TheThe Psychology ofPsychology ofTrustTrustA psychologist’s perspective on theA psychologist’s perspective on theprinciple...
From JimFrom Jim ““If human beings are perceived as potentialsIf human beings are perceived as potentialsrather than pro...
Two Complementary AreasTwo Complementary Areas Positive Psychology-Positive Psychology- is the scientific study of theis ...
Two Complementary AreasTwo Complementary Areas Interpersonal Psychology-Interpersonal Psychology- is the scientificis the...
Psychoanalysis: Freud & the PsychePsychoanalysis: Freud & the Psyche Freud proposed three structures of the psyche orFreu...
Psyche Structures: A VisualPsyche Structures: A Visual
Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Defense Mechanisms-Defense Mechanisms- Psychological...
Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Level I: Psychotic Defenses:Level I: Psychotic Defen...
Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles More Level II Defense Mechanisms:More Level II Defen...
Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Level III DM’s: Neurotic DefensesLevel III DM’s: Neu...
Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles IsolationIsolation:: Separation of feelings from ide...
Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Dissociation:Dissociation: Temporary drastic modific...
Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Repression:Repression: Process of pulling thoughts i...
Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Level IV DM’s: Mature Defenses:Level IV DM’s: Mature...
Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Sublimation:Sublimation: Transformation of negativeT...
Psychoanalytic Principles, cont.Psychoanalytic Principles, cont. Transference:Transference: is a psychological phenomenon...
Psychoanalytic Principles, cont.Psychoanalytic Principles, cont. Projection:Projection: (aka, “Projection Bias”) is a def...
Psychoanalytic Principles, cont.Psychoanalytic Principles, cont. Some Examples:Some Examples: Transferrence:Transferrenc...
A Social Psychological ConstructA Social Psychological Construct Cognitive dissonanceCognitive dissonance is an uncomfort...
Erikson’s Stage 1: Trust vs. MistrustErikson’s Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust I am what I am given…I am what I am given…““Ma...
Stage 1: Trust vs. MistrustStage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust If an infant’s physical and emotional needs areIf an infant’s phys...
Stage 2:Stage 2:Autonomy vs. Shame & DoubtAutonomy vs. Shame & Doubt I am what I can do…I am what I can do…““Up, Up and A...
Autonomy vs. Shame & DoubtAutonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Parents have to balance the opposing virtues ofParents have to balan...
Stage 3: Initiative vs. GuiltStage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt I am what I imagine…I am what I imagine… Parents who take tim...
Stage 4: Industry vs. InferiorityStage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority I am what I can achieve…I am what I can achieve…““Scar...
Stage 4: Industry vs. InferiorityStage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority Children who cannot master their school work mayChildr...
Psychology of trust
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Psychology of trust

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Psychology of trust

  1. 1. TheThe Psychology ofPsychology ofTrustTrustA psychologist’s perspective on theA psychologist’s perspective on theprinciples of “Trust” andprinciples of “Trust” and“Strengths-Finding”“Strengths-Finding”
  2. 2. From JimFrom Jim ““If human beings are perceived as potentialsIf human beings are perceived as potentialsrather than problems,rather than problems,as possessing strengths instead of weaknesses,as possessing strengths instead of weaknesses,as unlimited rather than dull andas unlimited rather than dull andunresponsive,unresponsive,then they thrive and grow to theirthen they thrive and grow to theircapabilities.”capabilities.”  ~Barbara Bush~Barbara Bush
  3. 3. Two Complementary AreasTwo Complementary Areas Positive Psychology-Positive Psychology- is the scientific study of theis the scientific study of thestrengths and virtues that enable individuals andstrengths and virtues that enable individuals andcommunities to thrive. Opposite of Clinicalcommunities to thrive. Opposite of ClinicalPsychology.Psychology. This field is founded on the belief that people wantThis field is founded on the belief that people wantto lead meaningful and fulfilling lives , to cultivateto lead meaningful and fulfilling lives , to cultivatewhat is best within themselves, and to enhancewhat is best within themselves, and to enhancetheir experiences of love, work, and play.their experiences of love, work, and play.
