Cell Introduction and Cell Differentiation
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Cell Introduction and Cell Differentiation

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Cell Introduction and Cell Differentiation Cell Introduction and Cell Differentiation Presentation Transcript

  • Cell Introduction and Cell Differentiation
    By: Paige Sirois, Kirsten McDonald, Will Beauvais and Rachel Fahey
  • The Cell
    The structural, functional & biological unit of all organisms, the unit of life in the case of all organisms.
  • Discovery of the Cell
    The first cell was discovered by a man by the name of Robert Hooke in 1665.
    Robert Hooke was the first person to observe cells. He observed the dead cork cells under a simple microscope, and seeing the compartment like structure, he named the different “compartments” as cells. Thus originated the term “cell”, and it is used till today.
    What he did was look at a cork under a microscope. He claimed that it looked there was small rooms which look like what monks would live in.
    When Hooke looked under a microscope there was no indication of the nucleus and other organelles.
    The first man who actually saw a live cell under a microscope was Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, in 1674. He saw bacteria and algae. 
  • Cell Facts!
    All Living Things are composed of cells.
    Cells are the basic unit of structure and function of all living things
    Cells are produced from other cells
    Cells do everything from providing structure and stability, to helping provide energy and means of reproduction
    There are 75 to 100 trillion cells in your body 
  • The Cell Theory
    The Cell Theory is one of the basic principles of biology. The credit for the formulation of this theory is given to German scientists Theodor Schwann, Matthias Schleiden, and Rudolph Virchow. The theory that cells form the fundamental, structural and functional units of all living organisms; proposed in 1838 by Matthias  Schleiden and Theodor Schwann.
  • The Cell Theory States…
    All living organisms are composed of cells. They may be unicellular or multicellular.
    The cell is the basic unit of life.
    Cells arise from pre-existing cells.
    The modern version of the Cell Theory includes the ideas that:
    Energy flow occurs within cells.
    Heredity information (DNA) is passed on from cell to cell.
    All cells have the same basic chemical composition.
  • 1st Part of Cell Theory
    Cell is the basic structural unit of life
    This statement implies that all living organisms, big or small, are made up of cells. Cell is the fundamental unit of all living organisms. Animals and plants, bacteria and fungi, algae and other such organisms, all are made of up either one or more (millions) of cells. If any organism is observed under a microscope, it is observed that it is made up of tiny block like structures which may have any shape. These are cells. Thus, we can say that sell is the basic structural unit of life. This is an image of a slice of cork cells as was seen by Robert Hook. It shows that the cork is composed of hundreds of cells packed together.
  • 2nd Part of Cell Theory
    Cell is the basic functional unit of life
    The organisms are composed of one (in case of unicellular organisms), thousands (small organisms) or millions (big animals and plants) of cells. All these cells perform essential life processes that are vital to the running of life systems in the organism, which are vital for the existence of an organism. A cell performs all the necessary functions for life, for example, the process of production of energy from food takes place in cells of animals, the process of making of starch from CO2, water and sunlight is done inside all chlorophyll (a pigment) containing cells of plants, etc.
    Thus, all life processes of an organism are performed by individual cells, and due to the combined working of all the cells, a process or an action is performed. Thus it is clear that cell is the basic functional unit of life in a cell. 
  • Cell Division
  • 3rd Part of Cell Theory
     Cell is the basic functional unit of life
    The organisms are composed of one (in case of unicellular organisms), thousands (small organisms) or millions (big animals and plants) of cells. All these cells perform essential life processes that are vital to the running of life systems in the organism, which are vital for the existence of an organism. A cell performs all the necessary functions for life, for example, the process of production of energy from food takes place in cells of animals, the process of making of starch from CO2, water and sunlight is done inside all chlorophyll (a pigment) containing cells of plants, etc.
    Thus, all life processes of an organism are performed by individual cells, and due to the combined working of all the cells, a process or an action is performed. Thus it is clear that cell is the basic functional unit of life in a cell.
  • Cellular Differentiation
    The normal process by which a less specialized cell develops, or matures into a more distinct form or function
  • Cellular Differentiation Cont…
    Example: Single-celled zygote develops into a multicellular embryo that further develops into a more complex multisystem of distinct cell types of a fetus. The cell size, shape, polarity, metabolism and responsiveness to signals change dramatically such that a less specialized cell becomes more specialized and acquires a more specific role.
  • Cellular Differentiation Definitions
    Zygote: A call diploid state following fertilization or the union of a haploid male sex cell and a haploid female sex cell.
    Diploid: A cell or organism consisting of two sets of chromosomes.
    Polarity: Used to describe cells with one or more axes of symmetry.
     
    Metabolism: Process involving a set of chemical reactions that modifies a molecule into another for storage, or immediate use in another reaction or as a by product.
  • THE END