Psychology Final Project


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this is my final project for psychology...didnt have enough time to tinker with it a bit with all the other finals i have to study for....ok

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Psychology Final Project

  1. 1. Psychology Final Project Julius Mariano
  2. 2. Psychology <ul><li>Psychology is the study of the mind and it’s mental processes. Psychology shares goals associated with scientific studies: to describe phenomena, explain, predict, and control. Although researchers in this field apply the scientific method for their studies, psychology cannot be classified as a science since it presents no quantitative evidence and bases most of its theories and conclusions from observations alone. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Psychodynamic Psychology <ul><li>School of Psychology that focuses on the consciousness, particularly on the unconscious </li></ul>
  4. 4. Notable Psychoanalysts <ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Jung </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Major Contributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychosexual development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Id, ego, superego </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Psychosexual Development <ul><li>Freud’s theory of personality development that centered on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on the individual psyche. </li></ul><ul><li>At particular points in the developmental process, a single body part is particularly sensitive to sexual, erotic stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to resolve a conflict during a stage results in fixation. Normal progression through the stages by resolving each conflict and moving on, results in little libido remaining in each stage. But if one fixates at a particular stage, the method of obtaining satisfaction which characterized the stage will dominate and affect their adult personality. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Stages of Development <ul><li>Oral Stage (0-1 yr) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The oral stage begins at birth, when the oral cavity is the primary focus of the libido. The child preoccupies himself with nursing, with the pleasure of sucking and accepting things into the mouth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The oral character who is frustrated at this stage, whose mother refused to nurse him on demand or who truncated nursing sessions early, is characterized by pessimism, envy, suspicion and sarcasm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The overindulged oral character, whose nursing urges were always and often excessively satisfied, is optimistic, gullible, and is full of admiration for others around him. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Stages of Development <ul><li>Anal Stage (1-2 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With the advent of toilet training comes the child's obsession with the erogenous zone of the anus and with the retention or expulsion of bodily wastes. This represents a classic conflict between the id, which derives pleasure from expulsion of bodily wastes, and the ego and superego, which represent the practical and societal pressures to control the bodily functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child meets the conflict between the parent's demands and the child's desires and physical capabilities in one of two ways: Either the child puts up a fight or simply refuses to go. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child who wants to fight takes pleasure in excreting maliciously, perhaps just before or just after being placed on the toilet. If the parents are too lenient and the child manages to derive pleasure and success from this expulsion, it will result in the formation of an anal expulsive character. This character is generally messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, and defiant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversely, a child may opt to retain feces, thereby spiting his parents while enjoying the pleasurable pressure of the built-up feces on his intestine. If this tactic succeeds and the child is overindulged, he will develop into an anal retentive character. This character is neat, precise, orderly, careful, stingy, withholding, obstinate, meticulous, and passive-aggressive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper toilet training permanently affects the individual propensities to possession and attitudes towards authority. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Stages of Development <ul><li>Phallic Stage (3-6 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>It is the setting for the greatest, most crucial sexual conflict. In this stage, the child's erogenous zone is the genital region. As the child becomes more interested in his genitals, and in the genitals of others, conflict arises. The conflict, labeled the Oedipus Complex in boys and Electra Complex in girls involves the child's unconscious desire to possess the opposite-sexed parent and to eliminate the same-sexed one. </li></ul><ul><li>In boys, the Oedipus conflict stems from his natural love for his mother, a love which becomes sexual as his libidal energy transfers from the anal region to his genitals. Unfortunately for the boy, his father stands in the way of this love. The boy therefore feels aggression and envy towards this rival, his father, and also feels fear that the father will strike back at him. As the boy has noticed that women, his mother in particular, have no penises, he is struck by a great fear that his father will remove his penis, too. The anxiety is aggravated by the threats and discipline he incurs. This castration anxiety outstrips his desire for his mother, so he represses the desire. Moreover, although the boy sees that though he cannot posses his mother, because his father does, he can posses her vicariously by identifying with his father and becoming as much like him as possible: this identification indoctrinates the boy into his appropriate sexual role in life. A lasting trace of the Oedipal conflict is the superego, the voice of the father within the boy. </li></ul><ul><li>On the Electra complex, the girl's discovery that she, along with her mother and all other women, lack the penis which her father and other men posses. Her love for her father then becomes both erotic and envious, as she yearns for a penis of her own. She comes to blame her mother for her perceived castration, and is struck by penis envy, the apparent counterpart to the boy's castration anxiety. The resolution of the Electra complex is far less clear-cut than the resolution of the Oedipus complex is in males; Freud stated that the resolution comes much later and is never truly complete. Just as the boy learned his sexual role by identifying with his father, so the girl learns her role by identifying with her mother in an attempt to posses her father vicariously. Resolving the conflicts continues development but the girl may slightly be fixated in this stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixation at the phallic stage develops a phallic character, who is reckless, resolute, self-assured, and narcissistic--excessively vain and proud. The failure to resolve the conflict can also cause a person to be afraid or incapable of close love; As well, Freud postulated that fixation could be a root cause of homosexuality. