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Compost- definition, types and method of application, pros and cons of composting techniques

Compost- definition, types and method of application, pros and cons of composting techniques

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  • Just like you, your decomposer work force will do best with a balanced diet. They need a mix of high carbon materials known as “browns” and high nitrogen materials known as “greens”. <br />
  • There are several indicators to tell you when compost is finished. <br /> It will have a dark brown color <br /> It will be crumbly, loose, and humus-like <br /> You should not be able to recognize the material you started with (leaves, straw, grass, food scraps). Coarse woody materials like twigs and sticks will persist and could be sifted out. <br /> The pile will have shrunk to about 1/3 of its original volume. <br />

Compost pk mani Compost pk mani Presentation Transcript

  • Lecture -III Compost and Composting
  • Composting: Microbial Degradation Process that Converts Organic Matter to a Stable Humus like Product under Controlled Conditions. Compost Compost is a microbiologically well decomposed black to brown amorphous organo-mineral product
  • More about food for your decomposers Your compost workers will thrive if you give them a balanced diet. • Composting will be most rapid if the decomposers are fed a mix of carbon rich and nitrogen rich materials. • Carbon rich organic wastes are known as “browns” Leaves (30-80:1) ;Straw (40-100:1) ; Paper (150-200:1); Sawdust (100-500:1); Animal bedding mixed with manure (30-80:1) • Nitrogen rich organic wastes are known as “greens” Vegetable scraps (12-20:1); Coffee grounds (20:1); Grass clippings (12-25:1); Manure- Cow (20:1); Horse (25:1); Poultry (10:1), with litter (13-18:1) The word compost is derived from the Latin word “COMPONERE” to mean put together View slide
  • Basic principles underlying Composting Waksman et al.1949 Composition of plant materials C:N ratio Mechanism of decomposition process which are brought about by microbes. Aerobic vs anaerobic A knowledge of Metabolism of these micro organisms. View slide
  • Types of composting Composting may be divided into two categories by the nature of the decomposition process. In anaerobic composting, decomposition occurs where oxygen (O) is absent or in limited supply. Under this method, anaerobic micro-organisms dominate and develop intermediate compounds including methane, organic acids, hydrogen sulphide and other substances. In the absence of O, these compounds accumulate and are not metabolized further. Many of these compounds have strong odours and some present phytotoxicity. As anaerobic composting is a low-temperature process, it leaves weed seeds and pathogens intact. Moreover, the process usually takes longer than aerobic composting. These drawbacks often offset the merits of this process, viz. little work involved and fewer nutrients lost during the process. Aerobic composting takes place in the presence of ample O. In this process, aerobic microorganisms break down organic matter and produce carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia, water, heat and humus, the relatively stable organic end product. Although aerobic composting may produce intermediate compounds such as organic acids, aerobic micro-organisms decompose them further. The resultant compost, with its relatively unstable form of organic matter, has little risk of phytotoxicity. The heat generated accelerates the breakdown of proteins, fats and complex carbohydrates such as cellulose and hemi-cellulose. Hence, the processing time is shorter. Moreover, this process destroys many micro-organisms that are human or plant pathogens, as well as weed seeds, provided it undergoes sufficiently high temperature. Although more nutrients are lost from the materials by aerobic composting, it is considered more efficient and useful than anaerobic composting
  • Essential requirements for composting :Massive organic Refuge CEREAL STRWS, CROP STUBBLES, COTTON STALKS, GN HUSKS, SUGARCANE TRASH, FARM WEEDS AND GRASSES, HOUSE REFUSE, WOOD ASH, LIITER, URINE SOAKED EARTH FROM CATTLE SHED A suitable starter URINE, DUNG, SEWAGE, SLUDGE, A/S, NaNO3, CaCN2 Addition of water 50-60% WATER for satisfactory decomposition Presence of Air : Oxidation process, requires O2, air to be introduced to the compost heap after 10-15 days
  • Points likely to remember for successful preparation of quality compost: • Selection of suitable composting substrates- on the basis of C/N ratio and the content of recalcitrant material, alkaloids, phytotoxic materials, obnoxious substances, heavy metal and pesticides. • Recipe of composting substrates- To have quality compost there should have definite blending ratio between the base raw materials and among other supportive substrates. Waste: raw cowdung:live soil :FYM, 8:1:0.5:0.5 is the right blending mixture(on dry weight basis) for quality compost preparation • Methodology of composting- Composting methods like Heap, pit, windrow etc are used. But composting in heap produces good quality of compost and cost involvement is less. • Use of compost culture- Carrier based composting culture (@0.05%) for expedite the rate of decomposition will help for quality compost • Enrichment of composting- Compost is inheritantly low in plant nutrients. Fortification with biotic e.g. N-fixing and P-solubilizing organisms and organic farming acceptable naturally occurring low grade abiotic inputs like rockphosphate, pyrite etc can improve the nutrient status of the product. 20% rockphosphate, 5% pyrite and 0.05% each of nitrogen fixing bacteria and phosphate solubilizing m.o can improve the quality of compost wrt N and P.
