbency After 5 Laundering 0 laundering Untreated Rf Rf (10%) + Untreated Quest-CST (Resin 10%) Quest-CSR Pad →Dry→Cure (180ºC x 60s) Pad →Dry→Cure (180ºC x 60s)Water absorbency deteriorates in cotton due to resin treatment (Rf: 10% glyoxal resin + 3%catalyst, padding-drying-curing). However, the water absorbency improved considerablywith 3% CSR added in the resin finishing bath, and equally superior performance wasmaintained even after 5 washes.Similar effects can be expected in polyester, as shown in the result of treatment with 3% CSRalone in Figure 5.The extremely poor water absorbency in the untreated polyester was remarkably improved,and without any deterioration after 5 washes