Ntc internship report


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This report belongs to my internship learning that i achieve in NTC, Islamabad

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Ntc internship report

  1. 1. Muhammad Muzammil Intranet/Video Conferencing National Telecommunication Corporation, Islamabad +923135334666- pakmuzamil@gmail.com 1. NTC Profile1.1 Introduction:The new era of telecommunication in Pakistan has brought several challenges withit, despite of the advantages it has made visible for the consumers. The mostimportant being the challenge to keep intact the security requirements of the GoP(Government of Pakistan) and to protect the new players in this field from theconventional practices of the incumbent operators to protect their market share. Toovercome these challenges GoP established National TelecommunicationCorporation (NTC) in January 1996 under the Telecom Reorganization Act 1996.The main objective was to have an infrastructure independent of all other operatorsthat can be used for the purpose of government communication and as an alternativesupport for the operators entering the market.1.2 NTC Progress:The ongoing infrastructure development journey for NTC began in 1996 when itwas created with few local exchanges and analog microwave. However, today NTChas developed its own infrastructure to an extent where it can be called anindependent IT and telecom operator capable of meeting the challenges of thederegulated environment and meeting the objectives for which it was created.NTC started its operations in 1996 with only 5 local exchanges all over Pakistanand an analog microwave link not capable of supporting the digital transmission. Tocarry out its operations, it was mainly dependent on PTC infrastructure and used itstransit network, international gateways, transmission network, IN platform etc. tocarry out its operations. The copper network in the access provided to NTC was notsufficient to cater for its subscriber base and meet the required quality of service 1
  2. 2. parameters. NTC had no arrangements for direct interconnect with cellularoperators as a result it had to pay substantial part of its revenues to PTCL for 3rdparty termination. Data services being essential demand of NTC customers couldnot be met due to non availability of infrastructure. Billing of NTC customers wascarried out through PTC initially and through Pakistan Computer Bureau. The mainchallenge for NTC at that time was to reduce this dependency on other operators tominimum as soon as possible to fulfill its obligations and to sustain itself in thederegulated environment in which PTC was to be privatized.The main focus in the initial years was to develop its own basic infrastructure thatincluded optical fiber transmission backbone, transit network, billing system andmulti services data network (MSDN) beside expansion of its switching network toun-served areas to cover as much of its subscriber base as possible. It purchased 2fibers from PTC in the main optical fiber backbone and equipped it with 622 MbpsSDH systems. It expanded its exchanges in different cities to gain access to itscustomers along with lying of copper cable. These exchanges were converted intotransit exchanges to provision long distance services on NTC network and to havedirect interconnects with cellular and other operators. The establishment of NTCMSDN was a major milestone, achieved in 2001 which enabled NTC to providemultiple data services such as dial- up, DSL, Web hosting and internet etc. to itscustomers. Another milestone achievement in National history is in placement ofPakistan education & Research Network (PERN) project. The project is providing155 Mbps international connectivity to 59 universities connected all over Pakistan.The billing system was developed in first 4 years which made it possible for NTC todo its own billing.1.3 Future Thoughts:Being aware of the new technologies, demand for new services and convergednetwork NTC is in the process of upgrading and expanding its network. Migrationfrom conventional TDM network to IP based Next Generation Network has beenplanned and being implemented. The 622 Mbps optical fiber backbone not able tomeet the requirement of bandwidth hungry applications is being upgraded to 10 2
