Adverbs of frequency100% always nearly always usually normally often / frequently sometimes / from time to time / now and again / every now and then occasionally seldom / rarely hardly ever / once in a blue moon0% never + • once every two weeks • once a month • twice a yearWork with a partner. Ask your partner questions to find out how similar or different youare.How often do you ... ? Do you ever …?receive letters or e-mails go for a runwrite letters eat out in restaurantsdream in colour go to the hairdresserssurf the Internet go to the gymrent videos listen to classical musiclook at yourself in the mirror have an afternoon napgo clubbing get headaches
Inversion after negative adverbsInversion in this case means that the verb is in a question form and is necessary if anegative adverb (or one with negative meaning) begins the sentence. This only occurs informal speech and writing.1. Not only Harry not only missed the train, but also lost his case. Not only did Harry miss the train, but (he) also lost his case.2. No sooner The main verb is always in the past perfect. Tim had no sooner left, than the phone rang. No sooner had Tim left, than the phone rang.3. Under no circumstances You shouldnt touch these wires under any circumstances. Under no circumstances should you touch these wires4. Seldom I have seldom watched a better match. Seldom have I watched a better match.5. Other expressions which are followed by inversion are: little, never, not once, only then, only after, rarely
Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the same.1. Tony was not only late, but he had left all his books behind. -> Not only was Tom late, but he had left all his books behind.2. I had no sooner gone to bed than someone rang my doorbell. No sooner had I gone to bed than someone rang my doorbell.3. I have seldom stayed in a worse hotel. Seldom have I stayed in a worse hotel.4. I have never heard such nonsense! Never have I heard such nonsense.5. I realised only then that I had lost my keys. Only then did I realise that I had lost my keys.6. The economic situation has rarely been worse. Rarely has the economic situation been worse.7. The manager not once offered us an apology. Not once did the manager offer us an apology.8. You should not send money to us by post under any circumstances. Under no circumstances should you send money to us by post.9. I understood Hamlet only after seeing it on the stage. Only after seeing Hamlet on the stage did I understand it.10. The embassy staff little realised that Ted was a secret agent. Little did the embassy staff realise that Ted was a secret agent.The Direct and Indirect ObjectFor an indirect object to appear, a sentence must first have a direct object. Direct objects follow transitive verbs [a type of action verb]. If you can identify the subject and predicate in a sentence, then finding the direct object — if one exists — is easy. Just remember this simple formula: subject + predicate + what? or who? = direct object
Here are examples of the formula in action: Jim built a sandcastle on the beach. Jim = subject; built = verb. Jim built what? Sandcastle = direct object. Sammy and Maria brought Billie Lou to the party. Sammy, Maria = subject; brought = verb. Sammy and Maria brought who? Billie Lou = direct object. To explain the broken lamp, we told a lie. We = subject; told = verb. We told what? Lie = direct object.When someone [or something] gets the direct object, that word is the indirectobject. Look at these new versions of the sentences above: Jim built his granddaughter a sandcastle on the beach. Jim = subject; built = verb. Jim built what? Sandcastle = direct object. Who got the sandcastle? Granddaughter = indirect object. So that Darren would have company at the party, Sammy and Maria brought him a blind date. Sammy, Maria = subjects; brought = verb. Sammy and Maria brought who? Blind date = direct object. Who got the blind date? him = indirect object. To explain the broken lamp, we told Mom a lie. We = subject; told = verb. We told what? lie = direct object. Who got the lie? Mom = indirect object.Sometimes, the indirect object will occur in a prepositional phrasebeginning with to or for. Read these two sentences: Tomas paid the mechanic 200 dollars to fix the squeaky brakes. Tomas paid 200 dollars to the mechanic to fix the squeaky brakes.In both versions, the mechanic [the indirect object] gets the 200
dollars [the direct object]. When the indirect object is a pronoun rather than a noun, putting it in a prepositional phrase becomes a necessary modification. The preposition smooths out the sentence so that it sounds natural. Check out these examples: Leslie didnt have any money for a sandwich, so Smitty purchased her it. Blech! That version sounds awful! Leslie didnt have any money for a sandwich, so Smitty purchased it for her. Locating the indirect object her in a prepositional phrase lets the sentence sound natural! After Michael took generous spoonfuls of stuffing, he passed us it. Ewww! This version sounds awful too! After Michael took generous spoonfuls of stuffing, he passed it to us. But with the indirect object us in a prepositional phrase, we have an improvement!Spell the following transcribed sentences:1. [haɪ haʊ ɑ: ju] – [faɪn haʊ ə ju:] Hi! How are you? - Fine how are you?2. [hələʊ haʊv jə bi:n] – [dʒəst faɪn] - [ɪts səʊ gʊd tə si: ju] -Hello. Howve you been? - Just fine. - Its so good to see you.
[ ɪts gʊd tə si: ju:]Its good to see you. 3. [dʒæk jə bæk] [ aɪ hævnt si:n jə fər ə lɒŋ taɪm]Jack! Youre back! I havent seen you for a long time.[ɪts bin ə lɒŋ taɪm]Its been a long time. 4. [aɪm səʊ glæd jə bæk dʒæk] - [səʊ əm aɪ]Im so glad youre back, Jack. - So am I.