At theend, I wanttoknowthebehavior and usage of socialnetworks in crisis situationsfromgovernmental agencies in ordertoknowiftheinformationpublishedisusefulfortheconstruction of aninstitutional/collectivememory.
Study of Social Network Sites in crises
Social Networks during crises: aStudy Pablo A. Acuña 10/11/2011 References on these slides: http://bit.ly/twtstudy
ObjectiveAnalyze the behavior of emergency governmentalagencies on social networks in crisis situationsSome questions that arise:- Are social networks used in crises? If so, - When are they used? (e.g. Pre-crisis, during crisis or post-crisis) - What kind of information is published?- Is there a communication with other users? If so, - With who? General public and/or other agencies? - Is it a one-way or two-way communication?- Other…References: http://bit.ly/twtstudy DEI Meeting – 10/nov/2011
Possible data• Quantitative: – # of publications – # of retweets, reply/mentions, shares, likes, etc.• Qualitative: – Type of content published – Meta-data of posts (date and time, location, etc.) – Multimedia elements – Communication and interaction with other accountsReferences: http://bit.ly/twtstudy DEI Meeting – 10/nov/2011
Methodology• Grounded theory: An inductive qualitative research method which starts from a set of data and aims to develop a theory. It consists on an iterative process of data collection and analysis in order to extract a theory [Glasser & Strauss, 1967; Corbin & Strauss, 2008]. – Stages: • Open coding • Development of concepts • Grouping concepts into categories • Formation of a theory• Content analysis: “Any technique for making inferences by objectively and sistematically identifying specified characteristics of messages.” [Holsti, 1969]References: http://bit.ly/twtstudy DEI Meeting – 10/nov/2011
Methodology• Coding Coding is a process to analyze text content that “involves interacting with data, making comparisons between data, and so on, and in doing so, deriving concepts to stand for those data, then developing those concepts in terms of their properties and dimensions” *Corbin et al., 2008].• Common procedure: – Based on a set of collected data, coding can be a priori or emergent. It usually requires different analysts to code the data (or a subset), compare and consolidate the categories, reliability test on coded data and repetitions of the procedure in order to achieve a reliable analysis.• Similar approaches: – Action-object pairing with coding techniques [Zhang & Jansen, 2008] – Noticing, collecting and thinking [Seidel, 1998]References: http://bit.ly/twtstudy DEI Meeting – 10/nov/2011
Related studies Man-made/technological crisesStudies & Events Quant. Qual. Description[Vieweg et al., 2010] Red River Flooding, 2009, USA Qualitative data coding from X both events. Use of E-Data Oklahoma Fires, 2009, USA Viewer for iterations[Starbird & Palen, Red River Flooding, 2009, USA Coding of individual tweets2010] X X and tweet streams and Oklahoma Fires, 2009, USA analysis of RTs, URLs, etc.[Hughes & Palen, Gustav Hurricane, 2008 Quantitative analysis of # of2009] tweets, tweets per user, Ike Hurricane, 2008 replies , URLs and new users. X DNC, 2008, USA RNC, 2008, USA[Starbird & Palen, Haiti Earthquake, 2010 A priori coding for analyzing a2011] X particular category (#TtT)[Caragea et al., 2011] Haiti Earthquake, 2010 Classification by keywords and X machine learning algorithm[Bajpai & Jaiswal, Thailand protests, 2010 Content coding based on2011] X categories from literature[Vieweg et al., 2008] Virginia Tech Shootings, 2007 X Empirical based on messages[Gaffney, 2010] Iran Elections, 2009 X Quantitative study of twitterReferences: http://bit.ly/twtstudy DEI Meeting – 10/nov/2011
Related studies (2)Studies & Events Quant. Qual. Description[Mendoza et al., Chile earthquake, 2010 Study of Retweet usage, and2010] X X empirical analysis of rumors[Borge-Holthoefer et #15m movement, Spain Evolution and popularity ofal., 2011] X twitter during #15m[Qu et al., 2011] China earthquake, 2010 X X Distributed codingGeneral studies of social networks during crises situations:*Tapia et al., 2011+ : “Seeking the trustworthy tweet” (short Interviews with organizationsname) X to discover mismatchs and future directions[Latonero & Shklovski, 2010+: “Emergency management and Interview with social mediasocial media evangelism” X “innovator” and findingsNot related to crises:- “Twitter use by the U.S. Congress” *Golbeck et al., 2009]: Qualitative analysis using coding to categorize congressmen behavior on twitter- “Twitter power: Tweets as Electronic word of mouth” *Jansen et al., 2009]: Qualitative analysis of twitter publications with respect to brands, using a coding technique and an action-object approachReferences: http://bit.ly/twtstudy DEI Meeting – 10/nov/2011
Ideas & proposal• A multi-step approach consisting on: – Selecting a set of governmental agencies involved in crisis management from different countries and with diverse competences (with accounts on social networking sites) • EMA, OEP, police, national guard, etc. – Data collection using social networks APIs from past events – Iterative open-coding process to define initial categories • Various coders? • A priori coding based on literature (on/off-topic, crises stages, …) – Validation and consolidation of categories • If applies, definition of subcategories and relation of concepts – Perform reliability tests – Repeat the process, use a present or close event to validate coding.References: http://bit.ly/twtstudy DEI Meeting – 10/nov/2011
Possible events to study• The crisis events to analyze may have the following characteristics: – Recent events from the past two years or less – Events from different locations and reach/scope – Events with different types based on the EM-DAT classification (http://www.emdat.be)References: http://bit.ly/twtstudy DEI Meeting – 10/nov/2011
Practical issues• Technological – Public availability of social network publications depends on the site preferences and each account’s settings – Time of publications and availability: for instance, Twitter search API only allows retrieving recent data with a maximum of 3200 tweets• Resources – The coding technique requires multiple coders to code content iteratively, comparison of categories and reliability assessmentReferences: http://bit.ly/twtstudy DEI Meeting – 10/nov/2011
Questions? Comments?References: http://bit.ly/twtstudy DEI Meeting – 10/nov/2011
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