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INTRODUCTION Solid wastes are all the wastes arising fromhuman and animal activities that are normally solid and are discarded as useless or unwanted.
SOURCES OF SOLID WASTE Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source. Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste. Industrial waste as hazardous waste. Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste.
INDUSTRIAL WASTEIndustrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity, such as that of factories, mills and mines. It has existed since the outset of the industrial revolution.
MEDICAL WASTE Medical waste, also known as Biomedical waste, normally refers to waste products that cannot beconsidered general waste, produced from healthcare premises, such as hospitals, clinics, doctors offices, veterinary hospitals and labs.
EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTEGroundwater ContaminationDisease OutbreaksHabitat DestructionClimate ChangeAir Quality
TYPES OF SOLIDWASTEGarbagewhich is food-related waste that can decompose.Ashesfrom manufacturing operations and large debris,chemicals from industrial, mining and agricultural ventures.
METHODS FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTLandfill A landfill site (also known as tip, dump, rubbish dump or dumping ground) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment.
IncinerationIncineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.
EXAMPLES OF SOLID WASTE waste tires scrap metal latex paints furniture and toys domestic refuse (garbage) discarded appliances and vehicles uncontaminated used oil and anti-freeze empty aerosol cans, paint cans and compressed gas cylinders construction and demolition debris, asbestos
GOVERNMENT RESPONSES Solid Waste Management Policy: The legal rules and regulations dealing with solid waste management in Pakistan are as follows: Section 11 of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act Prohibits Discharge of Waste in Amount of concentrations that violates the National Environmental Quality Standards. Draft Hazardous Substances Rules of 1999 Islamabad capital Territory Bye Laws ,1968 by capital Development Authority Islamabad ‘Section 132 of cantonment Act 1924 Deals with deposits and disposal of rubbish etc Provisions Contained in the local government Oridance,2001.
RECOMMENDATIONSThere are three Rs practiced to manage the solid waste. REDUCE REUSE RECYCLE
REDUCEThe best way to reduce waste is not to produce itin the first place. Everyone should try to reducehis/her consumption of goods as much aspossible.
REUSE• Reuse is to use an item again after it has been used.• This includes conventional reuse where the item is used again for the same function, and new-life reuse where it is used for a different function.
RECYCLERecycling means creating new things from useditems. Almost 20-30 percent of MSW containsmaterials which could be recycled.