  • Criteria for Composting  C : N ratio - 25-35 : 1  Particle size - 50 mm  Moisture content - 50-60%  Air flow - 0.6-1.8 m3/day/kg  Temperature - 550C - 600C for 1st 3 days  Agitation - Periodic turning at 15 days interval  Heap size - Any length, 1.5 m high, 2.5m wide  Activators - Microbial inoculants
  • Types of Composting  Indore Method (Rural compost) (Howard and Wad,1931)  Bangalore Method (Urban compost) (CN Acharya,1939)  Coimbatore Method  Anstead’s Method  ADCO Method (Hutchinson and Richards(1921)  NADEP method (N.D. Pandharipande )  NRL Method  Phosphocompost Method  Vermicompost method  EM (Effective microorganism ) Method
  • ADCO Process Agril. Development Company, England Hutchinson and Richards(1921) at Rothamsted Experimental Station , England ADCO powder as a starter material Ammonium Sulphate Superphosphate Muriate of potash Ground lime stone @ 7.0 kg/ 100 kg dry waste : 60 lbs : 30 lbs : 25 lbs : 50 lbs Procedure: The basic raw material straw is spread in layers and sprinkled over with a solution of ammonium sulphate. Then powdered lime stone is applied as broadcast. Then another straw layer is put on. The piling of the layer is continued till a decent heap of convenient height is built up. After about 3 months of fermentation the resulting material is similar to FYM and hence called “synthetic FYM” 1 ton dry Compost
  • Indore Method Howard and Wad,(1931) Indian Institute of Plant Industry, Indore Cowdung as starter and anaerobic process Prepare a trench having dimension; 30′x 14′ x 3′(Trench) MATERIALS Stalks of cotton, maize, millet and the pulses. (Ideally they should be chopped to a particle size below 2 inches). CONSTRUCTION 14ft Start building the heaps by laying a lattice of old branches at the bottom. Divide the base area of the heap into a 6 (roughly equal) transverse sections, five of which are filled and one left vacant.
  • Make each section of 7 layers (figure 1) of 9″ thickness. In a 9″ layer, have 4″ of dry waste, 3″ of green weeds and leaves, 2″ of FYM and a sprinkling of urine-earth-wood ash. (The layering process is illustrated in figure-2).
  • 14f Make 3 ventilation holes or vent of 4″ diameter. The first pole should be in the middle at a distance of not more than 7′ feet from the heap, the rest two vent will be in two corners with a maximum distance of 3½ft from each side. Continue building of the section up to a height of 5′, after establishing the air vents. Build five sections in the similar manner, leaving the sixth one vacant (The sixth one is utilized while turning the heap).  Water the heap, lightly, just after completion and again in the next morning. Turning also facilitates thorough mixing of the ingredients and their aeration. Carry out 1st turnings after 2 weeks,followed by 2nd turning after 5 weeks. A third turning is realized only if the original materials are recognizable, after 9 weeks. It takes around 12 weeks for final composting, though a little longer during monsoons. The final product has a pliable texture, an earthy smell and is dark brown or grey in colour. This matured compost is half of its original volume as it simply shrinks due to the cooling process.
