IT Essentials Chapter 9

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IT Essentials Chapter 9

  1. 1. Chapter 9: Security IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0 ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 1
  2. 2. Purpose of this Presentation To provide to instructors an overview of Chapter 9:  List of chapter objectives  Overview of the chapter contents, including student worksheets student activities some potential student misconceptions  Reflection/Activities for instructors to complete to prepare to teach  Additional resources ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 2
  3. 3. Chapter 9 Objectives  9.1 Explain why security is important  9.2 Describe security threats  9.3 Identify security procedures  9.4 Identify common preventive maintenance techniques for security  9.5 Troubleshoot security ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3
  4. 4. Chapter 9 Worksheets and Activity  9.1 Worksheet: Security Attacks  9.2.1 Worksheet: Third-Party Anti-Virus Software  9.2.3 Activity: Adware, Spyware, and Grayware  9.4.2 Worksheet: Operating System Updates  9.5.6 Worksheet: Gather Information from the Customer ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4
  5. 5. The Importance of Security  Private information, company secrets, financial data, computer equipment, and items of national security are placed at risk if proper security procedures are not followed.  A technician’s primary responsibilities include data and network security. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5
  6. 6. Security Threats Types of attacks to computer security:  Physical Theft, damage, or destruction to computer equipment.  Data Removal, corruption, denial of access, unauthorized access, or theft of information. Potential threats to computer security:  Internal threats Employees can cause a malicious threat or an accidental threat.  External threats Outside users can attack in an unstructured or structured way. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 6
  7. 7. Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses  A computer virus is software code that is deliberately created by an attacker. Viruses may collect sensitive information or may alter or destroy information.  A worm is a self-replicating program that uses the network to duplicate its code to the hosts on the network. At a minimum, worms consume bandwidth in a network.  A Trojan horse is technically a worm and is named for its method of getting past computer defenses by pretending to be something useful.  Anti-virus software is designed to detect, disable, and remove viruses, worms, and Trojan horses before they infect a computer. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7
  8. 8. Web Security Attackers may use any of these tools to install a program on a computer.  ActiveX Controls interactivity on web pages  Java Allows applets to run within a browser Example: a calculator or a counter  JavaScript Interacts with HTML source code to allow interactive web sites Example: a rotating banner or a popup window ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8
  9. 9. Adware, Spyware, and Grayware  Typically installed without the user’s knowledge, these programs collect information stored on the computer, change the computer configuration, or open extra windows on the computer and all without the user’s consent. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9
  10. 10. Denial of Service (DoS)  Prevents users from accessing normal services  Sends enough requests to overload a resource or even stopping its operation  Ping of Death is a series of repeated, larger than normal pings intended to crash the receiving computer  E-mail Bomb is a large quantity of bulk e-mail that overwhelms the e-mail server preventing users from accessing e-mail  Distributed DoS is an attack launched from many computers, called zombies ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10
  11. 11. Spam and Popup Windows  Spam is unsolicited email that can be used to send harmful links or deceptive content.  Popups are windows that automatically open and are designed to capture your attention and lead you to advertising sites. Use anti-virus software, options in e-mail software, popup blockers, and common indications of spam to combat these. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11
  12. 12. Social Engineering  Never give out a password  Always ask for the ID of the unknown person  Restrict access of unexpected visitors  Escort all visitors through the facility ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12
  13. 13. TCP/IP Attacks TCP/IP is used to control all Internet communications. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 13
  14. 14. Computer Disposal and Recycling  Erase all hard drives, then use a third-party tool to fully erase all data.  The only way to fully ensure that data cannot be recovered from a hard drive is to carefully shatter the platters with a hammer and safely dispose of the pieces.  To destroy software media (floppy disks and CDs), use a shredding machine designed for shredding these materials. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14
  15. 15. Security is Strengthened in Layers ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 15
  16. 16. Security Policy Questions to answer in writing a local security policy:  What assets require protection?  What are the possible threats?  What should be done in the event of a security breach? ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16
  17. 17. Protecting Equipment Since stealing the whole PC is the easiest way to steal data, physical computer equipment must be secured.  Control access to facilities  Use cable locks  Lock telecommunication rooms  Use security screws  Use security cages around equipment  Label and install sensors on equipment ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17
  18. 18. Protecting Data Methods of securing data:  Password protection  Data encryption  Port protection  Data backups  File system security ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18
  19. 19. Levels of Wireless Security ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19
  20. 20. Installing Updates and Patches A technician recognizes when new updates and patches are available and knows how to install them. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 20
  21. 21. Updating Protection Programs Create a Launch Click Run a restore protection update scan point program button Yes Review Need to manuall Manually scan y treat treat or report or delete delete? No Schedule future automatic updates and scans ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21
