Chapter 1: Basic Elements of a Medical Word

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Chapter 1: Basic Elements of a Medical Word

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Basic Elements of a Medical Word<br />Created by: Courtney E. Padgett<br />Sources:<br />Barbara A. Gylys and Mary Ellen Wedding. Medical Terminology Systems: A Systems Approach. F. A. Davis Company, 6th Edition, 2009.<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 1: Basic Elements of a Medical Word<br />Medical Terminology originated as early as the first century B.C. by Hippocrates. He is known as the father of western medicine. <br />Chapter Overview<br />Medical Word Elements<br /><ul><li>Word Roots
  3. 3. Combining Forms
  4. 4. Suffixes
  5. 5. Prefixes</li></ul>Basic Rules<br /><ul><li>Defining Medical Words
  6. 6. Building Medical Words</li></ul>Pronunciation Guidelines<br />
  7. 7. Medical Word Elements<br />Amedical wordconsists of some or all of the following elements:<br />Word Root Combining Form<br /> Suffix Prefix<br /><ul><li>Identify the four word elements used to build medical words.
  8. 8. Divide medical words into their component parts.
  9. 9. Apply the basic rules to define and build medical words.
  10. 10. Locate the pronunciation guidelines chart and interpret pronunciation marks.
  11. 11. Pronounce medical terms in this chapter.
  12. 12. Demonstrate your knowledge of this chapter by completing assigned learning activities.</li></ul>How you combine these elements, and whether all or some of them are present in a medical term, determines the meaning of a word.<br />Chapter 1 Objectives<br />
  13. 13. Word Roots<br />A word root is the foundation of a medical term and contains its primary meaning.<br /> All medical terms have at least one root.<br /> Mostword roots are derived from Greek or Latin language. Because of the this, two different root may have the same meaning.<br />As a general rule:<br /> Greek roots are used to build words that describe a disease, condition, treatment, or diagnosis.<br /> Latin roots are used to build words that describe anatomical structures.<br />Example:<br />
  14. 14. Combining Forms<br />A combining form is created when a word root is combined with a vowel.<br /> The word root plus this combining vowel is what<br /> creates the combining form.<br /> The combining form is the basic foundation to which<br /> other word elements are added to build a complete<br /> medical word.<br /> p. 3 (table )<br />The vowel is known as a combining vowel, an “o”, this vowel has no meaning but enables to word elements to be connected.<br />Example:<br />
  15. 15. Suffixes<br />A suffix is a word element placed at the end of a word that changes the meaning of the word.<br /> In medical terms a suffix usually describes a pathology (disease or abnormality), symptoms, surgical or diagnostic procedures, or part of speech.<br />These suffixes completely change the meaning of the medical word.<br />See the full list of suffixes on p. 14<br />Example:<br />
  16. 16. Prefixes<br />A prefix is a word attached to a word or word root.<br /> Not all medical terms have a prefix.<br /> A prefix usually indicates a number, time,<br /> position, direction or negation. <br />Adding and/or changing a prefix completely changes the meaning of the medical word.<br />See the full list of prefixes on p. 30<br />Example:<br />
  17. 17. Medical Words<br /> There are three basic steps for defining medical words.<br /> There are three basic rules for building medical words.<br />Guidelines<br />Defining and Buildingmedical words are crucial skills in mastering medical terminology.<br />Defining Medical words:<br />Building Medical words:<br />
  18. 18. Defining Medical Words<br />Gastroenteritis<br /> 1.) Inflammation 2.) stomach 3.) intestine<br />Inflammation of stomach and intestine.<br />Osteochondritis<br /> 1.) Inflammation 2.) bone 3.) cartilage<br />Inflammation of bone and cartilage.<br />Three Basic Steps<br />1.) Define the suffix (last part of word)<br /> 2.) Define the first part of the word (which could be a word, word root, combining form, or prefix)<br /> 3.) Define the middle parts of the word.<br />Examples:<br />
  19. 19. Building Medical Words<br />Three Basic Rules<br />Rule: 1.) A word root links a suffix that beings with a vowel.<br />Ex:<br />Rule: 2.) A combining form (root + o) links a suffix that beings with a vowel.<br />Ex:<br />Rule: 3.) A combining form links a root to another root to form compound words. *this rule holds true even if the next root starts with a vowel.<br />Ex:<br />
  20. 20. Pronunciation Guidelines<br />Assignments:<br />pgs. 7-12<br />Learning Activities<br />

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