View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
Hate Crime Victimization: Implications for Mental Health Practice Edward Dunbar, Ed.D. Pacific Psychological Associates and University of California, Los Angeles Tracy Marsh, Ph.D. Walden University
In 1990, the Hate Crimes Statistics Act was enacted “ to collect data on crimes committed because of the victim's race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity.”
Statistics differ based on source (national, state, local, research-based).
The Department of Justice estimates significant underreporting of GLBT hate crimes by as much as 24x -28x
Hate Crimes Legislation Orange = Hate Crimes Laws Include Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Yellow = Hate Crimes Laws Include Sexual Orientation White = No Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity Hate Crimes Law
12% 14% 20% 16% 1 6% 14% 1 7% 1 6% 16% 14% 16% (percentage of all hate crimes reported) National: Total Offenses
Howard: “I robbed a homosexual on Santa Monica, I had been doin’ it all night on … getting a lot of those guys …. I was with 5 other guys when we picked him. I had robbed lots of homosexuals because they have the money…I know all of them …
Dunbar: “So do you feel bad about the guy you beat up being disabled?”
Dan: “No… I am upset that I won’t get a job now.”
Composite Offender Profile: Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes
Mean 25 th % 50 th % 75 th %
Offender Age 28.3 19 25 33
Offender Gender Men: 90% Women: 10%
Los Angeles City 2000 hate crime offenders (n=163)
Crime Scene Indicators: Offenders of Sexual Orientation Hate Crimes
Mileage: home to crime scene: 71% less than 1 mile (Mean 3.2 miles)
Goal of this phase of treatment is establishment of effective somatic desensitization skills to trauma triggers and the initiation of a cognitive re-structuring of affects and “automatic thoughts” associated with victimization and outgroup contact experiences.