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stages of Development <ul><li>Latency Period (6-12 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period in which the sexual drive lies dormant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a period of unparalleled repression of sexual desires and erogenous impulses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During the latency period, children pour this repressed libidal energy into asexual pursuits such as school, athletics, and same-sex friendships. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Stages of Development <ul><li>Genital Stage (12- yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libido is once again focused on the genitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest turns to heterosexual relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The less energy the child has left invested in unresolved psychosexual developments, the greater his capacity will be to develop normal relationships with the opposite sex. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If, however, he remains fixated, particularly on the phallic stage, his development will be troubled as he struggles with further repression and defenses. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Id, Ego, Superego <ul><li>Divisions of the psyche </li></ul><ul><li>All three work together to produce complex behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>All three needs to be well-balanced to have good mental energy and health </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Iceberg Model
  14. 14. The Id <ul><li>Functions in the irrational and emotional part of the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>At birth a baby’s mind is all Id – “ want want want .” </li></ul><ul><li>The primitive mind. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains all the basic needs and feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the source for libido </li></ul><ul><li>It has only one rule: “I want it and I want it all now”.  </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Superego <ul><li>The moral part of the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>The Superego is the embodiment of parental and societal values. </li></ul><ul><li>It stores and enforces rules. </li></ul><ul><li>It constantly strives for perfection, even though this perfection ideal may be quite far from reality or possibility.  </li></ul><ul><li>Provides rules for good behavior, and standards of excellence </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Ego <ul><li>Functions with the rational part of the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ego develops out of growing awareness that you can’t always get what you want. </li></ul><ul><li>The Ego relates to the real world </li></ul><ul><li>The Ego realizes the need for compromise and negotiates between the Id and the Superego.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Ego's job is to get the Id's pleasures but to be reasonable and bear the long-term consequences in mind.  </li></ul><ul><li>The Ego denies both instant gratification and pious delaying of gratification.  </li></ul>
  17. 17. Carl Jung <ul><li>Major Contributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal and Collective unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Archetypes </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Personal Unconscious <ul><li>The personal unconscious is like most people's understanding of the unconscious in that it includes both memories that are easily brought to mind and those that have been suppressed for some reason. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains a person's repressed, forgotten or ignored experiences </li></ul>
  19. 19. Collective Unconscious <ul><li>The contents of the collective unconscious have never been in consciousness, and therefore have never been individually acquired, but owe their existence exclusively to heredity. </li></ul><ul><li>The content of the collective unconscious is made up essentially of archetypes or symbols that are universally known with a certain meaning </li></ul>
  20. 20. Archetypes <ul><li>The mother </li></ul><ul><ul><li>built-in ability to recognize a certain relationship like that of nurturing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>symbolized by Eve and Mary in western traditions, and by less personal symbols such as the church, the nation, a forest, or the ocean </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Archetypes <ul><li>The shadow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex and life instincts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It derives from our animal past, when our concerns were limited to survival and reproduction, and when we weren't self-conscious. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents the evil that we are capable of. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually, the shadow is neither good nor bad, just like animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the human perspective, the animal world looks rather brutal and inhuman, so the shadow becomes like a garbage can for the parts of ourselves that we can't quite admit to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbols of the shadow include the snake,the dragon, monsters, and demons. It often guards the entrance to a cave or a pool of water, which is the collective unconscious. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Archetypes <ul><li>The persona </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents public image. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the mask we put on before showing ourselves to the outside world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the part of most distant from the collective unconscious. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “good impression” we want to possess but can also be the “bad impression” that we use to manipulate people's opinions and behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be mistaken for our true nature </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Archetypes <ul><li>The Anima and Animus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The anima is the female aspect present in the collective unconscious of men, and the animus is the male aspect present in the collective unconscious of women. