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Firstaid
 

Firstaid

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  • Welcome to the world of First Aid! After this lecture, you will know more about First Aid.

Firstaid Firstaid Presentation Transcript

  • First Aid Notes… Lectures...
  • Content Page
    • Introduction (First Aid)
    • Wounds
    • Bleedings
    • Fractures
    • Burns
    • Cardio - Pulmonary Resuscitation
    • Shock
    • Asthma Attack
  • Introduction (First Aid)
    • What is First Aid?
    • Aims of First Aid
    • The ABC of Life
    • First Aid Priority
    • 4 stages of consciousness
    • Examination Techniques
  • What is First Aid?
    • Initial help given to a casualty before the arrival of professionals
  • Aims of First Aid
    • To preserve life
    • To promote recovery
    • To prevent others injuries
  • The ABC of Life
    • Airway- Check the airways are open and clear, no obstructions
    • Breathing- Look and see that the chest is rising and falling. Sound of breathing
    • Circulation- Check for pulse
  • First Aid Priority
    • Safety
    • Consciousness
    • Pulse & Respiration
    • Bleeding
    • Fractures
    • Poisoning
    • Shock
    • Disposal of casualty
  • 4 stages of consciousness
    • Fully Conscious
    • Drowsiness
    • Stupor
    • Coma
  • Examination Techniques
    • Hands- Check nails and palms for anaemia
    • Pulse- Check the rate, rhythm & volume
    • Blood pressure- Hypotension is low, hypotension is high
    • Head- Eyes, ears,lips and mouth
    • Neck- check not broken or bruised
    • Chest- Lungs and heart
    • Head- Eyes, ears,lips and mouth
    • Neck- check not broken or bruised
    • Chest- Lungs and heart
    • Abdomen- Liver, spleen, kidneys
    • Limps- Look, feel, move
  • Wounds
    • Incised wound
    • Laceration
    • Abrasion(Graze)
    • Contusion(Bruise)
    • Puncture wound
    • Gunshot wound
    • Treatments
  • Incised wound
    • Straight Cut
    • Profuse bleeding
    • Caused by blade/ broken glass
  • Laceration
    • Rough tear by crushing on ripping forces
    • Bleed less profusely than incised wound
    • Often contaminated by germs
  • Abrasion(Graze)
    • Caused by sliding fall of friction burn
    • Superficial wound
  • Contusion(Bruise)
    • Blunt blow
    • Caused by hammer etc.
  • Puncture wound
    • Caused by nail and needle
    • Small site of entry deep track of internal damage
    • Risk of infection is high
  • Gunshot wound
    • Caused by bullet
  • Treatments
    • Remove any clothing from around the wound
    • Clean the skin round the wound and irrigate the wound to remove any dirt
    • Cover it with a clean dressing
  • Dressing
    • When applying sterile dressing…
    • Remove the wrapping
    • Unfold the dressing pad, holding the bandage on each side of the pad. Put the pad directly on the wound.
    • Wind the short end of the bandage once around the limb and the dressing to secure the pad, leaving the tail hanging free
    • To secure the bandage, tie the ends in a reef knot, tied over the pad to exert firm pressure on the wound
    • Check the circulation to the extremity of the injured limb
  • Bleedings
    • Arterial bleeding
    • Venous bleeding
    • Capillary bleeding
    • Treatment for bleeding
    • Signs and symptoms of internal bleeding
  • Arterial bleeding
    • Bright red
    • Spurts out
    • Under high pressure
    • Richly oxgenated
  • Venous bleeding
    • Dark red
    • Gushing out
    • Under lesser pressure than arterial bleeding
    • Given up its oxygen
  • Capillary bleeding
    • Red in colour
    • Oozing out
  • Treatment for bleeding
    • Severe wounds
    • Apply direct pressure to the wound in order to stop the flow of the blood
    • Apply sterile dressing with firm pressure to control the bleeding
    • If there is no fracture, try to raise the limb that has been wounded & support it
  • Signs and symptoms of internal bleeding
    • Pale, clammy skin
    • Rapid and weak pulse
    • Rapid, shallow breathing
    • Tenderness in abdomen
    • Any pain of discomfort
    • Nausea and/or vomiting
    • Shock
  • Fractures
    • What is a fracture?
    • Types of fractures
    • Signs
    • Treatment
  • What is a fracture?
    • A closed, or simple, fracture is where the broken bone ends remain beneath the skin, whereas an open, or compound, fracture is where both ends of the bone protrude through the skin
  • Types of fractures
    • Simple fracture
    • Compound fracture
    • Complicated fracture ( includes organs)
    • Neck fracture
    • Skull fracture
    • Fractured ribs
    • Greenstick Fracture(happen to small children )
  • Signs
    • Swelling
    • Deformity or projecting bone ends
    • Severe pain, made worse by movement
    • Bruised
    • Tenderness
  • Treatment
    • Do not try to force the bones back together again but seek medical assistance
    • Treat all open wounds with a clean dressing
    • Splint the fractured area in exactly the position that you find it in, pending removal to hospital or the arrival of expert medical aid
    • If the arm is fracture, splint it, and then set up a sling if the arm can be moved across the chest.
    • Do not move the victim at all if you suspect a spinal injury
  • Burns
    • - Type of burn
    • First degree
    • Second degree
    • Third degree
  • First degree
    • Top layer of skin
    • Skin turns red and then peels off
    • Treatment: Rehydrating creams, Cool water at regular intervals
  • Second degree
    • Deeper damage to the skin, causing blisters. Shock.
    • Treatment: Use antibacterial dressing, or leave wound undressed but kept scrupulously clean.
  • Third degree
    • Damage to all layers of skin
    • Treatment: Requires specialist treatment
  • Cardio- Pulmonary Resuscitation
    • What is CPR?
    • Steps of CPR
  • What is CPR?
    • Used when the patient has stopped breathing and when there is no pulse
    • Only be performed by someone who has had training in this method
  • Steps of CPR
    • Tilt victim’s head backwards in order to open the airway
    • Pinch the victim’s nose with thumb and forefinger
    • Take a deep breath, place your mouth tightly over the victim’s mouth and blow air from yours into their mouth
    • Stop blowing when the victim’s chest is expanded
    • Lift your hand from the victim and watch for the chest to fall. Give the victim further quick breaths, taking a deep breath yourself between each one.
    • Carry on blowing into the victim’s lungs at a rate of 12 breaths per minute until the victim begins to breathe on his or her own.
    • You can stop blowing at this stage.
  • Shock
    • What is shock?
    • Signs
    • Treatment
  • What is shock?
    • Rapid lowering of blood pressure owing to lack of circulating volume to vital body organs, such as the brain, heart, liver and kidneys.
  • Signs
    • Weak and giddy
    • Nausea/ may vomit
    • Thirst
    • Rapid shallow breathing
    • Weak Pulse
  • Treatment
    • Lay casualty down
    • Reassure the casualty
    • Raise and support the leg
    • Loosen tight clothing
    • Keep casualty warm
    • Check and record the casualty’s breathing, pulse, level of response
  • Asthma attack
    • Treatment
    • Reassure and calm casualty
    • Find a position that the person finds comfortable
    • Tell him/her to try taking slow, deep breaths
    • Help to find the reliever(Blue)
    • Allow casualty to use it and it will take effect within minutes
    • If attack eases within 5-10 minutes, encourage him/her to take another dose and breathe slowly and deeply
    • Tell casualty to inform doctor if attack is very severe or first attack
    • End of presentation!!
    • Hope you have learnt more
    • about First Aid !!!