  3. 3. Gbps DWDM based technology. To improve the efficiency ERP solution has beenplanned and under process of implementation. To gain access to NTC users effortsare being made for frequency allocation and as a stop gap arrangement virtual WLLconnections are being provided to NTC subscribers. To provide value added servicefrom its own platform NTC is planning its own IN platform. Very soon NTCsubscribers will be hearing NTC operators for customer relations, call booking andcomplaints through its state-of-the-art call center. Multi services access network hasbeen planned to be as close to the user on fiber as possible to extend multipleservices from a single platform.NTC has traveled a long way in developing its infrastructure in lines with thetechnological and market trends. NTC is determined to provide an infrastructurerequired to meet its objectives and to support the nation and GoP in achieving itsobjectives1.4 Revenue:Following are the major sources of revenue for NTC:-  Fixed line connections.  Media (MW, DRS, OFS, PCM, Carrier) services.  Internet, MSDN services.  PTV Transmission.  Services for Mobile operators.  Gateway services for International communication.  Services for PERN project 3
  4. 4. 1.5 NTC Services:NTC has a definite mandate to provide basic telecommunication services to its designatedcustomers, which include Federal and Provincial Governments, their departments,autonomous organizations and defense services throughout the country.NTC Making committed efforts to provide following state-of-the-art communicationsolutions using third generation IP Voice & Data Networking. Telephone: o Basic Telephony o Calling Card o ISDN-Integrated Service Digital Network o BRI-Basic Rate Interface o PRI-Primary Rate Interface Multi-Services Data Network: o Web Hosting facility o Electronic mail platform o Dialup Internet Access, ISDN o Co-Location (Server’s, Space, Dish Antenna’s) o Virtual Private Networking o Video Conferencing facility o Broad Band Internet Access o Intranet Solutions o Radio/Wireless Networking Solution o Lease Line Services1.5.1 Telephonic Services:NTC has provided more than 1, 05,000 working connections of telephone to its governmentsubscribers throughout the country.To meet the requirements of its subscribers NTC is operating following switching andtransmission media services with various new installations in progress. 4
  5. 5.  39 main switching units.  69 remote digital line units.  Microwave links as its long haul media.Following value added services are also planned for the users:  Caller line identification.  Call waiting.  Call transfer.  Wakeup timer.  Dont disturb.  Abbreviated dialing  Switched Hotline  Three Parties audio Conferencing1.5.2 Wireless Local Loop:NTC CDMA phone is an alternate to NTC landline with an added advantage of enhancedservices. It’s the wireless telephony revolution based on CDMA 2000 Technology thatcombines the best features of both mobile and landline.  Currently offering following features: o CLI, SMS, Internet with maximum 22 Kbps downloading speed, Call Forwarding and Call Waiting.  NTC WLL Installation Manual1.5.3 Calling Card:NTC international calling cards are available in denomination of Rs. 250 and 500. NTCcalling cards are exclusively dial able from NTC numbers only.1.5.4 Internet:  ADSL o NTC has now embarked on the challenging industry of Telecommunications in Pakistan thereby offering Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Services (ADSL/G.SHDSL/HDSL) over the existing phone lines. With NTCs DSL 5
  6. 6. service, it is possible to receive high data rates at low cost and optimum performance. A DSL line can carry both data and voice signals and the data part of the line is continuously connected.  ISDN o Integrated Services Digital Network or ISDN in short, is essentially a network of fast and highly reliable connections that bring voice, data and video together all on one digital line. o Two type of service is offered  BRI (Basic Rate Interface)  2 E1 channel is provided  PRI (Primary Rate Interface)  30 E1 channel is provided  Dial-Up o NTC embarked upon the mission to provide low price quality access to the Cyber world and set up top of the notch Access Servers in collaboration with custom made billing and accounting system. At this moment NTC’s dialup service is available to all the government functionaries across Pakistan.1.5.6 Web Hosting:NTCs reliable platform gives access to database development tools such as Active ServerPages (ASP), MS Access, My SQL, Php, MS-SQL server, Oracle Open DatabaseConnectivity (ODBC) support and helps clients to get the most from latest in Web-authoring excellence.1.5.7 Video Conferencing:NTC has deployed state of the art hardware and designed a scalable network by means ofwhich fast, reliable, secure and real time access will be possible between the top Federaland Provincial Government officials for better and closer communication without physicaldisplacement. 6
  7. 7. 1.5.8 Intranet:Using broadband network NTC is providing complete Intranet solutions with combinationof technologies naming DXX, DSL and ATM, which provides complete network solutionto your door steps. 7
