9EV9 Understanding Suttons Local Distinctiveness A4 colour covers front.qxd   10/11/2008   13:44   Page 1                 ...
London Borough of Sutton                                 Local Development FrameworkUnderstanding Sutton’s Local Distincti...
CONTENTS              PAGE                                                     NUMBER ONE                             Intr...
SIX                        Local Material Colour Palette          24SEVEN                                               Mo...
development. In particular, these are important when                                                                      ...
solution takes the opportunities for improving the                          suburban areas of the Borough. Accordingly, th...
densities across a plan area opposed to one broad       density range, although 30dph net should be used as a             ...
ponds, useful for farming, crops and industry.                                                                            ...
Figure 2.1: Geology of the Borough                                                                     PAGE 5UNDERSTANDING...
south and given its topography these are largely towards                                                                  ...
Figure 3.3: Views from the NorthFigure 3.2: Views from the South                                                          ...
identified below:                                                                                   Upper Paleolithic / Me...
PrehistoryFigure 4.1: Archaeological Priority Areas and Scheduled                                  4.4   Very little is kn...
The Roman period                                                                   period (about 400 AD).4.7    Pre-Roman ...
chapel which fell into disuse and was demolished about       1800. Much medieval fabric survives in Beddington and       C...
to several late 18th and early 19th century workers                                                                       ...
Figure 5.2: Development of Borough - Late 1800s/Early 1900Figure 5.1: Development of Borough 1865                         ...
additional areas of public housing have been built in5.4    During the suburban development period of the Borough,        ...
Details of Specific Areas                                                                            5.7    There is also ...
Beddington                                                                         the northern part of this park for use ...
of open space, which a portion was used for the                             attractive mixture of old buildings from the m...
designs and narrow streets because few council tenants       owned cars.Cheam5.16   In the early 17th century Cheam was a ...
Mill ownership. In the early industrial revolution, the                                                                   ...
The need for housing for workers was met by                                 market gardening and the tertiary processes of...
However, in 1847 Sutton acquired a station and a       second line to London was constructed in 1868. Thomas       Alcock,...
the manor and much land, started developing the area                        Wallington Council for which the town hall was...
5.31   Suburban Worcester Park was developed around the       station in the late 19th Century and was largely       compl...
6.3     These have mostly survived in the village centres of                                                              ...
centres of Cheam and Carshalton, and dispersed                              •   Materials: yellow and red stock brick, red...
Wallington District Centre. Some parts of the Borough                                                                     ...
Figure 7.1: Sutton’s Road and Rail Network and Public Transport Accessibility Levels                                      ...
Area in South Wallington, and the Downs Road                                                                              ...
8.2       Additional townscape character appraisal work has                        extraction and waste disposal site; and...
Figure 8.2: Townscape Character                                                                  PAGE 30UNDERSTANDING SUTT...
Figure 8.3: Townscape Quality                                                                  PAGE 31UNDERSTANDING SUTTON...
Figure 8.4: Landscape Character                                                                  PAGE 32UNDERSTANDING SUTT...
Figure 8.5: Landscape Quality                                                                  PAGE 33UNDERSTANDING SUTTON...
Housing Typologies8.9    The character of the Borough is defined by a number of       housing typologies which are describ...
properties usually have the rich architectural detailing       of the era.8.14   Furthermore, these areas have larger buil...
Inter-War housing 1918-19398.16   This housing type is the most prevalent throughout the       borough, often in long stra...
detached and terraced properties. The earliest example                                                                    ...
Post War housing up to 1970                                                                           8.24    Private hous...
