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Cell organelles
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Cell organelles

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  • Use this presentation in conjunction with the Cell Organelle note-taking worksheet.
  • Emphasize word parts here: phospho= phosphate head; lipid= fatty acid tail bi= 2
  • Cells with more than one nucleus include muscle cells and liver cells, largely because of the massive volume of cytoplasm and number of organelles that need controlling.
  • Emphasize word parts here: phospho= phosphate head; lipid= fatty acid tail bi= 2
  • AKA Golgi Complex
  • The image is 2D, so it must have been a light microscope or TEM. If the cell is very tiny, then a TEM was used. Otherwise, a strong light microscope could have captured this image.
  • Chloroplasts absorb light, which is the starts the process of photosynthesis.
  • Actin, also found in muscle cells, mainly help maintain cell shape in their cytoskeletal role. Microtubules mostly move organelles around the cell. Intermediate filaments also provide structural support.
  • Microtubules are also part of the cytoskeleton.

Cell organelles Cell organelles Presentation Transcript

  • Cell Organelles
  • Cell Organelles
    • Organelle (“little organ”) = a small structure in the cell that performs a specific function.
    • Membrane-bound organelles are found only in eukaryotic cells
  • Cytoplasm
    • Everything in a cell except the nucleus is cytoplasm
    • Clear, gelatin-like, watery substance surrounding the organelles.
    • Maintains the shape and consistency of the cell.
    • Allows for chemical reactions necessary in metabolism
  • Cell Membrane
    • Boundary of the cell
    • Made of a phospho lipid bi layer, with protein molecules scattered all over
    • Regulates what comes in and out of the cell, provides for some protection of the cell and its organelles
  • Nucleus
    • Control center of the cell – has the information needed to oversee the chemical reactions in cells (what is the counterpart in a factory?)
    • Contains DNA (either as chromosomes or chromatin), nucleolus and nuclear envelope
    • Surrounded by a double membrane called nuclear envelope
    • Usually the easiest structure to see under a microscope
    • Usually one per cell, but some cells have many nuclei
  • Nuclear Envelope
    • Boundary of the nucleus
    • “ Envelope” – because it a a double-membrane
    • Made of a phospho lipid bi layer (like the cell membrane)
    • Regulates what comes in and out of the nucleus, has nuclear pores that allow a large molecule like RNA to move in and out of the nucleus.
  • Chromosome/ Chromatin
    • Eukaryotic DNA has 2 forms:
      • Chromatin - DNA that is loosely coiled around a protein. When the cell in NOT dividing, DNA is in this form but cannot be seen in most light microscopes.
      • Chromosome - chromatin is condensed into chromosomes when the cell divides (mitosis/ meiosis). Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes which contain all of your DNA. These are visible in a light microscope.
      • Has the genetic code that directs what proteins get made
  • Nucleolus
    • A large, dense area in the nucleus
    • Site of ribosome production
    nucleolus
  • Ribosome
    • Site of protein synthesis (also known as translation)
    • Found attached to rough ER or floating free in cytoplasm
    • Not membrane-bound
    • Produced in a part of the nucleus called the nucleolus
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • A.k.a. “E.R.” ( endo means inside + cyto plasmic + reticulum means network = network of membranes inside the cytoplasm)
    • Connected to nuclear envelope
    • Rough ER : studded with ribosomes; it chemically modifies proteins
    • Smooth ER : no ribosomes; it makes lipids
  • Golgi Apparatus
    • Looks like a stack of plates; membrane-bound
    • Stores, transports, and packages proteins
    • Molecules transported to and from the Golgi by means of vesicles
  • Lysosomes
    • Garbage disposal of the cell
    • Membrane-bound
    • Contain digestive enzymes that break down big molecules and damaged organelles
    Which organelles do lysosomes work with?
  • Vacuoles
    • Large central vacuole usually in plant cells
    • Many smaller vacuoles in animal cells
    • Storage container for water, food, enzymes , wastes, pigments, etc.
    • Membrane-bound
    What type of microscope may have been used to take this picture?
  • Mitochondria
    • “ Powerhouse of the cell” – found in BOTH plant and animal cells
    • Cellular respiration occurs here to release energy (ATP) for the cell to use
    • Has 2 membranes – outer and inner membranes (the latter is highly folded that increases surface area for cellular respiration
    • Has its own circular DNA and ribosomes (wonder why?)
  • Chloroplast
    • Found only in plant cells and plant-like protists
    • Site of photosynthesis
    • Bounded by a double membrane – third membrane is “photosynthetic” - contains the green pigment chlorophyll
    • Contains its own DNA and ribosomes (why?)
  • Cytoskeleton
    • Acts as skeleton and muscle
    • Provides shape and structure
    • Helps move organelles around the cell, or move the cell itself
    • Made of three types of filaments
    • Only in eukaryotes
  • Centrioles
    • During cell division – help assemble the spindle apparatus that moves chromosomes
    • Usually found only in animal cells
    • Made of microtubules arranged in a special way
  • Cilia and Flagella
    • Made of microtubules arranged in a special way (similar to centrioles)
    • Extensions of (some) eukaryotic cells that have no cell wall
    • For movement
    Cilia in throat cells Cilia in Paramecium Cilia in sperm cells
  • Cell Wall
    • Found in plant, fungus , and bacterial cells
    • Rigid, protective barrier
    • Located outside of the cell membrane
    • Made of cellulose ( fiber ) in plant cells
  • Quick Review
    • Which organelle is the control center of the cell?
    • Which organelle is responsible for converting food energy into usable energy and is present in ALL eukaryotic cells?
    • Which organelles are not found in animal cells?
    • Which organelle helps plant cells make food?
    • What does E.R. stand for?
    • Which organelles have something to do with making and packaging proteins?
    • Why are almost all organelles membrane-bound?
  • Identify the organelles