Basics of remote sensing, pk mani

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Basic knowledge about remote sensing

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  • There are seven factors or elements involved in remote sensing. The first is a source of energy. For photography, the source is light from the sun. Other types of remote sensing, such as radar, supply their own energy source.
  • Remote sensing is affected by how well the illuminating energy penetrates the atmosphere. This is especially important when the distance involved is great, such as from a satellite.
  • What the remote sensor is really measuring is how the energy interacts with the target.
  • The sensor records the reflected energy it receives
  • All remote sensing systems have some method of transmitting, receiving, and processing the data. Some satellites actually drop film canisters to Earth using parachutes. Most remote sensing is now done digitally, and the data is transmitted using radio waves.
  • Computers can do some analysis, but the final interpretation is up to the human element.
  • Remotely sensed data isn’t much use unless it is gathered for a purpose or application.
  • There are seven factors or elements involved in remote sensing. The first is a source of energy. For photography, the source is light from the sun. Other types of remote sensing, such as radar, supply their own energy source.
  • We are now to the point where we can collect high resolution photography from spaceborne digital camera systems on a commercial
  • Basics of remote sensing, pk mani

    1. 1. Remote Sensing and its Applications in Soil Resource Mapping(ACSS-754)(2+1) Dr. P. K. Mani Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya E-mail: pabitramani@gmail.com Website: www.bckv.edu.in
    2. 2. Outline 1. Definition 2. History of remote sensing 3. Principles of radiation 4. Radiation-target interaction 5. Spectral signatures 6. Resolution 7. Satellite orbits 8. Applications
    3. 3. Remote Sensing Systems: the Human Eye • Spectral Resolution: 0.4-0.7 µm • Spatial Resolution: ~ 1-3 cm @ 20 m • Radiometric Resolution: ~16-32 shades B/W or ~100 colors
    4. 4. Remote Sensing: A Definition "Remote sensing is the science (and to some extent, art) of acquiring information about the Earth's surface without actually being in contact with it.” This is done by sensing and recording reflected or emitted energy and processing, analyzing, and applying that information.
    5. 5. Satellite view of BCKV
    6. 6. History of Remote Sensing 1609 - Invention of the telescope Galileo
    7. 7. History of Remote Sensing 1859 - First aerial photographer Gaspard Felix Tournachon, also known as Nadar 1862 - US Army balloon corp
    8. 8. History of Remote Sensing 1909 - Dresden International Photographic Exhibition 1903 - The Bavarian Pigeon Corps
    9. 9. History of Remote Sensing First flight, Wright Bros., Dec. 1903 1914-1918 - World War I 1908 - First photos from an airplane
    10. 10. History of remote sensing • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1783: The Marquis d’Arlandes and Pilatre made a voyage near Paris using a balloon. Photography using balloon, pigeon 1860: Aerial photos in Russia and the USA 1914-19: The first World War and the second World War (1939-45) had seen tremendous development in photography 1927: Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. 1955: Work began on the Baikonur launch site in central Asia. 1957: Sputnik 1 launched from Baikonur (first satellite) 1961: Yuri Gagarin launched in the Vostok 1 capsule, becoming the first human in space. 1969: Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to walk on the Moon. 1971: The first Space Station in history, the Russian Salyut 1 1972: (US Landsat1) the concept of imaging from satellites is introduced 1986: France launched the first stereo-image satellite (SPOT1) 1992: The space year (the maturity of remote sensing - 20 years of operation) 1995 The Shuttle-Mir Program (1st phase of the International Space Station (ISS). 2000 The first 3 astronauts (2 Russian and one American) start to live in the
    11. 11. Types of remote sensing • Passive: source of energy is either the Sun or Earth/atmosphere • Active: source of energy is part of the remote sensor system – Sun - wavelengths: 0.4-5 µm – Earth or its atmosphere - wavelengths: 3 µm -30 cm – Radar - wavelengths: mm-m – Lidar - wavelengths: UV, Visible, and near infrared Camera takes photo as example, no flash and flash
    12. 12. Active Active sensors provide their own energy source for illumination. Emit radiation Radiation reflected is detected and measured LIDAR, RADAR, and SONAR
    13. 13. Passive Remote sensing systems which measure energy that is naturally available are called passive sensors Sun’s energy which is reflected (visible) or Absorbed and reemitted as thermal infrared wavelengths Landsat, AVHRR
    14. 14. Passive remote sensing
    15. 15. Seven Elements of Remote Sensing A. Energy Source or Illumination For photography, the source is light from the sun. Other types of remote sensing, such as radar, supply their own energy source
    16. 16. Seven Elements of Remote Sensing B. Radiation & Atmosphere Remote sensing is affected by how well the illuminating energy penetrates the atmosphere. This is especially important when the distance involved is great, such as from a satellite
    17. 17. Seven Elements of Remote Sensing C. Interaction with Target What the remote sensor is really measuring is how the energy interacts with the target.
    18. 18. Seven Elements of Remote Sensing D. Recording of Energy by the Sensor The sensor records the reflected energy it receives
    19. 19. Seven Elements of Remote Sensing E. Transmission, Reception, and Processing All remote sensing systems have some method of transmitting, receiving, and processing the data. Some satellites actually drop film canisters to Earth using parachutes. Most remote sensing is now done digitally, and the data is transmitted using radio waves.
    20. 20. Seven Elements of Remote Sensing F. Interpretation and Analysis Computers can do some analysis, but the final interpretation is up to the human element.
