Argument pp 1


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Argument pp 1

  2. 2. Discussion Questions <ul><li>How have you written papers or writing assignments containing Argument, in the past? E .g. plans, supporting ideas, research, data etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Were your Arguments convincing for the audience? </li></ul><ul><li>What process did you use? </li></ul><ul><li>When you listen to an argument – what are the factors that convince you the argument is valid? </li></ul>
  3. 3. A definition of Argument <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Argumentation is the art of influencing others, through the medium of reasoned discourse, to believe or act as we wish them to believe or act” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stages of a thesis argument <ul><li>There are three parts to an argument in thesis writing </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Claim </li></ul><ul><li>2. Support </li></ul><ul><li>3. Warrant </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Claim <ul><li>The Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a proposition - what you are trying to prove. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be the “ thesis statement” of an essay. </li></ul><ul><li>In some arguments it may not be stated directly, or immediately. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Claim <ul><li>3 principle types of claim </li></ul><ul><li>Claims of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Claims of value </li></ul><ul><li>Claims of policy </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Claims of fact: </li></ul><ul><li>Assert that a condition did, does or will exist </li></ul><ul><li>Based on facts or data that the audience can verify </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. HORSE RACING IS THE MOST DANGEROUS SPORT </li></ul><ul><li>This claim must be supported by facts or data to be credible with the audience </li></ul>Claims of fact
  8. 8. <ul><li>Claims of value: </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to prove something is more or less desirable than others </li></ul><ul><li>Express approval/ disapproval of standards of taste/ morality </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibited in advertising and cultural reviews </li></ul>Claims of Value
  9. 9. <ul><li>FOOTBALL IS ONE OF THE MOST DEHUMANISING EXPERIENCES A PERSON CAN FACE. </li></ul><ul><li>- Dave Meggyesy </li></ul><ul><li>ENDING A PATIENTS LIFE INTENTIONALLY IS ABSOLUTELY FORBIDDEN ON MORAL GROUNDS </li></ul><ul><li>- Presidential Commission on Medical Ethics, 1983 </li></ul>Claims of Value - Examples
  10. 10. <ul><li>Claims of policy: </li></ul><ul><li>Assert that specific policies should be instituted as solutions to problems </li></ul><ul><li>Usually contain expressions such as ‘should, must or ought’ </li></ul><ul><li>Call for analysis of both fact and value </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. PRISONS SHOULD BE ABOLISHED BECAUSE THEY ARE CRIME-MANUFACTURING CONCERNS </li></ul>Claims of policy
  11. 11. The Support <ul><li>The support: </li></ul><ul><li>Includes evidence and motivational appeals to convince the audience </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence is data – including facts, statistics, experts testimonials </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational appeals are arguments to the values and attitudes of the audience </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Motivational’ as a word implies movement of an audience to accept an idea and take action </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Warrant: </li></ul><ul><li>The assumption that underlies all claims we make </li></ul><ul><li>Can be stated or unstated, if the arguer believes the audience backs the assumption </li></ul><ul><li>Can be stated for a doubting audience </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Warrant’ enables the reader to make the same connection between claim and support as the author. </li></ul>The Warrant
  13. 13. Warrant ( unstated) - example 1 <ul><li>Claim: Adoption of a healthier diet leads to healthier and longer life. </li></ul><ul><li>Support: The authors of becoming a healthy family say so. </li></ul><ul><li>Warrant: Unstated because..... </li></ul><ul><li>The authors are published experts which presupposes their opinion is tested and valid, and reliable sources of information </li></ul>
  14. 14. Warrant ( stated ) – Example 2 <ul><li>Claim: Laws making marijuana illegal should be repealed </li></ul><ul><li>Support: People should have the right to use any substance they wish </li></ul><ul><li>Warrant: No Laws should prevent citizens from exercising their rights  </li></ul><ul><li>The warrant here is stated because it appeals to ethical and legal issue/ values implicit in Western Society. It also clearly links the warrant with the claim by using the topic word ‘laws’. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Warrants can be broad statements <ul><li>Note: The warrants are in many cases more broader statements of belief than the claim. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. they can be used to support many different claims. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Warrant: “No Laws should prevent citizens from exercising their rights” can be used to justify claims against many laws </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Audience <ul><li>All arguments are composed with the audience in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Often an argument is made in response to another writer or speaker whose claims needs to be supported or opposed </li></ul><ul><li>Writers of arguments should always anticipate a disagreeing reader. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Authors audience question check list <ul><li>Self- check questions about the audience for the writer </li></ul><ul><li>Why/ Has this audience requested this report? </li></ul><ul><li>What do they want to get out of it? </li></ul><ul><li>How much do they already know about the subject? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they divided or agreed on the subject? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their emotional involvement with the issues? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Importance of Credibility <ul><li>Credibility - the key issue in winning over an audience </li></ul><ul><li>“ intelligence, character and goodwill” attributes which produce credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Ethos, Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>The writer must convince the audience of their following </li></ul><ul><li>attributes </li></ul><ul><li>knowledgeable and well informed </li></ul><ul><li>Truthful, morally upright and dependable </li></ul><ul><li>Good intentions, taking into account the needs of others, as well as himself. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Other factors in successful argument <ul><li>Other issues in Argument Discourse: </li></ul><ul><li>Defining key terms </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing an Appropriate Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing and documenting Appropriate sources </li></ul><ul><li>Analysing assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding logical errors </li></ul><ul><li>Editing for appropriate language </li></ul>
  20. 20. Defining Key Terms <ul><li>Defining Key Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Many controversial questions will be primarily of definition </li></ul><ul><li>For example, topics such as..... </li></ul><ul><li>Racism, Pornography, Poverty, Freedom of Speech etc. must be defined before solutions are proposed. </li></ul><ul><li>This is vital so the audience understands how you are using the key term </li></ul>
  21. 21. Choosing an appropriate claim <ul><li>Choosing an appropriate claim </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify to audience what the change in thought/ action you want to achieve is </li></ul><ul><li>Consider audiences current thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Be realistic about the extent of change you hope to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Be realistic about how far the audience is able to effect that change </li></ul>
  22. 22. Sources for support <ul><li>Choosing and Documenting appropriate sources: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Submit evidence of careful research </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate you have been conscientious in.... </li></ul><ul><li>Finding the best authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Giving credit </li></ul><ul><li>Attempting to arrive at the truth </li></ul>
  23. 23. Analyzing Warrant assumptions <ul><li>Analyzing Assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the warrant or assumption carefully </li></ul><ul><li>The warrant need not be expressed if the audience will reasonably not need proof </li></ul><ul><li>Be prepared to defend any other warrant you include </li></ul>
  24. 24. Avoiding Logical Errors <ul><li>Avoiding Logical Errors </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to use..... </li></ul><ul><li>- Inductive reasoning processes </li></ul><ul><li>- Deductive reasoning processes </li></ul><ul><li>These will help you to determine truth and validity of yours and other arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and correct faulty reasoning </li></ul>
  25. 25. Editing for appropriate language <ul><li>Editing for Appropriate Language </li></ul><ul><li>Careful use of language necessary to ..... </li></ul><ul><li>- Define terms </li></ul><ul><li>- Express personal style </li></ul><ul><li>- Reflect clarity of thought </li></ul><ul><li>- Avoid clichés </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid word choices that turn your audience off your ideas </li></ul>
  26. 26. And Finally...... <ul><li>Good luck with your Argumentative Discourse! </li></ul>