  4. 4. Two Complementary AreasTwo Complementary Areas Interpersonal Psychology-Interpersonal Psychology- is the scientificis the scientificstudy of persons interacting with otherstudy of persons interacting with otherpersons. It posits that within each person arepersons. It posits that within each person aredynamic motives, partly unconscious,dynamic motives, partly unconscious,energizing his/her behavior.energizing his/her behavior. This field looks at human interaction throughThis field looks at human interaction throughpersonality typology (i.e. MMPI),personality typology (i.e. MMPI),communication styles, human needs.communication styles, human needs.
  5. 5. Psychoanalysis: Freud & the PsychePsychoanalysis: Freud & the Psyche Freud proposed three structures of the psyche orFreud proposed three structures of the psyche orpersonality.personality. Id:Id: a selfish, primitive, childish, pleasure-oriented part ofa selfish, primitive, childish, pleasure-oriented part ofthe personality with no ability to delay gratificationthe personality with no ability to delay gratification Ego:Ego: the moderator between the id and superego whichthe moderator between the id and superego whichseeks compromises to pacify both. It can be viewed asseeks compromises to pacify both. It can be viewed asour “Sense of Self”.our “Sense of Self”. Superego:Superego: internalized societal and parental standards ofinternalized societal and parental standards of“good” and “bad” & “right” and “wrong” behavior.“good” and “bad” & “right” and “wrong” behavior.
  6. 6. Psyche Structures: A VisualPsyche Structures: A Visual
  7. 7. Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Defense Mechanisms-Defense Mechanisms- Psychological strategiesPsychological strategiesbrought into play by various entities to copebrought into play by various entities to copewith reality and to maintain self-image.with reality and to maintain self-image.
  8. 8. Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Level I: Psychotic Defenses:Level I: Psychotic Defenses: Almost alwaysAlmost alwayspathological, theses defenses permit one topathological, theses defenses permit one torearrange external reality and therefore not have torearrange external reality and therefore not have tocope with it. They are common in overt psychosis,cope with it. They are common in overt psychosis,in dreams, and throughout childhood.in dreams, and throughout childhood. Denial:Denial: Refusal to accept external reality because it is tooRefusal to accept external reality because it is toothreatening.threatening. Distortion:Distortion: A gross reshaping of external reality to meetA gross reshaping of external reality to meetinternal needs.internal needs. Delusional Projection:Delusional Projection: Grossly frank delusions aboutGrossly frank delusions aboutexternal reality, usually of a persecutory nature.external reality, usually of a persecutory nature.
  9. 9. Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles More Level II Defense Mechanisms:More Level II Defense Mechanisms: Passive Aggression:Passive Aggression: Aggression toward othersAggression toward othersexpressed indirectly or passively.expressed indirectly or passively. Acting Out:Acting Out: Direct expression of an unconscious wishDirect expression of an unconscious wishor impulse without conscious awareness of the emotionor impulse without conscious awareness of the emotionthat drives that expressive behavior.that drives that expressive behavior. Idealization:Idealization: Subconsciously choosing to perceiveSubconsciously choosing to perceiveanother individual as having more positive qualitiesanother individual as having more positive qualitiesthan he/she may actually have.than he/she may actually have.
  10. 10. Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Level III DM’s: Neurotic DefensesLevel III DM’s: Neurotic Defenses: Common: Commonin everyone, but clearly not optimal for copingin everyone, but clearly not optimal for copingwith reality since they lead to problems inwith reality since they lead to problems inrelationships, work, and enjoying life.relationships, work, and enjoying life. Displacement:Displacement: The shifting of sexual or aggressiveThe shifting of sexual or aggressiveimpulses to a more acceptable or less threatening target;impulses to a more acceptable or less threatening target;redirecting emotion to a safer outlet—allowing theredirecting emotion to a safer outlet—allowing theperson to not deal directly with the object of their Forperson to not deal directly with the object of their Forexample, a mother may yell at her child because she isexample, a mother may yell at her child because she isangry at her husband.angry at her husband.