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Sutton
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Sutton

742 views
630 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
742
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Sutton

  1. 1. 9EV9 Understanding Suttons Local Distinctiveness A4 colour covers front.qxd 10/11/2008 13:44 Page 1 London Borough of Sutton Local Development Framework EV Understanding Sutton’s Local Distinctiveness: Characterisation Report of Studies Evidence Base
  2. 2. London Borough of Sutton Local Development FrameworkUnderstanding Sutton’s Local Distinctiveness Characterisation Report of Studies Planning and Transportation Service Environment and Leisure 2008
  3. 3. CONTENTS PAGE NUMBER ONE Introduction 1 Introduction 1 Document Background 1 Policy context 2 Purpose of this report 3 TWO Geological and Hydrological Context 4THREE Topography and Views 6 Topography 6 Views 6FOUR Archaeological Context 8 FIVE Historic development Context 12 General trend of development 12 Beddington 16 Carshalton 17 Cheam 18 Hackbridge 19 Sutton 20 Wallington 21 Worcester Park 22
  4. 4. SIX Local Material Colour Palette 24SEVEN Movement 26EIGHT Townscape and Landscape Character and Quality 28 Introduction 28 Housing Typologies 34 Town Centres 43 NINE Assessment of Density and Setting 50 Introduction 50 Methodology 50 Qualitative assessment 51 Quantitative assessment of density 58 Understanding Character and Setting in Sutton 63 Conclusions and application of Local Settings 64 TEN Further Evidence Required 66 Contact Details and Further Information 67 Appendix 1 69 Appendix 2 71 Appendix 3 73
  5. 5. development. In particular, these are important when seeking to ensure that future development respects and improves the existing local character and helps create places with an identity that builds on Sutton’s local distinctiveness. Good design should be integrated into the existing urban form and the natural and built ONE environments. 1.3 A recognised technique for identifying and recording existing character is by conducting a borough wide ‘characterisation study’. Characterisation is a tool for defining and understanding the characteristics of a placeIntroduction and the Historical Environment Local Management “It is proper to seek to promote or reinforce local (HELM) states that ‘characterisation is a widely used tooldistinctiveness …” for helping to form an overview of an area as a (PPS1, ODPM 2004) framework for sustainable decisions on managing change’.Introduction1.1 Sutton has long been regarded as a prosperous and 1.4 This document sets out the findings of a Characterisation attractive area in which to live. It conveys the image of a Study of Sutton’s existing suburban and urban character, leafy well laid out established ‘arcadia’. However the conducted during 2007, and will inform the development character of the Borough is more complex than this of Policies in the Local Development Framework and simple stereotype. associated documents.1.2 Every place, like every person, has a distinct character, 1.5 In addition to informing the preparation of the Council’s which is often determined by the place’s features, such Development Plan Documents, this report should be as the geology, archaeology, heritage quality and the used by anyone seeking planning permission as the streetscape, including streets, front boundaries and the starting point in the preparation of a design and access type, age and scale of buildings. Knowledge of these statement. Design and access statements should be features is important when designing and making started at the earliest stage in the design of schemes decisions about the type and location of future and set out, stage by stage, how the preferred design PAGE 1UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  6. 6. solution takes the opportunities for improving the suburban areas of the Borough. Accordingly, this is character of the surrounding area. summarised below.Document Background 1.10 Planning Policy Statement 1 (Delivering Sustainable1.6 Since 1968 and the designation of Carshalton Village Development) requires Planning Authorities to prepare and Wrythe Green Conservation Areas the Council has robust policies on design and access based on an focused on the preservation of the special character and understanding and evaluation of the defining appearance of the Borough. In the last 40 years the characteristics of the area. The government is committed Council has designated a further 14 Conservation Areas to protecting and enhancing the quality of the natural and and has identified a number of Areas of Special Local historic environment and requires a high level of Character. However both nationally and regionally there protection for the most valued townscapes. PPS1 is also has been an increased focus on an ‘urban renaissance’ clear that design should take opportunities for improving in order to achieve higher density development and the character and quality of an area and the way it regeneration of town centres. functions.1.7 This study is particularly important given the pressure to 1.11 Planning Policy Statement 3 (Housing) makes clear that meet and exceed housing targets whilst continuing to Local Planning Authorities should develop design protect the character of the Borough. policies aimed at creating places, streets and spaces which meet the needs of people, are visually attractive,1.8 In order to inform the Urban Design Guide safe, accessible, functional, inclusive, have their own Supplementary Planning Document an Interim Report of distinctive identity and maintain and improve local Studies was prepared based on the character. Furthermore, PPS3 states that the extent to Townscape/Landscape Appraisal (1998). However the which development creates, or enhances, a distinctive Interim Report of Studies indicated that more detailed character that relates well to the surroundings and work would be carried out in 2007. This Report of supports a sense of local pride and civic identity, should Studies sets out the latest research and updates and be considered when assessing proposed development. replaces the Interim Report of Studies. PPS3 also states that Local Authorities should facilitate good design by identifying the distinctive features thatPolicy context define the character of a particular local area.1.9 The Council must take account of national and regional planning policy in developing a new policy approach for 1.12 PPS3 also allows local authorities to set a range of PAGE 2UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  7. 