  8. 8. 2. Departments in NTC2.1 Departments of NTC:There are basically 3 main departments in NTC, and their sub departments are also givenfollowing;  Finance department  HR & Admin Department  Technical Department  IT  Planning & Development  Transmission  Long Haul (Nation Wide)  Short Haul (Local) o Optical Fiber o DRS  Switching  Data CommunicationSince my Internship was in the Data Communication department so the discussion on theinternship report will be only the sub departments of the Data Communication.As the sub departments of Data Comm. are following:  Intranet / Video Conferencing  IPCore  DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)  GPON  ISP (Internet Service Provider) 8
  9. 9. 3. Intranet/Video ConferencingThis department deals with two technologies:  Intranet  Video Conferencing3.1 Intranet:Intranet is a network operating like the Internet but having access restricted to a limitedgroup of authorized users. Simply Intranet is Private and Internet is Public Network.NTC Provide Intranet services using DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) and DXX (Digital CrossConnect). As organization wants to secure its data from other world, but at a same time theywants to interconnect their branches, so intranet is the solution for that, and that’s it’s ademanding service.Details of both technologies are given following:3.1.1 DSLDSL uses high frequency, while regular telephone uses low frequency on the same telephoneline 9
  10. 10. Equipment & Specification: 1. Zyxel DSLAM  IP Based  72 Ports ADSL Card, Uplink FE 2. Lucent Stringer ATM  48 Ports ADSL Card, Uplink E3 3. Zhone ATM  48 Ports ADSL Card, Uplink E1/E3 4. Paradyne ATM  24 Ports, Uplink E13.1.2 DXXDigital Cross Connect or DXX is a Circuit Switch technology based upon TDM. DXX devicesare available for both T – carrier and E- Carrier based circuits.Digital Cross connects can connect extremely high speed networks with lower speed networks toachieve a mutually synchronized speed for common data transformation in the network. Equipment & Specification: 1. DXX Alcatel MainStreet 3600  3 E1 Cards  128 kbps Service Card 27LC3 10
  11. 11.  1 E1 Frame Relay  2 Control Card CTL3 2. DXX Alcatel MainStreet 36170  2 Control Card  1 E1 Circuit Emulation  2 E1 Frame Relay  2 Hub CardsATM/DXX Network Architecture: 11
  12. 12. 3.2 PERN Pakistan Education & Research Network NTC also offering service to HEC Educational Network project namely PERN. Basic purpose of PERN is the Interconnectivity of all universities within Pakistan  Both IP and ATM are being used  Delivery for the last mile o Optical Fiber, Microwave, DSL, DXX DXX DXX OFNTC HQ UNIVERSITY PREMISES LOCAL EXCHANGE EXCHANGE NEAREST THE UNIVERSITY 12
  13. 13. 3.3 Video Conferencing: Video conference is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow twoor more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. Videoconferencing differs from videophone calls in that its designed to serve aconference rather than individuals. NTC is using the equipment of Polycom and there are three studios in NTC. One of themis present in Islamabad and the other two are present in Lahore and Karachi. Equipment & Specification: 1. Plasma Display 2. Subwoofer 3. DSL Modem (CPE) 4. VTX 1000 Sound Station 5. Connecting Wires (A/V + LAN + Power) 6. Remote Control 7. Camera VSX 7000 8. Codian MCU 4210 9. Codian IP VCR 2220 For Multipoint VC we need MCU, NTC use Codian MCU 3.3.1 Types of Video Conferencing 1. Point to point VC: The Point to Point conference is between two stations, for example between Islamabad & Karachi. From Equipment & Specification first 7 items are necessary for Point to Point Conference. 2. Multipoint videoconferencing: Simultaneous videoconferencing among three or more remote points is possible by means of a Multipoint Control Unit (MCU). This is a bridge that interconnects calls from several sources (in a similar way to the audio conference call). For Multipoint VC we need first 8 items from equipment & Specifications. IP VCR 2200 Series is an innovative, high-performance, IP-based videoconference recording, playback, and streaming system. 3.3.2 H.323 H.323 protocol stack is the most important protocol stack for VC. 13
  14. 14.  Architectural Component of H.323  Terminals  Gateways  Gatekeepers  MCUs Protocols  Parts of H.225.0 - RAS, Q.931  H.245  RTP/RTCP  Audio/video codecsArchitecture of H.323Overview Audio codecs (G.711, G.723.1, G.728, etc.) and video codecs (H.261, H.263) Media streams transported on RTP/RTCP  RTP carries actual media  RTCP carries status and control information RTP/RTCP carried unreliably on UDP Signaling is transported reliably over TCP  RAS - registration, admission, status (over UDP)  Q.931 - call setup and termination  H.245 - capabilities exchange 14