  22. 22. Operating System Updates and Patches Create a Check for Download Install restore updates updates update point Yes Prompte d to Restart restart? computer No Test all aspects to ensure the update has not caused issues ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22
  23. 23. Troubleshooting Process Step 1 Gather data from the customer Step 2 Verify the obvious issues Step 3 Try quick solutions first Step 4 Gather data from the computer Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution Step 6 Close with the customer ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 23
  24. 24. 1. Gather Data from the Customer  Customer information Company name, contact name, address, phone number  Computer configuration Protection software, OS, network environment, connection type  Description of problem Open-ended questions What changes were made to the security settings? Closed-ended questions Are the protection software signature files up-to-date? ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24
  25. 25. 2. Verify the Obvious Issues Examine the most obvious causes of a problem.  A visual inspection can resolve some issues. Broken locks, signs of tampering, missing equipment  Has an attacker accessed the equipment? Unfamiliar login address in login windows, unexplained entries in system security logs, missing or additional patch cords  Wireless network issues Changes in access point configuration, unexplained connections in the access point status display ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 25
  26. 26. 3. Try Quick Solutions First  Check that all cables are connected to the proper locations  Unseat and then reconnect cables and connectors  Reboot the computer or network device  Login as a different user  Check that the anti-virus and spyware signature files are up- to-date  Scan computer with protection software  Check computer for the latest OS patches and updates  Disconnect from the network  Change your password ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 26
  27. 27. 4. Gather Data from the Computer  Third-party software, such as anti-virus and anti- spyware applications, can report on the files that have been infected.  There are several tools available in the operating system that a technician can use: Verify that the signature file is current. Check the security software log file for entries. Task Manager is used to check for unknown applications that are running. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 27
  28. 28. 5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution 1. Evaluate the information gathered from the customer and from the laptop 2. Determine possible solutions 3. Implement the best solution 4. If a proposed solution doesn’t correct the problem, reset the computer back to the original state and try another proposed solution. NOTE: Never ask a customer to reveal a password. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28
  29. 29. 6. Close with the Customer  Discuss with customer the solution implemented.  Have customer verify problem is solved.  Provide all paperwork to customer.  Document steps of solution in work order and in technician’s journal.  Document components used in repair.  Document time spent to resolve the problem. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29
  30. 30. Common Problems and Solutions Problem Symptom Possible Solution Set Windows Automatic Update to run A computer runs updates and requires daily at a convenient time, such as rebooting at inconvenient times. lunchtime. A wireless network is compromised even Upgrade to 128-bit WEP security, WAP, or though 64-bit WEP encryption is in use. EAP-Cisco security. After recovering any sensitive data, A stolen laptop is returned by the police. destroy the hard drive and recycle the It is no longer needed by the user. computer. A user complains that his system is This may be a denial of service attack. At receiving hundreds or thousands of junk the e-mail server, filter out e-mail from e-mails daily. the sender. A printer repair person no one Contact security or police. Advise users remembers seeing before is observed never to hide passwords near their work looking under keyboards and on area. desktops. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 30
  31. 31. Chapter 9 Summary Following proper security procedures will protect computers and network equipment, and the data they contain, from physical danger such as fire and theft, as well as from loss and damage by employees and attackers.  Security threats can come from inside or outside of an organization.  Viruses and worms are common threats that attack data.  Develop and maintain a security plan to protect both data and physical equipment from loss.  Keep operating systems and applications up to date and secure with patches and service packs. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31
  32. 32. Instructor Training Activities ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32
  33. 33. Activities for Instructor Training 1. Take the Quiz provided in Chapter 9 course content. 2. Conduct Internet research to pre-screen online resources for students to use in completing the following student worksheets: 9.1 Worksheet: Security Attacks 9.2.1 Worksheet: Third-Party Anti-Virus Software 9.4.2 Worksheet: Operating System Updates 3. Brainstorm a list of at least 4 additional troubleshooting scenarios to provide students more opportunities to practice this skill. For an example, refer to the student worksheet, 9.5.2 Gather Information from the Customer. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 33
  34. 34. Instructor Training Discussion  Share with the other instructors the list of online resources found that students might use in completing the research activity worksheets.  Share with the other instructors the list of additional troubleshooting scenarios.  Participate in a role-playing activity of one of the troubleshooting scenarios.  Following the role-playing activity, discuss the different ways you might incorporate role-playing activities into your classroom. Share ideas of how to make the student successful in these activities. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34
  35. 35. Additional Resources  Whatis?com: IT Encyclopedia and Learning Center http://whatis.com  TechTarget: The Most Targeted IT Media http://techtarget.com  ZDNet: Tech News, Blogs and White Papers for IT Professionals http://www.zdnet.com  HowStuffWorks: It's Good to Know http://computer.howstuffworks.com  CNET.com http://www.cnet.com  PC World http://www.pcworld.com  ComputerWorld http://www.computerworld.com  WIRED NEWS http://www.wired.com  eWEEK.com http://www.eweek.com ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 35
  36. 36. Q and A ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 36
  37. 37. ITE PC v4.0 Chapter 9 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37

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