7. densities across a plan area opposed to one broad density range, although 30dph net should be used as a 1.16 In particular, the purpose of this report is: national indicative minimum until a local density range is • To set out a thorough understanding of the various adopted. However, PPS3 also allows local planning elements that make up the borough’s character and authorities to plan for densities below this minimum, as which contribute to local distinctiveness in order to long as these are justified bearing in mind local help manage the process of change; circumstances. • To identify/realise opportunities to improve the character of the Borough;1.13 The Mayor of London, in the London Plan: Consolidated • To fully understand the relationship between local with Alterations since 2004 (the London Plan), states density and character found in the borough; that boroughs should ensure that development proposals • To put forward evidence in support of the Council’s achieve the maximum intensity of use compatible with policy approach for a local density matrix based on local context, the design principles in Policy 4B.1, and an assessment of local character; public transport capacity. The Mayor of London also puts • To provide the strategic context for Conservation forward a density matrix, which sets a strategic Area Character Appraisals and the preparation of framework for appropriate densities at different locations, Planning Briefs; which aims to reflect and enhance existing local • To update elements of the 1998 character by relating the accessibility of an area to Townscape/Landscape Appraisal; and appropriate development. Appropriate density ranges • To identify any areas or topics where further local are related to setting in terms of location, existing evidence is required. building form and massing, and the index of public transport accessibility.1.14 Policy 4B.1 of the London Plan states that boroughs should seek to ensure that developments respect local context, history, built heritage, character and communities.Purpose of this report1.15 This Report of Studies has been prepared as supporting evidence for the Local Development Framework. PAGE 3UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  8. 8. ponds, useful for farming, crops and industry. 2.4 In the early 20th century the sands were described as the best barley land in Surrey. This fairly narrow zone of fertile soil must have been under more or less continuous cultivation for thousands of years and its is TWO here that the five historic village centres were located – Beddington, Wallington, Carshalton, Sutton and Cheam. 2.5 The land to north of these divides into two broad areas, east and west. The land in the northeast is largely underlain by gravel which was washed out of theGeological and hydrological Croydon Valley in the last ice age. The River Wandle flows around the southern and western edge of this itscontext main sources being springs in Croydon and Carshalton.2.1 The geology of Sutton is made up of three predominant The north west part of the Borough largely rests on soil types: Upper Chalk in the higher lying southern parts London clay which produced intractable and infertile soil. of the borough; London Clay in the north west; and river terrace sands and gravels in the lower lying north east 2.6 The lime for many 17th Century developments, including near the Wandle River. The geology of the Borough is St. Paul’s Cathedral, is supposed to have come from two shown in Figure 2.1. large chalk pits found either side of Carshalton Road, where B&Q and the Water Gardens estate is now.2.2 The southern edge of the Borough is underlain by chalk which, in the past, supported a mixture of arable land and open grass downland.2.3 A result of the changes in height and interface of chalk and gravel & clay is the Thanet Sand found along the north/south divide. Here, water descends through the deep chalk until it meets impermeable clay, rising through the sand to produce abundant springs and PAGE 4UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  9. 9. Figure 2.1: Geology of the Borough PAGE 5UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  10. 10. south and given its topography these are largely towards the north. These views extend towards the West London Ridge, towards Crystal Palace and into Central London including of the Telecom Tower and Canary Wharf THREE Tower. Figure 3.1: Topography of the BoroughTopography and ViewsTopography3.1 The northern part of the London Borough of Sutton is generally flat, lying at between 30/40m above sea level with the exception of Rose Hill which rises up to a height of 50m. However Sutton is located at the foot of the North Downs and therefore the southern part of the Borough rises up towards the south to a height of 140m. The topography of the Borough is shown in Figure 3.1.Views3.2 The topography of the Borough affords a number of long-range views into, across and out of the Borough. The Townscape/Landscape Appraisal of the Borough identified the Borough views out from the area, which were deemed to be of strategic significance, and these are shown on Maps in Figures 3.2 and 3.3.3.3 Not surprisingly there are more significant views from the PAGE 6UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  11. 11. Figure 3.3: Views from the NorthFigure 3.2: Views from the South 3.5 Whilst the Landscape Appraisal also considered local views on a site by site basis, these were not comprehensively recorded on a map or critically3.4 The views from the north are more limited and largely of analysed in a way that could help develop a policy on a more local nature – towards the Ikea chimneys, the views. Furthermore skyline issues were not addressed. Croydon skyline and southwards towards the residential suburbs and tree lined roads. 3.6 Consultants should be commissioned to undertake a comprehensive study of views and skylines of the area in order to be better able to determine which need to be protected. PAGE 7UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  12. 