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Cell organelles

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  • Use this presentation in conjunction with the Cell Organelle note-taking worksheet.
  • Emphasize word parts here: phospho= phosphate head; lipid= fatty acid tail bi= 2
  • Cells with more than one nucleus include muscle cells and liver cells, largely because of the massive volume of cytoplasm and number of organelles that need controlling.
  • Emphasize word parts here: phospho= phosphate head; lipid= fatty acid tail bi= 2
  • AKA Golgi Complex
  • The image is 2D, so it must have been a light microscope or TEM. If the cell is very tiny, then a TEM was used. Otherwise, a strong light microscope could have captured this image.
  • Chloroplasts absorb light, which is the starts the process of photosynthesis.
  • Actin, also found in muscle cells, mainly help maintain cell shape in their cytoskeletal role. Microtubules mostly move organelles around the cell. Intermediate filaments also provide structural support.
  • Microtubules are also part of the cytoskeleton.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Cell Organelles
    • 2. Cell Organelles
      • Organelle (“little organ”) = a small structure in the cell that performs a specific function.
      • Membrane-bound organelles are found only in eukaryotic cells
    • 3. Cytoplasm
      • Everything in a cell except the nucleus is cytoplasm
      • Clear, gelatin-like, watery substance surrounding the organelles.
      • Maintains the shape and consistency of the cell.
      • Allows for chemical reactions necessary in metabolism
    • 4. Cell Membrane
      • Boundary of the cell
      • Made of a phospho lipid bi layer, with protein molecules scattered all over
      • Regulates what comes in and out of the cell, provides for some protection of the cell and its organelles
    • 5. Nucleus
      • Control center of the cell – has the information needed to oversee the chemical reactions in cells (what is the counterpart in a factory?)
      • Contains DNA (either as chromosomes or chromatin), nucleolus and nuclear envelope
      • Surrounded by a double membrane called nuclear envelope
      • Usually the easiest structure to see under a microscope
      • Usually one per cell, but some cells have many nuclei
    • 6. Nuclear Envelope
      • Boundary of the nucleus
      • “ Envelope” – because it a a double-membrane
      • Made of a phospho lipid bi layer (like the cell membrane)
      • Regulates what comes in and out of the nucleus, has nuclear pores that allow a large molecule like RNA to move in and out of the nucleus.
    • 7. Chromosome/ Chromatin
      • Eukaryotic DNA has 2 forms:
        • Chromatin - DNA that is loosely coiled around a protein. When the cell in NOT dividing, DNA is in this form but cannot be seen in most light microscopes.
        • Chromosome - chromatin is condensed into chromosomes when the cell divides (mitosis/ meiosis). Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes which contain all of your DNA. These are visible in a light microscope.
        • Has the genetic code that directs what proteins get made
    • 8. Nucleolus
      • A large, dense area in the nucleus
      • Site of ribosome production
      nucleolus
    • 9. Ribosome
      • Site of protein synthesis (also known as translation)
      • Found attached to rough ER or floating free in cytoplasm
      • Not membrane-bound
      • Produced in a part of the nucleus called the nucleolus
    • 10. Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • A.k.a. “E.R.” ( endo means inside + cyto plasmic + reticulum means network = network of membranes inside the cytoplasm)
      • Connected to nuclear envelope
      • Rough ER : studded with ribosomes; it chemically modifies proteins
      • Smooth ER : no ribosomes; it makes lipids
    • 11. Golgi Apparatus
      • Looks like a stack of plates; membrane-bound
      • Stores, transports, and packages proteins
      • Molecules transported to and from the Golgi by means of vesicles
    • 12. Lysosomes
      • Garbage disposal of the cell
      • Membrane-bound
      • Contain digestive enzymes that break down big molecules and damaged organelles
      Which organelles do lysosomes work with?
    • 13. Vacuoles
      • Large central vacuole usually in plant cells
      • Many smaller vacuoles in animal cells
      • Storage container for water, food, enzymes , wastes, pigments, etc.
      • Membrane-bound
      What type of microscope may have been used to take this picture?
    • 14. Mitochondria
      • “ Powerhouse of the cell” – found in BOTH plant and animal cells
      • Cellular respiration occurs here to release energy (ATP) for the cell to use
      • Has 2 membranes – outer and inner membranes (the latter is highly folded that increases surface area for cellular respiration
      • Has its own circular DNA and ribosomes (wonder why?)
    • 15. Chloroplast
      • Found only in plant cells and plant-like protists
      • Site of photosynthesis
      • Bounded by a double membrane – third membrane is “photosynthetic” - contains the green pigment chlorophyll
      • Contains its own DNA and ribosomes (why?)
    • 16. Cytoskeleton
      • Acts as skeleton and muscle
      • Provides shape and structure
      • Helps move organelles around the cell, or move the cell itself
      • Made of three types of filaments
      • Only in eukaryotes
    • 17. Centrioles
      • During cell division – help assemble the spindle apparatus that moves chromosomes
      • Usually found only in animal cells
      • Made of microtubules arranged in a special way
    • 18. Cilia and Flagella
      • Made of microtubules arranged in a special way (similar to centrioles)
      • Extensions of (some) eukaryotic cells that have no cell wall
      • For movement
      Cilia in throat cells Cilia in Paramecium Cilia in sperm cells
    • 19. Cell Wall
      • Found in plant, fungus , and bacterial cells
      • Rigid, protective barrier
      • Located outside of the cell membrane
      • Made of cellulose ( fiber ) in plant cells
    • 20. Quick Review
      • Which organelle is the control center of the cell?
      • Which organelle is responsible for converting food energy into usable energy and is present in ALL eukaryotic cells?
      • Which organelles are not found in animal cells?
      • Which organelle helps plant cells make food?
      • What does E.R. stand for?
      • Which organelles have something to do with making and packaging proteins?
      • Why are almost all organelles membrane-bound?
    • 21. Identify the organelles

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