  • 4. Bangalore process [ Aerobic and anaerobic process] : This process of composting was developed byDr.C.N.Acharya in the year 1949 1. Basic raw material used: Any organic material 2. Starters or inoculants[Undecomposed: FYM or mixture of dung and urine or Undecomposed] litter 3. Additives:Bone meal or oil cakes , wood ash
  • NADEP METHOD OF COMPOSTING Narayan Deotao Pandharipande of Maharastra (Pusad). Description This method of making compost involves the construction of a simple, rectangular brick tank with enough spaces maintained between the bricks for necessary aeration. The recommended size of the tank is 10’ (length) x 5’ (breadth) x 3’ (height). All the four walls of NADEP tank are provided with 6// vents by removing every alternate brick after the height of 1ft. from bottom for aeration. Tank can be constructed in mud mortar or cement mortar. ESTABLISHMENT ACTIVITIES Raw materials required for filling NADEP tank:  Agricultural waste (Dry & green) : 1350-1400 kg.  Cattledung or biogas slurry : 98 –100 kg.  fine sieved soil – 1675 kg.  Water – 1350-1400 litre.
  • The important technique: the entire tank should be filled in one go, within 24 hours and should not go beyond 48 hours, as this would affect the quality of the compost. Before filling, the tank is plastered by dilute cattle dung slurry to facilitate bacterial activity from all four sides. It is also filled in definite layers each layer consisting of the following sub layers. 4 to 6// thick layer of fine sticks, stems, (To facilitate aeration) followed by 4 to 6// layer of dry and green biomass. 4 kg Cow dung is mixed with 100 litre of water and sprinkled thoroughly on the agricultural waste to facilitate microbial activity. 60 kg of fine dry soil is spread uniformly over the soaked biomass for moisture retention and acts as a buffer during biodegradation Thus the proportion of organic materials for each layer is 100 kg organic biomass: 4kg cowdung + 100 litre water+60 kg soil. In this way, approximately 10 -12 layers are filled in each tank. After filling the tank, biomass is covered with 3// thick layer of soil and sealed with cow dung + mud plaster
  • **** EM-based quick composting Effective micro-organisms (EM) consist of common and food-grade aerobic and anaerobic micro-organisms: photosynthetic bacteria, lactobacillus, streptomyces, actinomycetes, yeast, etc. A unit consists of 9 pits measuring about 180 cm (length) × 120 cm (width) × 90 cm (depth), enclosed by low walls and covered with a roof Raw materials for compost  rice straw;  farmyard manure;  urea fertilizer;  EM solution. Preparation of EM solution (accelerator) EM-based quick composting in Myanmar One litre of 'instant solution' is made by Mixing 10 ml of EM, 40 ml of molasses and EM 950 ml of water and leaving it for 5 to 7 days, depending on temperature. The solution is then added to 1 litre of molasses and 98 litres of water to obtain 100 litres of ready-to-use EM solution. This amount is enough for 3 pits. The EM solution functioning as accelerator reduces the composting period from 3 months to 1 month.