12. identified below: Upper Paleolithic / Mesolithic Communities • North Downs Fringe and Springline • Wandle Alluvium FOUR Late Prehistoric Communities • Queen Mary’s Hospital • Wandle Gravels Late Iron Age, Roman and Early Angelo-Saxon Communities • Beddington Roman VillaArchaeological context • Bandon Hill Roman CemeteryIntroduction • Beddington Anglo-Saxon Cemetery4.1 Protection of historic buildings, parks, gardens and areas • Stane Street of Archaeological Importance is of great importance for • Mere Bank conserving the Borough’s heritage and townscape Medieval and Later Historic Communities quality. Government guidance in PPGs 15 and 16 • Wallington emphasise the need to pay special attention to the • Beddington Carshalton characterisation, preservation and management of these • Sutton assets. Accordingly, this Characterisation Report has • Cheam highlighted the archaeological and historical context of • Woodcote the Borough. Post-Medieval Water Powered Industry4.2 English Heritage advocates the consideration of existing • Wandle Mills archaeology when undertaking characterisation analysis. Historic Estates, Parks and Gardens – the Suburban Figure 4.1 shows the location of Archaeological Priority Legacy Areas and Scheduled Ancient Monuments in the • Carew Manor and Beddington Park Borough. • Carshalton House (St. Philomena) and GardensUDP Context • Mascal (Carshalton Park House) and Carshalton4.3 Sutton Council’s current UDP, saved Policy BE40, Park requires Archaeological Field Evaluations for • Stone Court and the Grove development in the Archaeological Priority Areas • The Grange, Wallington PAGE 8UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  13. 13. PrehistoryFigure 4.1: Archaeological Priority Areas and Scheduled 4.4 Very little is known about the earlier pre-history of the Ancient Monuments area. A number of stray items have been found on the Wandle gravels and the slope of the North Downs but, apart from the fact that they are largely absent from the clay lands, they do not form any clear or obvious pattern. It is therefore difficult to say much about early human activity in the area. The Late Bronze Age and Iron Age 4.5 Archaeological finds become a lot more common from the Late Bronze Age (starting about 800 BC). There have been many Late Bronze Age finds in and around the upper Wandle valley. The most important site is a circular enclosure – probably a fortified settlement – where Queen Mary’s hospital stood. Other sites are known at Carshalton House, Scawen Close Carshalton, Beddington Roman Villa and elsewhere. The impression created is of a quite densely settled farmed landscape. Late Bronze Age finds are absent from the west side of the Borough probably because the clay soils there were much harder to cultivate. 4.6 The Late Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age. Scheduled Ancient Monuments 1. Roman Villa, east of Beddington Park Settlement of this date is again most common on the 2. Dovecote, Beddington Park east side of the borough. The Carshalton ‘hill fort’ seems 3. Milestone, Sutton High Street 4. Milestone, 135 Cheam Road, Cheam to have gone out of use and Iron Age finds are less 5. Milestone, Brighton Road, Sutton common than those of the Late Bronze Age. The 6. Late Bronze Age enclosure, former Queen Mary’s Hospital grounds, Carshalton Beeches population may have declined but this is uncertain. Archaeological Priority Areas shown as shaded areas PAGE 9UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  14. 14. The Roman period period (about 400 AD).4.7 Pre-Roman Surrey was probably something of a backwater. London did not exist and the Thames may 4.11 In 2002 Sutton Archaeological Services found a flint have been a boundary area between tribal territories. foundation in West Street to the north of the Race Horse The Roman conquest of Britain started in AD 43 and by car park. Only one room was exposed but foundations the winter of AD 47-8 London had been founded. The seen in the sides of the trench suggested that the town went on to become a major settlement and which structure extended in the direction of West Street. The made Surrey’s position much more central. site was probably a villa. The finds suggested that it had been occupied in the first and second century. There4.8 Stane Street - the London Chichester Road crossed the was also prehistoric material suggesting that the villa Wandle at Merton Abbey (near the Savacentre) and then may have been developed from an Iron Age farm. ran across the north of the Borough on or near the line of Stonecot Hill and London Road (the A24) to Ewell where 4.12 Two Roman coffins have been found near St Mary’s there was a Roman settlement. Church, Beddington and some cremations were found at Bandon Hill. A scatter of Roman finds have come the4.9 The London to Brighton Roman Road passed just east of down slope and the spring line. the Borough and there may have been a roadside settlement at Croydon. Saxon 4.13 This area seems to have been settled by the Saxons at a4.10 Two villas are known within the Borough. The relatively early date as there are early cemeteries at Beddington Villa stood on the sewage farm a short Beddington, Croydon and Mitcham. We know very little distance northeast of Carew Manor. This was first about the settlement and landscape of the local area in discovered in the 1870s during the construction of the the early and mid-Saxon periods. The old village names sewage farm. Settlement on the site started in the late are recorded in the Domesday book but the pattern of Bronze Age (about 800 BC) and continued on to the settlement may have been more scattered than it was Roman period. There were early Roman finds on the site later. However, the village centres had emerged by the but no trace of the associated buildings. About 180 AD a end of the middle ages. large villa was erected. There was a separate bath house a short distance to the west and a large aisled 4.14 The local area had four medieval parishes Beddington, barn to the north which had been rebuilt several times. Carshalton, Sutton and Cheam. Wallington was part of The villa was abandoned around the end of the Roman Beddington parish although it seems to have had its own PAGE 10UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  15. 