  15. 15. 4. DSL4.1 Introduction:DSL is a family of technologies that provide high speed data transmission over the wires of alocal telephone network. It uses high frequency, while regular telephone uses low frequencyon the same telephone line.4.2 History:Traditional PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) consists 3 main parts:  Local Exchange o Connect Users of Particular areas  Transit Exchange o Connect Local Exchanges  Gateway Exchange o Connect different countries to each other.Originally these exchanges are established to fulfill the need of telephony network, but nowdays same local loop is used to provide DSL service. To separate Voice and Data usedifferent frequency level. Data is carried over the high frequency band (25 kHz and above)whereas the voice is carried over the lower frequency band (4 kHz and below).4.3 Network Design of Voice: 15
  16. 16. 4.4 Variations of DSL:There are different variants of DSL and their primary reasons are following:  Speed  Line Coding  Area CoveredThe upload speed is lower than download speed for Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) and equal todownload speed for the rarer Symmetric DSL (SDSL).4.5 Major Devices used for DSL:  DSLAM o DSL Access Multiplexer o Multiplex multiple DSL connections into a high-speed Internet backbone line o Directs the data signals towards the ISP network, and the phone signals towards the voice switch 16
  17. 17.  BRAS o Broadband Remote Access Server o Termination for PPP sessions encapsulated either over Ethernet (PPPoE) or over ATM (PPPoA) o Forwards the user’s authentication information to the RADIUS server for the AAA process  ATM .4 Asynchronous Transfer Mode .5 Establishes a virtual circuit between two endpoints before the actual data exchange begins .6 Fixed size cell of 53 bytes.4.6 Network Design of DSL: 17
  18. 18. 5. GPON/ Metro Ethernet5.1 Metro Ethernet:Metro Ethernet service provides a flexible, scalable and cost-effective point-to-point, point-to-multipoint networking solution. It provides customers secure layer 2 Ethernet connectivity. Theguaranteed data transfer rate ranges from 2Mps to 10Gbps.Metro Switches:NTC Use following Switches for Metro Ethernet. .6.1 CX200C .6.2 S2000 18
  19. 19. 5.2GIGA BIT PASSIVE OPTICAL NETWORK (GPON):GPON provides a capacity boosts in both the total bandwidth and bandwidth efficiency through theuse of larger, variable-length packets in PON technology. 19
  20. 20. 6. Internet Service Provider An Internet Service provider is a department in NTC that offers following services to its customers on the internet. 6.1 Services Provided by ISP:Web HostingEmailCo-LocationDNS 6.1.1 Web Hosting: A type of service in which the organizations wants to make their website accessible via the World Wide Web. For that they have to host it somewhere on servers that remain up all time (24x7). NTC ISP department provide a space to government offices to hot their websites. Website can develop in different technologies or programming languages such as Active Server Pages (ASP), PHP with different database capabilities like MS Access, My SQL, MS-SQL server, Oracle Open Database Connectivity (ODBC). NTC has support of both Window Based hosting (ASP.NET) using ISA Server, and also Linux Based Hosting (PHP) by using Apache server, with above mentioned technologies. 20
  21. 21. 6.1.2 E-mail Services:E-mail hosting services usually offer premium e-mails at a cost. They cater mostly todemanding e-mail users and small and Mid-Size (SME) businesses, while larger enterprisesusually run their own e-mail hosting services.ISP department also establish infrastructure to provide email services to all NTC worker, sothat no they don’t need any free web service to use and also secret information keptconfidential with great manner of efficiency.6.1.3 Co-Location:  Space (Open, Covered), Dishes/Antennas on NTC Towers  Servers6.1.4 DNS:DNS hosting service is a service that runs Domain Name System servers. Most, but not all,domain name registers include DNS hosting with registration. Free DNS hosting servicesalso exist. The purpose of DNS is to map website name (like www.yahoo.com) with theirmachine address (IP Address).ISP department with offering service also provide support by monitoring maliciousactivities on site, traffic, bandwidth monitoring etc. to ensure maximum customersatisfaction with great deal. Monitoring is done it on daily & monthly bases. 21
