1. Topic of paragraph2. Hooks the reader3. Plants questions in the readers mind4. Usually the first sentence, but can alsobe found anywhere in the paragraph5. Provides transition from the previousparagraph
1. Ends an argument or reaches a verdict2. Forms an opinion for or against the mainidea3. Summarizes the paragraph4. Reflects back to the main detail
1. Write about a famous person.2. Write about pet you’ve had.3. Write about your favorite vacation.4. Write about your favorite holiday.5. Write about your favorite movie.OR choose your own topic!
An ellipsis is the following sign:…Three periods – one after the other.
To create a pause or break indialogue.◦ May help show emotion Example = “Wow, that‟s … Amazing!”◦ May help show “trailing off” Example = “Once upon a time …”◦ May signify something yet to come Example = She saw the figure … whiteand shimmering.
To show omitted (or removed) words◦ Still giving the same idea of what is beingsaid, but with less details being used Example: Complete Quote = “I remember when I wasyoung. Didn‟t have to pay rent, buy my owngroceries, or worry about a thing. Life wasgood and simple.” Shortened Quote= “I remember when I wasyoung … Life was good and simple.”
When an ellipsis is followed by a fourthperiod, a question mark, or an exclamationpoint, the sentence or quote is ended.◦ Example: “I will win this election ….)
Use a dash to change a topic or structure.◦ Example: This is very important – are you listening tome? Use a dash if the information that follows issurprising and unexpected.◦ Example: We went shopping in Hollywood – and metTom Hanks. Use dashes in a dialog to show hesitation.◦ Example: I – I – I don‟t know.
Use a dash to summarize or to communicateadditional information.◦ Example: Jack, Jill, Sally, Molly, and I – we all weretaken aback. Use a dash to surround emphasized or extrainformation which interrupts the normal flowof a sentence.◦ Example: He wanted us – Jill, Betsy and me – tomeet his family.
Dashes are used in a phone number.◦ Example: 800-555-5555 Dashes are used to signify a time from oneyear to the next (replaces the word to).◦ Example: 1991-2013, or 1991–
Dashes can be used to replace commas,semicolons, colons, and parentheses. Dashes are used more in informal writing. Try not to overuse dashes – use them foremphasis or clarity. (Rule of Thumb: no morethan two dashes per paragraph)
One or more letters have been left out of aword Examples:Can‟t = cannot Couldn‟t = could not Hasn‟t = has notDoesn‟t = does not Don‟t = do not I‟ll = I willHaven‟t = have not Isn‟t = is not I‟ve = I haveI‟d = I would I‟m = I am They‟ve = they haveThey‟ll = they will They‟d = they would Wouldn‟t = would notThey‟re = they are Won‟t = will not You‟ve = you haveYou‟ll = you will You‟d = you wouldYou‟re = you are Didn‟t = did not Ain‟t = ???????
One or more letters/digits have been left outof a word/number◦ Examples: Class of „99 = Class of 1999 G‟bye = Good-bye (Note: Should not be used in formalwriting, but can be used in dialogue)
Use an apostrophe and s to form the plural ofa letter, sign, number, or word.◦ Examples: A‟s 8‟s +‟s to‟s
Add an apostrophe and s to show possessionof a singular noun.◦ Examples: Mark‟s pencil The park‟s swingset (Note: If the noun ends with s or z, just addan apostrophe. Examples: Mrs. Wytanis‟ class)
Plural nouns ending in s, just add anapostrophe when making it possessive◦ Examples: Students‟ homework Teachers‟ lounge Plural nouns not ending in s, add anapostrophe and s◦ Examples: Children‟s book People‟s opinions
If the possession is shared by more than onenoun, add an apostrophe and s to the lastnoun in the series.◦ Examples: Steve, Mark, and Lisa‟s book. (All three own the book) Steve‟s, Mark‟s, Lisa‟s books. (Each person owns abook)
Use with an adjective that is expressing time(month, day, hour) or amount.◦ Examples: Today‟s class An hour‟s work A couple of dollars‟ worth