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The anima may be personified as a young girl, very spontaneous and intuitive, or as a witch, or as the mother. It is likely to be associated with deep emotionality and the force of life itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The animus may be personified as a wise old man, a sorcerer, or often a number of males, and tends to be logical, often rationalistic, even argumentative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The anima or animus is the archetype through which we communicate with the collective unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is also the archetype that is responsible for much of our love life </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Behaviorist Psychology <ul><li>The school of psychology that proposed that all things organisms do can and should be regarded as behaviors. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Notable Behaviorists <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>John Watson </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Lee Thorndike </li></ul><ul><li>B.F. Skinner </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ivan Pavlov <ul><li>Major Contributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Classical Conditioning Pavlov’s Experiment <ul><li>Pavlov did his experiment with dogs and studied their salivation behavior </li></ul><ul><li>When presented with food, the dogs would salivate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food  salivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Stimulus (food) causes an unconditioned response (salivation) </li></ul><ul><li>Pavlov rang bells (neutral stimulus) when the food was presented; the dogs salivate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bells + Food  Salivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later, when the dogs hear the bells, they begin to salivate even without the presence of food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bells  Salivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The bells (neutral stimulus) became the conditioned stimulus that caused salivation (conditioned response) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Unconditioned stimulus  Unconditioned Response </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral Stimulus + Unconditioned Stimulus  Unconditioned Response </li></ul><ul><li>Continued pairing of neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus will result in the neutral stimulus to be the conditioned stimulus and the response to be the conditioned response </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral Stimulus = Conditioned Stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Response = Conditioned Response </li></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Stimulus  Conditioned Response </li></ul>
  29. 29. John Watson <ul><li>Major Contribution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little Albert Experiment </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Little Albert Experiment
  31. 31. The Little Albert Experiment <ul><li>Watson’s version of Pavlov’s classical conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Pavlov did his experiment on animals but Watson did his on humans </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Little Albert Experiment <ul><li>Watson used a baby, Little Albert, as his subject </li></ul><ul><li>He did not fear anything, in fact, anything that Watson presented to the baby only ended up being his toy </li></ul><ul><li>Watson presented a white rat to Little Albert and he played with it as usual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rat  no response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later, Watson made a loud sound behind Little Albert when the rat was presented; Little Albert cried </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loud noise (unconditioned stimulus)  cry (unconditioned response) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rat (neutral stimulus) + Loud noise (unconditioned stimulus)  cry (unconditioned response) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Watson continued this pairing and soon, Little Albert would cry in the presence of the rat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rat (conditioned stimulus)  cry (conditioned response) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later, when Little Albert was presented a white rabbit, he cried. Anything that was white and fluffy made him cry. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Edward Lee Thorndike <ul><li>Major Contribution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law of effect </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Law of Effect <ul><li>Responses to a situation which are followed by a rewarding state of affairs will be strengthened and become habitual responses to that situation </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviors that help an organism achieve its goals are strengthened </li></ul>
  35. 35. Law of Effect The Experiment
  36. 36. Law of Effect The Experiment <ul><li>Thorndike placed a cat in a cage with a release lever and a piece of food outside the cage </li></ul><ul><li>The cat would scratch and reach hopelessly for the food </li></ul><ul><li>After scratching and reaching many times, the cat finally hit the release lever and it got out of the cage and ate the food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause  Behavior  Consequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scratch and reach + hitting lever  escape  food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thorndike repeated the experiment and noticed that the cat reached and scratched less and would hit the release lever quicker and get the food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reach + hitting lever  escape  food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soon, when the cat was placed in the cage, it would simply hit the release lever and get out to get the food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hitting lever  escape  food </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. B.F. Skinner <ul><li>Major Contributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Operant conditioning is often viewed as Response  Consequence learning since it is the consequence that follows the response that influences whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again. It is through operant conditioning that voluntary responses are learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus  Response  Consequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>responses cannot occur without an environmental event (stimulus) preceding it. The consequence influences the response. When the consequence does influence the likelihood of a response occurring, the stimulus is technically called a discriminative stimulus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The consequence changes the probability of whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again. There are two types of consequences: positive (sometimes called pleasant) and negative (sometimes called aversive). These can be added to or taken away from the environment in order to change the probability of a given response occurring again. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>The main tools of operant conditioning are reinforcement and punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement increases behavior, punishment decreases behavior </li></ul><ul><li>These two can either be positive or negative, thus influencing the probability of a behavior being repeated </li></ul>