  22. 22. 7. IP Core IPCore department deals with following: 1. IP Core Internet  M20i Juniper Router 2. IP Core NGN  M320 Juniper RouterThe most important task that is to performed by IPCore department is routing & Switchingof IP based traffic.7.1 SwitchingAs switch works at Layer 2 of OSI Model, so some important concepts of layer2 arefollowing:  VLAN (Virtual LANS) o Restrict Broadcast domain o Administration become efficient  VTP o VLAN Trunking protocol o CISCO propriety protocol o Used for the addition, Deletion of VLAN’s  IEE 802.1Q o Used to carry traffic of multiple VLAN’s  STP (Spanning Tree Protocol)  Ethernet (IEE 802.3) o Defining packet structure7.2 RoutingAs routing is the responsibility of layer 3 and the most important routing protocol of layer3are following:There are two types of routing protocol, one is static and other is dynamic. In static wehave to update the routing entries manually, while in dynamic updation happeningautomatically. 22
  23. 23. Some dynamic routing protocols are designed for use within an organization, while other routing protocols are designed for use between organizations. Common examples include: 1. BGP(Border Gateway Protocol) 2. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) 3. RIP (Routing Information Protocol) Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the protocol backing the core routing decisions on theInternet. It maintains a table of IP networks or prefixes which designate network reach abilityamong autonomous systems (AS).BGP is an exterior gateway protocol (EGP), used to performinter domain routing in TCP/IP networks. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)OSPF is used to allow routers to dynamically learn routes from other routers and to advertiseroutes to other routers. OSPF supports the use of classless IP address ranges and is very efficient.OSPF uses areas to organize a network into a hierarchal structure; it summarizes routeinformation to reduce the number of advertised routes and thereby reduce network load.RIP (Routing Information Protocol)RIP is a distance vector routing protocol, works on the base of hop counts. There is currently 2version s of RIP. Version 1 supports VLSM (Variable Length subnet Mask) and Versionsupports CIDR (Classless Inter Domain Routing).RIP is use for small network maximum up to 15 nodes, while OSPF works for larger network.OSPF works in the areas. BGP is Exterior routing protocol that works between different AS. 23
  24. 24. 7.3 Network Design of NTC IP Core Internet:7.4 Next Generation Network NGN is a Packet-based transfer, with Broadband capabilities with end-to-end QoS and transparency also Unrestricted access by users to different service providers. Equipment & Specification:  Soft Switch (HUAWEI SOFTX3000) Soft Switch acts as a generic Call Controller in the packet-switched network and handles all types of signaling which includes SS7, H.323, H.248, SIP, M2UA and M3UA, PRI, BRI, R2 etc.  Universal Media Gateway (HUAWEI UMG8900) It interfaces the conventional PSTN network with NGN network and passes PSTN services to the NGN. 24
  25. 25.  Access Gateway (HUAWEI AG) It can connect Analog Subscribers with traditional such as Private Branch Exchange (PBX) and V5 access network.AG uses H.248 & RTP for transport of control information & voice respectively.7.5 IPCore NGN Network Design 25
  26. 26. INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCEDepartment:Data Communication DepartmentAssigned Duties: 1. Automation of Bill’s 2. DXX Setup 3. Video Conferencing Setup 4. Field Work to Setup Intranet etc. 5. Simulation of CISCO Switches & Cisco RoutersAssignments:  ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)  VPN (Virtual Private Network), Difference between VPN & ISDN  High Definition VS Standard Definition  H.323 Protocol Stack  DSL  SIP VS H.323Learning: 1. I learned how task are carried out in a practical environment. 2. I learned professional behavior and attitude towards office work and assigned tasks. 3. I learned how to develop and maintain relations with the colleagues, peers, opponents, supervisors and managers. 4. I learned to work in a team and as an individual 26
  27. 27. CONCLUSIONNTC being a prestigious organization provides a chance to fresh graduates like me who arestill under the learning process to enhance their abilities by giving them a chance ofinternship. I come to know the actual working of this organization as the staff was highlycooperative and guided me at every step. Whatever I studied in the university was a greathelp and I was able to apply my theoretical knowledge and implement it into practicalknowledge..Working in an organization like NTC has really helped me specially in advancing myunderstanding of what we study in theory. An interaction with the practical environmenthelped me to understand how original tasks are carried out in practical environment. Termsthat we study in our courses, how much they are relevant and important when you work insuch an environment. 27