15. chapel which fell into disuse and was demolished about 1800. Much medieval fabric survives in Beddington and Carshalton churches and the chancel of Cheam Church has survived as the Lumley chapel.4.15 A number of medieval and early modern secular buildings have survived the most important of which is Carew Manor with a grade I listed hammer beam roof of about 1500 over the great hall.4.16 Even in the 16th century it was possible to travel easily from Sutton to London. The area was therefore a favoured location for out of town houses belonging to courtiers and wealthy London merchants. There are significant archaeological remains of these buildings and their gardens within The Borough including Carew Manor, Carshalton House and Carshalton Park. PAGE 11UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  16. 16. to several late 18th and early 19th century workers cottages such as Wrights Row, Wallington Green. 5.2 The Borough had an exceptional number of large country houses, which mostly belonged to wealthy Londoners. During the 18th century the roads were FIVE improved, allowing those who owned light fast carriages and good horses the opportunity to easily commute to the City. The Downs, to the south of Sutton and Epsom, became famous for horse racing and several large houses were built to take advantage of this, including the Oaks where the Earl of Derby and his friends devised the famous races.Historic development context 5.3 This mix of agriculture, industry and pleasure survived into the early 19th century, however the area began toGeneral trend of development change following the introduction of the railway. The5.1 In the late 18th century the Borough was a rural area with West Croydon to Epsom line was the first, opening in five villages, surrounded by farmland. The River Wandle 1847, with the Epsom Downs line following in 1865 and flowed through the villages of Beddington, Carshalton the Carshalton / Hackbridge line being built in 1868. and Wallington. There was only one mill in Beddington, These good train connections made the area attractive as the river flowed through Beddington Park, but the to middle class commuters and suburban development Carshalton and Wallington areas were heavily soon followed. industrialised by 18th century standards. The Wandle River was lined with mills producing flour, leather, snuff, paper, dyestuffs and other materials. On the river bank there was a series of textile printing works and bleaching grounds where cloth was whitened by laying it out in the sun. A few of the mill buildings have survived, in addition PAGE 12UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  17. 17. Figure 5.2: Development of Borough - Late 1800s/Early 1900Figure 5.1: Development of Borough 1865 PAGE 13UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  18. 18. additional areas of public housing have been built in5.4 During the suburban development period of the Borough, recent years, including ‘greenfield’ and ‘brownfield’ there were two kinds of estates, namely (a) large upper development. ‘Brownfield’ development includes the middle class houses often belonging to City workers; and closure of factories and demolition of some areas of poor (b) small houses belonging to locally employed people. quality housing. Sutton expanded the most rapidly because it had the best railway connections, and by 1900 it was considered Figure 5.3: Development of Borough – Mid 1900s a small town.5.5 When the First World War broke out in 1914 much of the area was still rural with a great deal of farmland. However, this changed in the inter war period and by 1939 most of the area was developed as private estates or council housing, and most of the old country houses were demolished. Some of the grounds of these country houses became public parks, although others were lost to development.5.6 Minimal bomb damage during the Second World War did little to change the character of the Borough. The most significant development was in 1945, when many old houses where demolished to make way for flats and town houses. The impact of this development was fairly severe on the Victorian and Edwardian upper middle class housing estates, with the loss of many fine examples of original buildings. The minimal benefits from the redevelopment of smaller estates has meant that many smaller lower middle class and working class estates have not changed much. However, several PAGE 14UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  19. 19. Details of Specific Areas 5.7 There is also a great deal of variation within this general trend, which has given each village its particularFigure 5.4: Extent of Built Development in the Borough character and identify. The following section sets out some of the key considerations for each village area.Figures 5.1-5.4 show the changes in the extent of builtdevelopment in the Borough from 1865. PAGE 15UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  20. 20. Beddington the northern part of this park for use as a sewage farm. th5.8 In the second half of the 14 Century, a courtier called A wealthy Victorian rector from St Mary’s Church, Canon Nicholas Carew built a large estate centred on Bridges, protected the southern part from development Beddington and his descendents dominated the parish by preserving it as a park. for centuries. His Victorian heir, Charles Hallowell Carew, was more interested in horse racing than housing development and therefore little or no development occurred in the parish before 1859, when he went bankrupt and sold the greater part of the land. This land sale could have resulted in large-scale development, however control of the parish was passed to a small group of wealthy landowners who wished to retain the rural setting of their country retreats. The Arts and Crafts gatehouse on Bridges Lane 5.10 This southern portion of the park contains the historic core of Beddington, including Carew Manor, St Mary’s church, the park and the old village centre. Apart from a small mid-Victorian estate built on Bandon Hill, in 1913 Beddington was largely rural despite large scale development to the east and west, in Croydon and Wallington respectively. However, during the 1920s a large part of the area was developed in a decade and The elaborate Carew Manor, Beddington Park during the 1930’s significant infill development occurred.5.9 A large area of open space in the north of Beddington 5.11 During the First Word War two military airfields were has survived. This was previously the Carew’s deer park created in south Beddington, which became Croydon covering a large area between Croydon Road and Airport, London’s key airport of the inter war period. The Mitcham Common. In the 1860s Croydon Council bought closure of the airport in 1959 resulted in large amounts PAGE 16UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  21. 