  40. 40. Operant Conditioning
  41. 41. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Positive Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a favorable stimulus that increases the frequency of that behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching a dog a new trick: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food  salivates and begs for food  no food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food  rolls over  food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The dog is now more likely to roll over rather than standing and doing nothing to get the food because the consequence of the it rolling over is favorable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Positive Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by an aversive stimulus, such as introducing a shock or loud noise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching a dog a new trick: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food  rolls over  food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food  rolls over  scolding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now, the dog would roll over less because it received an aversive consequence (scolding) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Negative Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus thus, increasing that behavior's frequency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching a dog a new trick: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food  rolls over  scolding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food  salivates and begs  food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now, since the dog was scolded for rolling over, it is now less likely to do it. So, it just stands there and begs for food. Feeling sorry, you give it the food. Therefore, the dog will more likely just beg for the food instead of rolling over for it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Negative Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching a dog a new trick: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food  rolls over  food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food  rolls over  no food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The dog would now be less likely to roll over since it gained nothing out of doing the trick </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>School of Psychology that focuses on the internal mental processes occurring before a behavior </li></ul>
  46. 46. Jean Piaget <ul><li>Major Contribution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Development Theory </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Adaptation <ul><li>Behavior (adaptation to the environment) is controlled through mental organizations called schemas that the individual uses to represent the world and designate action. </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget described two processes used by the individual in its attempt to adapt: assimilation and accomodation. Both of these processes are used thoughout life as the person increasingly adapts to the environment in a more complex manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation the process of using or transforming the environment so that it can be placed in preexisting cognitive structures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A child that sucks on a bottle might suck on a larger bottle since the larger bottle satisfies the child’s preexisting cognitive structure (schema) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accommodation is the process of changing cognitive structures in order to accept something from the environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The child that sucks on a bottle would suck on a pacifier. Since the pacifier does not satisfy the schema of the bottle, the child’s cognitive structure need to change by accommodating this to a new schema </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Cognitive Development Theory
  49. 49. Cognitive Development Theory <ul><li>It is a model of child development and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget's theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures--in other words, mental &quot;maps,&quot; schemes, or networked concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or her environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget further attested that a child's cognitive structure increases in sophistication with development, moving from a few innate reflexes to highly complex mental activities </li></ul>
  50. 50. Cognitive Development Theory <ul><li>Sensorymotor Stage (0-2 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The child, through physical interaction with his or her environment, builds a set of concepts about reality and how it works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of perception of object permanence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babies cry when they don’t see their mother, but stops crying when they see her. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Cognitive Development Theory <ul><li>Preoperational Stage (2-7 yrs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physical situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Centration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>child focuses to only one aspect of a stimulus or situation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A beaker-full of water is transferred to a cylinder. The child thinks that the cylinder has more water than the beaker even though the child saw the water being transferred from the beaker to the cylinder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Cognitive Development Theory <ul><li>Concrete Operations (7-11) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As physical experience accumulates, the child starts to conceptualize, creating logical structures that explain his or her physical experiences. Abstract problem solving is also possible at this stage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The child can solve math equations with numbers, not just with objects. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Cognitive Development Theory <ul><li>Formal Operations (11-) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By this point, the child's cognitive structures are like those of an adult and include conceptual reasoning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The child gains the ability to think abstractly and draw conclusions from the information available. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Humanist Psychology <ul><li>The school of psychology that emphasizes that each individual has great freedom in directing his or her future, a large capacity for personal growth, a considerable amount of intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for self-fulfillment </li></ul>