  11. 11. Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles IsolationIsolation:: Separation of feelings from ideas and events, forSeparation of feelings from ideas and events, forexample, describing a murder with graphic details and noexample, describing a murder with graphic details and noemotional response.emotional response. Reaction Formation:Reaction Formation: Converting unconscious wishes orConverting unconscious wishes orimpulses that are perceived to be dangerous into theirimpulses that are perceived to be dangerous into theiropposites; behavior that is completely the opposite of whatopposites; behavior that is completely the opposite of whatone really wants or feels; taking the opposite belief becauseone really wants or feels; taking the opposite belief becausethe true on causes anxiety. This defense can workthe true on causes anxiety. This defense can workeffectively for coping in the short-term but will eventuallyeffectively for coping in the short-term but will eventuallybreak down.break down.
  12. 12. Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Dissociation:Dissociation: Temporary drastic modification ofTemporary drastic modification ofone’s personal identity or character to avoidone’s personal identity or character to avoidemotional distress; separation or postponement ofemotional distress; separation or postponement ofa feeling that normally would accompany aa feeling that normally would accompany asituation or thought.situation or thought. Intellectualization:Intellectualization: A form of isolation;A form of isolation;concentrating on the intellectual components of aconcentrating on the intellectual components of asituation so as to distance oneself from thesituation so as to distance oneself from theassociated anxiety-provoking emotions.associated anxiety-provoking emotions.
  13. 13. Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Repression:Repression: Process of pulling thoughts into theProcess of pulling thoughts into theunconscious and preventing painful or dangerous thoughtsunconscious and preventing painful or dangerous thoughtsfrom entering consciousness; seemingly unexplainablefrom entering consciousness; seemingly unexplainablenaivety, memory lapse or lack of awareness of one’s ownnaivety, memory lapse or lack of awareness of one’s ownsituation and condition; the emotion is conscious, but thesituation and condition; the emotion is conscious, but theidea behind it is absent.idea behind it is absent. Regression:Regression: Temporary reversion of the ego to and earlierTemporary reversion of the ego to and earlierstage of development rather than handling unacceptablestage of development rather than handling unacceptableimpulses in and adult way (i.e., mid-life crisis)impulses in and adult way (i.e., mid-life crisis)
  14. 14. Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Level IV DM’s: Mature Defenses:Level IV DM’s: Mature Defenses: Used byUsed by“healthy” adults, they optimize one’s ability to“healthy” adults, they optimize one’s ability tohave normal relationships, enjoy work, and takehave normal relationships, enjoy work, and takepleasure in life.pleasure in life. Altruism:Altruism: Constructive service to others that bringsConstructive service to others that bringspleasure and personal satisfaction (example, Johnpleasure and personal satisfaction (example, JohnWalsh).Walsh). Anticipation:Anticipation: Realistic planning for future discomfortRealistic planning for future discomfort(i.e., an upcoming surgery, etc).(i.e., an upcoming surgery, etc). Humor:Humor: Overt expression of ideas and feelingsOvert expression of ideas and feelings(especially those that are unpleasant to focus on or too(especially those that are unpleasant to focus on or tooterrible to talk about) that gives pleasure to others.terrible to talk about) that gives pleasure to others.
  15. 15. Freudian/Psychoanalytic PrinciplesFreudian/Psychoanalytic Principles Sublimation:Sublimation: Transformation of negativeTransformation of negativeemotions or instincts into positive actions,emotions or instincts into positive actions,behavior, or emotion.behavior, or emotion. Suppression:Suppression: TheThe conscious decisionconscious decision to delayto delaypaying attention to an emotion or need in orderpaying attention to an emotion or need in orderto cope with the present reality; able to laterto cope with the present reality; able to lateraccess the emotion and accept it.access the emotion and accept it.