    21. 21. Seven Elements of Remote Sensing G. Application Remotely sensed data isn’t much use unless it is gathered for a purpose or application.
    22. 22. A. Energy Source or Illumination
    23. 23. Microwave region from about 1 mm to 1 m.
    24. 24. EMR • Modern physics acknowledges dual nature of EMR • The wave-particle duality refers to how EMR of differing wavelengths behaves, not what it is • Low frequency EMR tends to act more like a wave; higher frequency EMR tends to act more like a particle
    25. 25. The Nature of Light • In the 1860s, the Scottish mathematician and physicist James Clerk Maxwell succeeded in describing all the basic properties of electricity and magnetism in four equations • This mathematical achievement demonstrated that electric and magnetic forces are really two aspects of the same phenomenon, which we now call electromagnetism
    26. 26. Wave Model •EMR travels as a set of sinusoidal orthogonal harmonic waves travelling at the speed of light, (c = 3.0x108ms-1) Wavelength and frequency are related to the speed of light as follows: c = λv; λ = c/v; v = c/λ Low frequency EMR tends to act more like a wave; higher frequency EMR tends to act more like a particle
    27. 27. Particle Model • EMR is comprised of tiny particles (quanta) called photons travelling in a wave-like pattern at the speed of light • Intensity is proportional to number of photons • Total amount of energy is related to wavelength and frequency by Planck’s constant (h): Q = hv Q = hc/λ where : Q = energy of a quantum
    28. 28. The Foundation of RS • Differences in how features interact with and emit EMR allow us to distinguish between objects based on their unique spectral characteristics or signatures • Variations are wavelength dependant; some things may “look” the same at certain wavelengths but different in others
    29. 29. • • • • • • • Reading and browsing Web http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/ http://earth.esa.int/applications/data_util/SARDOCS/spaceborne/ Radar_Courses/ http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/~research/tutorial/image.htm http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/resource/tutor/fundam/index_e.php http://octopus.gma.org/surfing/satellites/index.html Glossary of alphabet soup acronyms! http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/glossary/index_e.php • Other resources • NASA www.nasa.gov • NASAs Visible Earth (source of data): http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/ • European Space Agency earth.esa.int • NOAA www.noaa.gov • Remote sensing and Photogrammetry Society UK www.rspsoc.org • IKONOS: http://www.spaceimaging.com/ • QuickBird: http://www.digitalglobe.com/ Lillesand, T. M., Kiefer, R. W. and Chipman, J. W. (2004, 5th ed.) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, John Wiley, New York.
    30. 30. Remote sensing web sites • http:// www.esrin.esa.it - Eurpopean Space Agency • http://geo.arc.nasa.gov - NASA program • http://www.spot.com • French satellite SPOT • http://www.nasda.go.jp/ - Japan space agency • http://www.rka.ru./ Russian Space Agency (RSA) • http://www.coresw.com - Russian imagery source • http://www.space.gc.ca/ Canadian Space Agency (CSA) • http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ccrs/ -Canada Center for Remote Sensing • http://www.inpe.br/ National Institute for Space Research (Brazil) • http://www.asprs.org - American Society • http://www.man.ac.uk - Manshester Univ. • http://www.idrisi.clarku.edu - Idrisi site
    31. 31. All alone in our neighborhood of space Apollo 12’s Classic Earth Rise from Moon
    32. 32. Ikonos 1 m panchromatic imagery 2000
    33. 33. MODIS Land Reflectance and Sea Surface Temperature
    34. 34. • • • • • • • Reading and browsing Web http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/ http://earth.esa.int/applications/data_util/SARDOCS/spaceborne/ Radar_Courses/ http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/~research/tutorial/image.htm http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/resource/tutor/fundam/index_e.php http://octopus.gma.org/surfing/satellites/index.html Glossary of alphabet soup acronyms! http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/glossary/index_e.php • Other resources • NASA www.nasa.gov • NASAs Visible Earth (source of data): http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/ • European Space Agency earth.esa.int • NOAA www.noaa.gov • Remote sensing and Photogrammetry Society UK www.rspsoc.org • IKONOS: http://www.spaceimaging.com/ • QuickBird: http://www.digitalglobe.com/ Lillesand, T. M., Kiefer, R. W. and Chipman, J. W. (2004, 5th ed.) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation, John Wiley, New York.
    35. 35. Remote sensing web sites • http:// www.esrin.esa.it - Eurpopean Space Agency • http://geo.arc.nasa.gov - NASA program • http://www.spot.com • French satellite SPOT • http://www.nasda.go.jp/ - Japan space agency • http://www.rka.ru./ Russian Space Agency (RSA) • http://www.coresw.com - Russian imagery source • http://www.space.gc.ca/ Canadian Space Agency (CSA) • http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ccrs/ -Canada Center for Remote Sensing • http://www.inpe.br/ National Institute for Space Research (Brazil) • http://www.asprs.org - American Society • http://www.man.ac.uk - Manshester Univ. • http://www.idrisi.clarku.edu - Idrisi site
    36. 36. Remote sensing literature -Books • Askne, J. (1995). Sensors and Environmental applications of remote sensing, Balkema, Rotterdam, NL • Campbell, J. B. , 1996. Introduction to Remote Sensing. 2nd ed.,Taylor and Francis, London • Dengre, J. (1994). Thematic Mapping from satellite imagery: Guide book, Elsevier ltd, Boulevard • Lillesand, T. M. and R. W. Kiefer, 2000. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. 4th ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York • Simonette, D. S. (ed) (1983) Manual of remote sensing, the Sheridan Press, Falls church

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