  55. 55. Notable Humanists <ul><li>Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Rogers </li></ul>
  56. 56. Abraham Maslow <ul><li>Major Contribution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Hierarchy of Needs
  58. 58. Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Humans start with a very weak disposition that is then fashioned fully as the person grows. </li></ul><ul><li>If the environment is right, people will grow straight and beautiful, actualizing the potentials they have inherited. </li></ul><ul><li>If the environment is not &quot;right“ they will not grow tall and straight and beautiful. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Physiological Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are biological needs. They consist of needs for air, food, water, and a relatively constant body temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are the strongest needs because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person's search for satisfaction. </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Safety Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When all physiological needs are satisfied and are no longer controlling thoughts and behaviors, the needs for security can become active. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adults have little awareness of their security needs except in times of emergency or periods of disorganization in the social structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children often display the signs of insecurity and the need to be safe. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Needs of Love, Affection, and Belonging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the needs for safety and for physiological well-being are satisfied, the next class of needs for love, affection and belongingness can emerge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People seek to overcome feelings of loneliness and alienation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves both giving and receiving love, affection and the sense of belonging. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Needs for Esteem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the first three classes of needs are satisfied, the needs for esteem can become dominant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans have a need for a stable, firmly based, high level of self-respect, and respect from others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When these needs are satisfied, the person feels self-confident and valuable as a person in the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When these needs are frustrated, the person feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Needs for Self-Actualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When all of the foregoing needs are satisfied, then and only then are the needs for self-actualization activated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-actualization is a person's need to be and do that which the person was &quot;born to do.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These needs make themselves felt in signs of restlessness. The person feels on edge, tense, lacking something, in short, restless. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a person is hungry, unsafe, not loved or accepted, or lacking self-esteem, it is very easy to know what the person is restless about. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Carl Rogers <ul><li>Major Contribution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client-Centered Therapy </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Client-Centered Therapy <ul><li>It is a non-directive approach to therapy where the clients get to keep control over the content and pace of the therapy. It is intended to serve them, the therapist isn't evaluating them in any way or trying to &quot;figure them out&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>The foundation is that people tend to move toward growth and healing, and have the capacity to find their own answers. </li></ul><ul><li>There is also a mandate for the therapist to be &quot;congruent&quot;, or &quot;transparent&quot; - which means being self-aware, self-accepting, and having no mask between oneself and the client. The therapist knows themselves and is willing to be known. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no particular structure that the therapist is trying to apply. </li></ul><ul><li>People unravel their own problems. They discover new things, take brave steps, and don't have to cope with a therapist who is doing things to them in the meantime. </li></ul><ul><li>The therapist strives to understand and accept the client's problems </li></ul><ul><li>Over time, the client increasingly seeks to understand and accept their problems too. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Client-Centered Therapy Core Concepts <ul><li>Congruence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are three selves: the self-concept, the ideal self, and the real self. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The self-concept is the way a person sees him- or herself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ideal self is who one would like to be or ought to be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The real self is who one actually is. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congruence is the amount of agreement between the self-concept, the real self and the ideal self. The more congruence, the more psychological health there is within the client. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a person's idea of who she/he is bears a great similarity to what she/he wants to be, that person will be relatively self-accepting. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Client-Centered Therapy Core Concepts <ul><li>Unconditional Positive Regard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To create an atmosphere of psychological safety within the counseling relationship, the therapist should have unconditional positive regard for the client – that is, not judge the client's character. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the client feels that his/her character is being evaluated, he/she will put on a false front. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low self-regard, or low congruence, is the result of the client's having been judged in the past. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The therapist gives unconditional positive regard as a partial antidote for the client's earlier experiences. </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Client-Centered Therapy Core Concepts <ul><li>Empathic Understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The therapist should sense the client's world as if it were their own. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The therapist must sense the client’s emotions without getting bound up in them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two processes foster empathic understanding: reflection and clarification. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection occurs when the therapist repeats fragments of what the client has said with little change, conveying to the client a nonjudgmental understanding of his/her statements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarification occurs when the therapist abstracts the core or the essence of a set of remarks by the client. </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Client-Centered Therapy Core Concepts <ul><li>Self-Actualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every individual has the resources for personal development and growth and that it is the role of the counselor to provide the favorable conditions for the natural phenomenon of personal development to occur. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal development is the process of a person becoming more fully themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy is commonly defined as one's ability to recognize, perceive and directly experientially feel the emotion of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As the states of mind, beliefs, and desires of others are intertwined with their emotions, one with empathy for another may often be able to more effectively define another's modes of thought and mood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy is often characterized as the ability to &quot;put oneself into another's shoes&quot;, or experiencing the outlook or emotions of another being within oneself, a sort of emotional resonance. </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Biological Psychology <ul><li>The school of psychology that most commonly use an experimental approach to the study of psychology </li></ul>
  71. 71. Charles Scott Sherrington <ul><li>Major Contribution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery of the function of neurons </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Neurons
  73. 73. Neurons <ul><li>Neurons have the ability to gather and transmit electrochemical signals. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons share the same characteristics and have the same parts as other cells , but the electrochemical aspect lets them transmit signals over long distances and pass messages to each other. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Neurons Parts <ul><li>Cell Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This main part has all of the necessary components of the cell, such as the nucleus (contains DNA), endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes (for building proteins) and mitochondria (for making energy). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the cell body dies, the neuron dies </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Neurons Parts <ul><li>Axon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thelong, cable-like projection of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carries the electrochemical message ( nerve impulse or action potential ) along the length of the cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending upon the type of neuron, axons can be covered with a thin layer of myelin , like an insulated electrical wire. Myelin helps to speed transmission of a nerve impulse down a long axon. </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Neurons Parts <ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These small, branch-like projections of the cell make connections to other cells and allow the neuron to talk with other cells or perceive the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dendrites can be located on one or both ends of the cell. </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Neurons How it works…
  78. 78. Neurons How it works… <ul><li>When chemicals contact the surface of a neuron, they change the balance of ions between the inside and outside of the cell membrane. When it reaches the axon, it initiates the action potential. </li></ul><ul><li>When the action potential reaches the axon ending, it causes tiny bubbles of chemicals called vesicles to release their contents into the synaptic gap.  These chemicals are called neurotransmitters.  These sail across the gap to the next neuron, where they find special places on the cell membrane of the next neuron called receptor sites. </li></ul><ul><li>The neurotransmitter acts like a little key, and the receptor site like a little lock.  When they meet, they open a passage way for ions, which then change the balance of ions on the outside and the inside of the next neuron.  And the whole process starts over again. </li></ul>
  79. 79. Types of Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Seratonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibitory neurotransmitter that has been found to be intimately involved in emotion and mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serotonin also plays a role in perception </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strongly associated with bringing our nervous systems into &quot;high alert.&quot;  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is prevalent in the sympathetic nervous system, and it increases heart rate and our blood pressure.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is also important for forming memories. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strongly associated with reward mechanisms in the brain </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Drugs Ecstasy Marijuana Cocaine Ritalin