  16. 16. Psychoanalytic Principles, cont.Psychoanalytic Principles, cont. Transference:Transference: is a psychological phenomenonis a psychological phenomenoncharacterized by unconscious redirection ofcharacterized by unconscious redirection offeelings of one person to another. For instance,feelings of one person to another. For instance,one could mistrust somebody who resembles anone could mistrust somebody who resembles anex-spouse in manners, voice, externalex-spouse in manners, voice, externalappearance; or be overly compliant to someoneappearance; or be overly compliant to someonewho resembles a childhood friend.who resembles a childhood friend. Can be both conscious, pre-conscious, andCan be both conscious, pre-conscious, andunconscious.unconscious.
  17. 17. Psychoanalytic Principles, cont.Psychoanalytic Principles, cont. Projection:Projection: (aka, “Projection Bias”) is a defense(aka, “Projection Bias”) is a defensemechanism in which one attributes (“projects”) tomechanism in which one attributes (“projects”) toothers one’s own unacceptable or unwanted thoughtsothers one’s own unacceptable or unwanted thoughtsand/or emotions. Projection reduces anxiety byand/or emotions. Projection reduces anxiety byallowing the expression of the unwanted subconsciousallowing the expression of the unwanted subconsciousimpulses/desires without letting the ego recognizeimpulses/desires without letting the ego recognizethem.them. In other words, you are projecting your own feelings,In other words, you are projecting your own feelings,emotions or motivations onto another person withoutemotions or motivations onto another person withoutrealizing your reaction is really more about you than it isrealizing your reaction is really more about you than it isabout the other person.about the other person.
  18. 18. Psychoanalytic Principles, cont.Psychoanalytic Principles, cont. Some Examples:Some Examples: Transferrence:Transferrence: Your job may be “the familyYour job may be “the familyreunion” you are avoiding and you are forced toreunion” you are avoiding and you are forced togo to each day.”go to each day.” Projection:Projection: Your girlfriend may remind you ofYour girlfriend may remind you ofall the irritating things your mother did to youall the irritating things your mother did to youwhen you were growing up. “Love at first sight”when you were growing up. “Love at first sight”is usually a projection.is usually a projection.
  19. 19. A Social Psychological ConstructA Social Psychological Construct Cognitive dissonanceCognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable feelingis an uncomfortable feelingcaused by holding two contradictory ideascaused by holding two contradictory ideassimultaneously. The "ideas" or "cognitions" in questionsimultaneously. The "ideas" or "cognitions" in questionmay include attitudes and beliefs, and also themay include attitudes and beliefs, and also theawareness of ones behavior. The theory of cognitiveawareness of ones behavior. The theory of cognitivedissonance proposes that people have a motivationaldissonance proposes that people have a motivationaldrive to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes,drive to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes,beliefs, and behaviors, or bybeliefs, and behaviors, or by justifying orjustifying orrationalizingrationalizing their attitudes, beliefs, andtheir attitudes, beliefs, and behaviorsbehaviors..[[
  20. 20. Erikson’s Stage 1: Trust vs. MistrustErikson’s Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust I am what I am given…I am what I am given…““Mama? Papa?”Mama? Papa?” An infant is helpless. He is totally dependent on othersAn infant is helpless. He is totally dependent on othersfor his needs. During this stage, the infant learns whetherfor his needs. During this stage, the infant learns whetherthe world in which he lives can be trusted. When he isthe world in which he lives can be trusted. When he ishungry and cries, will he be fed? When he is unwell forhungry and cries, will he be fed? When he is unwell forafraid, will he be comforted?afraid, will he be comforted?
  21. 21. Stage 1: Trust vs. MistrustStage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust If an infant’s physical and emotional needs areIf an infant’s physical and emotional needs aremet in a consistent and caring way, he learns thatmet in a consistent and caring way, he learns thathis mother or caregiver can be counted on and hehis mother or caregiver can be counted on and hedevelops and attitude of trust in people. If hisdevelops and attitude of trust in people. If hisneeds are not met, an infant may become fearfulneeds are not met, an infant may become fearfuland learns not to trust the people around him.and learns not to trust the people around him. Can lead to life-long trust issues such as ReactiveCan lead to life-long trust issues such as ReactiveAttachment Disorder (RAD) in extreme cases.Attachment Disorder (RAD) in extreme cases.