21. of open space, which a portion was used for the attractive mixture of old buildings from the medieval to Roundshaw housing estate in the 1960s. The modern periods. Roundshaw estate had a distinct character with its own identity, before much of it was redeveloped in recent years.Carshalton5.12 In the early 19th century Carshalton was the largest and most varied of the villages. It had a reputation as an attractive place, with springs and watercourses. Around the edge of the village where several large houses, with Carshalton House, Stone Court and Strawberry Lodge still surviving, and Carshalton Park House and others Carshalton station finished in 1902 on the line to London which have been demolished. The back yards of the via Hackbridge, facilitating suburban growth in the High Street and West Street comprised of a number of Borough squalid housing developments. Furthermore, several mills along the Wandle River contributed to an industrial 5.14 In the 1920s and 1930s Carshalton Urban District character of the area. Council bought up the properties around the ponds to protect the area against development. Carshalton High5.13 In 1847 the owner of Carshalton Park prevented a Street was badly damaged by a bomb in the Second railway station nearer than Wallington and this left World War, however the attractive nature of the area Carshalton Village at an economic disadvantage. Small survived and the Ponds and High Street became working class housing estates were built at Mill Lane and Sutton’s first conservation area, Carshalton Village north of the Wrythe. However, there was little middle Conservation Area. class suburban development until Carshalton Park was subdivided and sold in the 1890s. A delay in developing 5.15 The St Helier Estate, partly in Sutton and partly in to the north and south of the village until the 1920s and Merton, was built by the London County Council from 1930s meant that the village centre was not totally around 1928 to 1936. It was designed as a ‘garden redeveloped. This resulted in the village retaining its suburb’ with significant green space, varying house PAGE 17UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  22. 22. designs and narrow streets because few council tenants owned cars.Cheam5.16 In the early 17th century Cheam was a large spacious village with many attractive medieval buildings. This included several large houses set in substantial grounds and a private school. Little change occurred in the village for the next century and Cheam was still relatively rural when the First World War broke out in 1914. Weather boarded Whitehall in Cheam built in the 1500s5.17 There was, however, significant suburban development 5.19 Development in the 1920s generally comprised of large at Worcester Park, located on the northern boundary of estates, with groups of detached or semi-detached the parish and separated from the old village. There was houses of a few basic designs. However, as an also a small amount of Edwardian development on the exception to this, Andrew Burdon instigated individually Downs to the south of Burdon Lane and large Victorian designed, up market houses set in well landscaped Houses in Peaches Close. areas to the south of the Sutton-Epsom railway. This provided owners with the opportunity to apply Andrew5.18 Following the war, there was large-scale redevelopment Burton’s design or employ their own architect. This area in a short period of time. The main roads through the has a mixed character with several fine examples of village were widened and most of the old houses along 1920s mock Tudor. them were demolished and replaced. In less than a decade the village acquired a modern character. However, many attractive ancient buildings survived, including Whitehall, the Old Rectory and St. Dunstan’s Church. PAGE 18UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  23. 23. Mill ownership. In the early industrial revolution, the River Wandle had the greatest concentration of industrial water mills in the country. The economic significance of the area meant that a branch of the Surrey iron railway - the first public railway in the world - was laid through to the area. With the rapid growth of London and demand for decentralised housing many of the distinctive “County” homes were sold, starting in the later Victorian period and accelerating later. The estates were divided The mock-Tudor shops in Cheam Village and the land developed for housing estates whilst theHackbridge Mills remained forming the nucleus for later5.20 The area around Hackbridge was previously low lying manufacturing enterprises alongside areas prone to open fields with the confluence of the fast flowing flooding often utilised for Watercress Beds. The eastern and western branches of the River Wandle predecessor of the Battersea Dogs home was set up originating as chalk streams and merging at Wilderness here in Hackbridge and became one of the largest dog Island, before heading north into the Thames. quarantine sites in the country. The settlements of Wilderness Island was the location of several early Mills Hackbridge, Mill Green and Beddington Corner on the River harnessed as an energy source over continued with their distinct mixed use industrial / several hundred years for a variety of early industrial residential character but became more densely suburban processes including flour grinding, calico beating and and commuting encouraged by the fast rail service to gunpowder grinding, from before the Industrial Westminster (Victoria) and the City (London Bridge). Revolution. 