  81. 81. Drugs <ul><li>Ecstasy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enhanced sense of self-confidence and energy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>feelings of peacefulness, acceptance and empathy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>experience feelings of closeness with others and a desire to touch others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>involuntary teeth clenching, a loss of inhibitions, transfixion on sights and sounds, nausea, blurred vision, chills and/or sweating. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases in heart rate and blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>severe dehydration and hyperthermia or dramatic increases in body temperature which can lead to muscle breakdown and kidney, liver and cardiovascular failure. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sleep problems, anxiety and depression. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long-term effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ultimately damages the cells that produce serotonin, which has an important role in the regulation of mood, appetite, pain, learning and memory. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Drugs <ul><li>Marijuana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>short-term effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>problems with memory and learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>distorted perception (sights, sounds, time, touch) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>trouble with thinking and problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loss of motor coordination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increased heart rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dry mouth and throat. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cancer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Drugs <ul><li>Cocaine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>constricted peripheral blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dilated pupils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increased temperature, heart rate, blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loss of appetite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>energy, reduced fatigue, and mental clarity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>aggressive paranoia. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depression. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ulceration of the mucous membrane of the nose. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Drugs <ul><li>Ritalin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nervousness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loss of appetite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nausea and vomiting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dizziness, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palpitations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>headaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>changes in heart rate and blood pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>skin rashes and itching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>abdominal pain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>weight loss </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digestive problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>toxic psychosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>psychotic episodes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>drug dependence syndrome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>severe depression upon withdrawal. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loss of appetite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tremors and muscle twitching, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fevers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convulsions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe headaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>irregular heartbeat and respirations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>restlessness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paranoia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hallucinations and delusions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>excessive repetition of movements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>formicaton (sensation of bugs or worms crawling under the skin). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Sociocultural Psychology <ul><li>The school of psychology that study how social conditions affect human beings </li></ul>
  86. 86. Stanley Sue <ul><li>Dr. Sue is a clinical psychologist whose research interests include ethnic and cross-cultural influences on behavior. Specifically, his focus is on mental health and personality issues as they pertain to ethnic communities, especially Asian Americans. Dr. Sue has studied the effects of ethnic match between therapists and clients, prevalence of psychopathology among ethnic populations, and cross-cultural validity of assessment instruments. </li></ul>
  87. 87. John Berry <ul><li>His main research is in the general area of cross-cultural psychology. He is currently working on projects dealing with acculturation, ecological factors in human behaviour, especially in the areas of family and cognition. </li></ul><ul><li>In the area of acculturation, my research involves the comparative study of how first and second generation immigrant youth are adapting socially, psychologically and academically in their &quot;new&quot; societies. Making sense of their parental (heritage) culture and their peer culture involves acculturation and identity strategies that are considered to affect these three kinds of adaptation. </li></ul><ul><li>In the area of cognition, he is working on how cultural adaptation to ecological contexts can influence the cognitive styles of individuals developing in different cultural communities. </li></ul><ul><li>In the area of social psychology, he is working on various aspects of intercultural relations, particularly on the psychological preconditions for living together in culturally diverse societies. This work encompasses the topics of immigrant and refugee adaptation, prejudice (racism and ethnocentrism) and multiculturalism. </li></ul><ul><li>In both the cross-cultural and social psychological research domains, his concerns are for the application of knowledge to social policy areas (health, education, immigration and multiculturalism). </li></ul>
  88. 88. Janet Helms <ul><li>Her work examines the major theories of Black and White racial identity. Moreover, theoretical perspectives that were originally developed to describe social fomentation have been updated and expanded to explain the role of racial identity in counseling dyads, social relationships, and groups. Measures for assessing racial identity are described. Original research addresses the relationship of racial identity to other personality characteristics such as value orientations, decision-making styles and counseling process variables such as satisfaction, counselor strategies, and client reactions. </li></ul>
  89. 89. References <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>