  • ***Composting organic materials with high lignin content coir pith Coir pith is a waste from the coir industry (TNAU, 1999). During the process of separating fibre from the coconut husk, a large volume of pith is collected. The pith, containing about 30% lignin and 26% cellulose, does not degrade rapidly, posing a major disposal problem. However, it can be composted by using the fungus Pleurotus sp. and urea. To compost 1 tonne of coir pith, the materials required are: 5 spawn bottles (250 g) of Pleurotus sp. and 5 kg of urea The first step in the compost preparation is to select an elevated shaded place, or to erect a thatched shed. The surface is then levelled and an area 500 cm × 300 cm is marked out. To start with, about 100 kg of coir pith is spread. About 50 g of Pleurotus spawn is spread over this layer. About 100 kg of coir pith is spread on that. On this layer, 1 kg of urea is spread uniformly. The process is repeated until all the pith (1 tonne) is utilized. Water is sprinkled repeatedly so as to maintain the moisture optimum of 50 %. Well-decomposed black compost is ready in about a month. The C:N ratio falls to about 24:1 and the N content rises from 0.26 to 1.06 percent.
  • *****Composting weeds: This method has been developed for composting weeds such as parthenium, water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes), cyperus (Cyperus rotundus) and cynodon (Cynodon dactylon). The materials required are: 250 g of Trichoderma viride , Pleurotus sajor-caju consortia, and 5 kg of urea. An elevated shaded place is selected, or a thatched shed is erected. An area of 5 m × 1.5 m is marked out.  The material to be composted is cut to 10-15 cm in size.  About 100 kg of cut material is spread over the marked area. About 50 g of microbial consortia is sprinkled over this layer. About 100 kg of weeds are spread on this layer. 1kg of urea is sprinkled uniformly over the layer. This process is repeated until the level rises to 1 m. Water is sprinkled as necessary to maintain a moisture level of 50-60% .  Thereafter, the surface of the heap is covered with a thin layer of soil. The pile requires a thorough turning on the twenty-first day. The compost is ready in about 40 days.
  • Windrow Composting
  • Bin composting
  • When is compost finished? Compost is mature when • The color is dark brown • It is crumbly, loose, and humus-like • It has an earthy smell • It contains no readily recognizable feedstock • The pile has shrunk to about 1/3 of its original volume
  • Quality Judgment Size Reduction of Heap Colour of Product Smell of Product Presence of Weed Seed C:N Ratio Seed Germination Test Presence of Pathogens Crop Response
  • Benefits of Compost  Nutrient Value  Excellent Soil Conditioning Agent  Increases Organic Content  Improves Soil Texture  Improves Soil Permeability  Improves Water-Holding Capacity  Encourages Soil Microflora and Fauna
  • • Improved aggregation
  • Composting Microorganisms Cellulose decomposers : Trichurus spiralis Trichoderma viride etc. Lignin decomposers : Polyporus versicolor Ganoderma lucidum Phanerochaete chryosporium etc.
  • Method of preparation of liquid manure 1.5 kg fresh cow dung and 1.5 kg fresh green leaves of Subalul and Babla are to be taken in a closed mouth cotton bag. The bag is then placed inside 40 litres water taken in a drum. The drum is to be kept in a open place with covering the mouth for about 20 days. The water is to be stirred every morning with a stick by removing the cover over the drum and the whole task is to completed as quickly as possible. After the required time period (there would be no bad odour and the colour of the liquid will change to light tea liquor) the concentrated liquid is then diluted with water 5 times (that means total volume of the liquid then come to 200 litres). The diluted liquid is then applied either on soil surface or on the plant foliage.
  • Preparation of liquid manure 1.5 kg fresh cow dung + 1.5 kg fresh green leaves 40 litre of water (after around 20 days) Diluted and the final volume is 200 litre The average nutrient content of the liquid manure: N – 1%, P2O5 – 2% , K2O – 2%.