5.22 In the early decades of the 20th Century the area’s5.21 The success of the Mills as well as the pleasant pastoral proximity to thriving Croydon helped it continue to be a environment less than 12 miles from the City of London significant manufacturing location by becoming (The River Wandle was a famed trout fishing river) increasingly linked to the global economy and by attracted wealthy mercantilists who build several large specialising in the new technologies of electronics Country houses close to the River funded both by City (Marconi and Mullards valves), communications (deep enterprise and the more dependable rentals arising from sea telegraph and telephone cables) and early aviation. PAGE 19UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  24. 24. The need for housing for workers was met by market gardening and the tertiary processes of sewage construction nearby. In the interwar periods many of the waste treatment originally developed by Croydon remaining open spaces and common land were built on Corporation and linked to the Beddington Park and for speculative housing and areas employment function Mitcham Common. Hackbridge therefore has retained continued to grow so that Mullards became part of the its mixed use employment and residential character multinational Phillips industries and the largest employer alongside the River Wandle and its proximity to open in the borough in the 1960’s based on distinctive multi- land areas although the form and function of the built storey factories reflecting the continental Bauhaus environment has changed substantially. Most recently design philosophy. Mullards continued through to the the appetite of the area for innovation has returned with 1990’s before demolition and redevelopment for housing, the award winning zero carbon development of BedZED a school and open space/flood wash land. Other based on low energy, low waste, use of local sourced manufacturing locations remained in the area but ceased materials and renewables together with its iconic to be leading edge technologies as the original firms architecture which has attracted international acclaim. relocated out of London and were replaced in turn by distribution warehouses and the service industry Sutton (Hackbridge was the location for the first “Comet” 5.24 In the 18th century Sutton was a small village with discount retail warehouse in the early 1970’s). houses scattered along the High Street from the Green Employment continues to be significant to the area as to the Cock Cross Roads. In 1745 the High Street was space for serviced offices/workspaces has been created improved and by 1800 the area become a significant from former offices (Sutton Business Centre in the stopping point on the route from London to the seaside former Zetter Pools headquarters) and the Wandle resort of Brighton. The area was also used as a calling Valley Ward has the second highest employment point on the way to the races at Epsom on the Banstead numbers of any ward in the Borough (after Beddington Downs. During this period, the area was served by North). several inns, including the Angel; the Greyhound (which stood in the High Street); and the Cock at the5.23 New housing has been built for a variety of tenures in the Crossroads. area including the low lying land to the east of the London Road adjacent to the substantial Beddington 5.25 The introduction of the railway may have reduced the Farmlands a significant open area associated with passing trading opportunities on the Brighton route. PAGE 20UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  25. 25. However, in 1847 Sutton acquired a station and a second line to London was constructed in 1868. Thomas Alcock, who owned the manor and much land in the parish, laid out two housing estates, including Newtown to the east of the High Street and Benhilton to north- east. Further development followed and by 1900 Sutton was a small town with a high street lined with Victorian shops and several exceptional older buildings. Development continued through the Edwardian period, with the development of an attractive estate along the south of Cheam Road. However, even though there was Example of Victorian terrace in Sutton Town Centre with considerable development in the area, a large amount of shops below and flats above. The shopfronts do not land was left for development in the 1920s and 1930s. respect the quality of the building frontage5.26 Benhilton and many areas south of the railway station The nature of growth and development, including the Victorian consisted of large middle class villas. These have proved influences, made Sutton the main centre in the area and the attractive for redevelopment, with many original houses Borough’s key centre when the Councils merged in 1965. By being replaced by flats and town houses. The estates remaining an important centre, Sutton has experienced large with smaller houses, such as Newtown and other late amounts of development in the last 60 years. Victorian and Edwardian roads to the west of the High Street, have survived more or less intact. Wallington 5.27 In the early 19th century Wallington was a small hamlet within Beddington Parish. There were several large older houses to the north of the Green, including the Manor House and the Old Manor House. To the south of the Green was an area of late 18th century developments that may have housed people working in the mills and textile works along the Wandle. Wallington acquired a railway station in 1847 and Nathaniel Bridges, owner of PAGE 21UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  26. 26. the manor and much land, started developing the area Wallington Council for which the town hall was built in for housing. He laid out a number of roads to the north of the late 1930s. the station, which were soon lined with large Victorian brick gothic villas. Development to the south of the 5.29 There has been significant redevelopment of the railway occurred around Stafford Road. Bridges used Victorian and Edwardian middle class houses, since the leases to strictly control the appearance of the houses, 1930s, which has led to a mixed character of much of of which the design had to be approved by his architect. the area. However, several examples of Victorian and As a result of the railway and increased housing Edwardian buildings and groups of buildings have development, a new parish was created and Holy Trinity survived. Church erected. In the early 20th century development spread southwards from Stafford Road and Stanley Park Worcester Park Road, with many good examples of Edwardian houses. 