Jean Piaget Jerome Bruner Lev Vygotsky John Dewey
Psychologist Key focuses: Assimilation, Adaptation 4 Cognitive Stages ◦ Sensorimotor ◦ Preoperational ◦ Concrete Operational ◦ Formal Operational “He felt children were active learners and did not need motivation from adults to learn. Piaget believed that children were constructing new knowledge as they moved through different cognitive stages or schema, building on what they already knew….Children interpret this knowledge differently as they progress through different stages” (Gunter & Shelly, pg 377).
Psychologist Key Focuses: ◦ Socratic Method “Proposed that learning is an active process in which the learner constructs new ideas or concepts based on his current or past knowledge” (Gunter & Shelly, pg 378).
Psychologist Key focuses ◦ Social Cognition “Believed that learning was influenced significantly by social development” (Gunter & Shelly, pg 379).
Psychologist Key Focuses: ◦ Pragmatism ◦ Progressive education “Viewed school as a community that represented a larger picture. Believed that learning should engage and expand the experiences of the learners” (Gunter & Shelly, pg 381).
“Constructivism is based on a type of learning in which the learns forms, or constructs, much of what he or she learns or comprehends” (Gunter & Shelly, pg 376). Actively participating in activities of any sort allows children to draw off of their experience and form their own comprehension
“In the classroom, the constructivist view of learning can point towards a number of different teaching practices. In the most general sense, it usually means encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments, real- world problem solving) to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. The teacher makes sure she understands the students preexisting conceptions, and guides the activity to address them and then build on them” (Concept to Classroom). “Constructivist teachers encourage students to constantly assess how the activity is helping them gain understanding. By questioning themselves and their strategies, students in the constructivist classroom ideally become "expert learners” (Concept to Classroom).
As stated before the teacher continues to question students to verify and challenge what the students are learning. With technology teachers could use programs to further challenge and expand the interests, comprehension, and spark new thoughts through a different means of learning
Both with and without the use of technology this theory promotes students to draw their understanding about their personal participation and prior comprehension.
Personally I agree with the constructivist theory. I have taken several classes throughout my educational career which have lead me to believe that children/students comprehend and build upon their understandings based upon their own personal experiences and environments. I will actively engage in asking my students questions to help foster and guide new thoughts and insightful ideas for the students to develop.
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