  • Upon this handful of soil Our Survival depends Husband it & it will grow Our food, fiber & fuel & surround us with beauty, Abuse it, the soil will degrade & collaspe taking mankind
  • Concepts : Crop rotation Organic waste Legume Biol. Pest Management Crop residue ORGANIC FARMING Biofertilizer Compost Agro-industry waste Animal-based manure
  • Composting organic materials with high lignin content - lime treatment By adding organic wastes such as sawdust, wood shavings, coir pith, pine needles, and dry fallen leaves, while preparing organic waste mixtures for composting, one can ensure that the compost produced contains sufficient and long-lasting humus. However, gardeners often find that where they use lignin-rich plant materials, the compost does not ripen rapidly. A technique for making good compost from hard plant materials involves mixing lime in a ratio of 5 kg per 1 000 kg of waste material. Lime can be applied as dry powder or after mixing with a sufficient quantity of water. Treatment with lime enhances the process of decomposition of hard materials. Liming can enhance the humification process in plant residues by enhancing microbial population and activity and by weakening lignin structure. It also improves the humus quality by changing the ratio of humic to fulvic acids and decreases the amount of bitumen, which interferes with the decomposition process. Instead of lime, powdered phosphate rock can be used in a ratio of 20 kg per 1 000 kg of organic waste. Phosphate rock waste contains a lot of lime. The phosphates and micronutrients contained in phosphate rock make composts rich in plant nutrients
  • Composting Solid Composting Liquid composting
  • Solid Composting Conventional Composting Phosphocomposting Two-step composting Vermicomposting
  • Method Oriented Composting Heap method Pit Method Vermicomposting
  • Substrate Oriented Composting Agril Wastes Industrial wastes Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) Sewage Sludge
  • Enrichment / Fortification Biotic Organic Abiotic
  • Procedure A unit pile is about 5(l) ×1(w) ×1(h) m3 in size. 1. Compost pile in preparation 2. The pile is covered with a plastic sheet after attaining the desired height Straw is stacked in layers of 20 cm height, 1 m width, and 5 m length to form a pile. The pile is sprinkled with water (Plate 1) for adequate moisture content, followed by addition of a FYM layer 5 cm high,  and the sprinkling of a few handfuls of urea (100-200 g). EM solution is sprinkled to accelerate aerobic decomposition. This procedure is repeated until the pile is about 1 m high and then it is covered with a plastic sheet (Plate 2).
  • 3.The pile is being turned The pile is turned after two weeks (Plate 3) and then again after another week. Normally, the compost is ready two weeks later when the heap has cooled down and the height of the pile has fallen to about 70 cm.
  • “The most problematic odour is ammonia NH3”
  • Garden trimmings Kitchen scraps Grass clippings Food scraps Compost Leaves Using the natural process of decay to change organic wastes into a valuable humus-like material called compost
  • Materials to avoid during composting Avoid organic materials that could cause problems during or after composting • Oil, fat, grease, meat, fish or dairy products, unwashed egg shells (tend to attract pests, vermin) • Hard to kill weeds (bindweed, quackgrass) and weeds that have gone to seed (could infest garden area when compost is used). Cat or dog waste attracts pests, could spread disease) Diseased or insect ridden plants (could infect or attack garden plants when compost is used)
  • Practical example: Assume that a representative cultivated soil in a condition favouring vigorous nitrification is examined. Nitrates are present in relatively large amounts and the C:N ratio is narrow . The general purpose decay organisms are at a low level of activity, as evidenced by low carbon-di-oxide production. Now, suppose that the large quantities of organic residues with a wide C:N ratio (50:1) are incorporated in the soil under conditions supporting vigorous digestion. A change quickly occurs. The heterotrophic flora-bacteria, fungi, and actinomyctes - become active and multiply rapidly, yielding CO2 in large quantities. Under these conditions, nitrate nitrogen practically disappears from the soil because of the insistent microbial demand for this element to build their tissues. And for the time being, little or no N , is in a form available to higher plants. As decay occurs, the C/N ratio of the plant material decreases since C is being lost and N conserved. This condition persists until the activities of the decay organisms gradually subside due to lack of easily oxidisable Carbon. Their number dercrease, CO2 formation drops off, N ceases to be at a premium and nitrification can proceed. Nitrates again appear in quantity and the original conditions again prevail except that, for the time being, the soil is somewhat richer both in nitrogen and humus. This sequence of events, an important phase of the carbon cycle, is shown in Fig. (previous slide).