  22. 22. Stage 2:Stage 2:Autonomy vs. Shame & DoubtAutonomy vs. Shame & Doubt I am what I can do…I am what I can do…““Up, Up and Away!!”Up, Up and Away!!” The toddler realizes that he is a separate person with thisThe toddler realizes that he is a separate person with thisown desires and abilities. He wants to do things forown desires and abilities. He wants to do things forhimself without help or hindrance from other people. Thehimself without help or hindrance from other people. Thetoddler’s favorite word “No” is a declaration oftoddler’s favorite word “No” is a declaration ofindependence and a bid for increased autonomy.independence and a bid for increased autonomy.
  23. 23. Autonomy vs. Shame & DoubtAutonomy vs. Shame & Doubt Parents have to balance the opposing virtues ofParents have to balance the opposing virtues ofencouragement and restraint. If a toddler’s effortsencouragement and restraint. If a toddler’s effortsto do things are his own were frustrated by over-to do things are his own were frustrated by over-protective parents then he may not have manyprotective parents then he may not have manyopportunities to develop autonomy. On the otheropportunities to develop autonomy. On the otherhand, if a toddler was harshly criticized forhand, if a toddler was harshly criticized for“accidents” (e.g., wetting, soiling, spilling/breaking“accidents” (e.g., wetting, soiling, spilling/breakingthings) then he may develop doubt about his ownthings) then he may develop doubt about his ownabilities to tackle new challenges.abilities to tackle new challenges.
  24. 24. Stage 3: Initiative vs. GuiltStage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt I am what I imagine…I am what I imagine… Parents who take time to answer their preschoolersParents who take time to answer their preschoolersquestions reinforce their intellectual initiative. But parentsquestions reinforce their intellectual initiative. But parentswho see their childrens questions as a nuisance may stiflewho see their childrens questions as a nuisance may stifletheir initiative and cause them to be too dependent ontheir initiative and cause them to be too dependent onothers and to be ashamed of themselves.others and to be ashamed of themselves. It is also during this stage that a rudimentaryIt is also during this stage that a rudimentary conscienceconscienceemerges, regulating their initiative and imagination. Hisemerges, regulating their initiative and imagination. Hisbehavior is guided by concept of "right" and "wrong" asbehavior is guided by concept of "right" and "wrong" asspelt out by his parents. If the parents expectations arespelt out by his parents. If the parents expectations areunrealistic or if they punish him too severely for hisunrealistic or if they punish him too severely for hismistakes then he may develop an oppressive burden ofmistakes then he may develop an oppressive burden ofguilt.guilt.
  25. 25. Stage 4: Industry vs. InferiorityStage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority I am what I can achieve…I am what I can achieve…““Scared of School?”Scared of School?” The child soon learns that he can win recognition fromThe child soon learns that he can win recognition fromparents, teachers and peers by being proficient in hisparents, teachers and peers by being proficient in hisschool work. The attitudes and opinions of others becomeschool work. The attitudes and opinions of others becomeimportant. The school plays a major role in the resolutionimportant. The school plays a major role in the resolutionof the developmental crisis of initiative versus inferiority.of the developmental crisis of initiative versus inferiority.
  26. 26. Stage 4: Industry vs. InferiorityStage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority Children who cannot master their school work mayChildren who cannot master their school work mayconsider themselves a failure and feelings of inferiorityconsider themselves a failure and feelings of inferioritymay arise.may arise.A child may also feel a sense of shame if his parentsA child may also feel a sense of shame if his parents(and/or others important to him) unthinkingly share his(and/or others important to him) unthinkingly share his"failures" with others. Shame stems from a sense of"failures" with others. Shame stems from a sense ofself-exposure, a feeling that ones deficiencies areself-exposure, a feeling that ones deficiencies areexposed to others.exposed to others.
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