5.30 Worcester Park is located on the north-east corner of Development of the Wallington area slowed after the Nonsuch Great Park. It takes its name from the 4th Earl 1930s. of Worcester, one-time Keeper of the Great Park. The principle house in the park was known as Worcester House, which was built on the highest point in the Park, where The Avenue, Royal Avenue and Delta Road meet. Wallington has several examples of large brick gothic villas from around the 1860’s5.28 The development of Wallington resulted in it becoming a Typical example of Inter War Suburban Worcester Park local retail centre, with the offices of the Beddington and PAGE 22UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  27. 27. 5.31 Suburban Worcester Park was developed around the station in the late 19th Century and was largely completed in the inter war years (1919 – 1939). Suburban Worcester Park is characterised by rows of terraced houses, with bay windows and clad in varying materials. The streets are fairly narrow with considerable amounts of car parking and front gardens are being paved and used for additional parking which is significantly altering the character of the area.5.32 More recent development, called the Hamptons, creates a new character in an area with no previous character. This predominantly consists of a ‘New England’ style of architecture comprising various colour weather boarded dwellings in well landscaped surroundings. PAGE 23UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  28. 28. 6.3 These have mostly survived in the village centres of Carshalton and Cheam, although there are several examples elsewhere. They have often been modified by weather board or tiles rendering. • Materials: timber frame, wattle and daub, peg tile roofs and occasionally brick • Colour patterns: Timber often painted black and SIX white (although there is no historical justification for this); red tile roofs, soft orange red bricks; and weather boarding often added • Examples in Sutton: the Old Cottage (the Broadway, Cheam) and Whitehall (Cheam).Local material colour paletteIntroduction 18th century buildings6.1 The underlying principle of good urban design is how 6.4 Predominantly brick buildings. new development will respond to and reflect an area’s • Materials: Soft red sandy brick, coarse red or local distinctiveness, and where none exists, creates a yellowish bricks (which are easily confused with distinct character of its own. This may be achieved by London stock bricks), peg / pan tiles, the soft red considering how modern design and materials respond bricks are sometimes cut and rubbed to decorate to the local vernacular, while incorporating the windows or doors, wooden sash windows or lead principles of sustainable construction and materials. casement windows in less prominent locations. • Colour patterns: Red or yellowish bricks, red roof6.2 In order to help inform assessments of context this tiles. section sets out a local palette of materials and colour • Examples in Sutton: The Old Rectory (Festival schemes from the various building periods. This should Walk, Carshalton), Cottages (Wrights Row, be taken into account in any local context appraisal. Wallington) and Sutton Lodge (Brighton Road, Respecting local character does not necessarily mean Sutton) replicating it. Where contemporary designs are proposed with modern materials it may still be Weatherboarding necessary to reflect key historical and architectural 6.5 Many timber framed weather board houses were built features. However, in some instances it may be more in the area between the 18th and early 19th century, appropriate to replicate the local material palette. with several built before this time. Examples ofPre-18th century buildings weatherboard houses can be found in the old village PAGE 24UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  29. 29. centres of Cheam and Carshalton, and dispersed • Materials: yellow and red stock brick, red tiled and elsewhere in the borough. slate roofs, decorative chimneys and casement • Materials: Horizontal lapped boarding over timber windows; frame, pan / peg tile roofs, sash or casement • Colour patterns: yellow, red and red / black roofs windows, with slate roofs as probable later • Examples in Sutton: St Helier estate, Sutton replacements. Garden Suburb, Culvers Way, Bute Road, Alberta • Colour patterns: generally painted white with red Avenue and Federick Road roof tiles • Examples in Sutton: Aulton Lodge (West Street, Recent Housing (1970 to present) Carshalton) and Park Lane (Cheam). • Materials: new London Stock, yellow and red brick, glass, timber, aluminium, good quality cladding,Mid Victorian sustainable building materials, modern materials6.6 Predominantly brick gothic-style buildings from the high and colour render (New England style) Victorian period. • Colour patterns: opportunities for varied colour • Materials: Yellow stock brick often with red schemes decorative details, stone windows, stale roofs and • Examples in Sutton: the Hamptons, Apeldoorn prominent gables with decorated barge boards. Estate, Mill Lane, Henderson Hospital Site, Mullard • Colour patterns: Yellow brick walls with red detail, Factory Site, Cotswold Way and Oakdene Mews pale brown stone and grey or purple slate roofs • Examples in Sutton: North side of Westcroft Road (Carshalton)Late Victorian and Edwardian (1890 – 1914) • Materials: Soft red, occasionally yellow brick, peg tiles on the roof and sometimes hung on the wall. Wooden mock Tudor doors and windows often with leading and some stained glass. Iron finials and decoration. • Colour patterns: Red walls and roofs • Examples in Sutton: Russettings (Worcester Road, Sutton)Cottage Garden Style (Arts and Crafts style) PAGE 25UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  30. 30. Wallington District Centre. Some parts of the Borough are particularly poorly served by public transport including large areas south of the Sutton-Wallington railway line. Much of the low density housing areas of SEVEN South Cheam, Carshalton Beeches, South Wallington and Beddington South have PTAL levels of 1a/1b and some areas have no access to public transport at all, including in the Green Belt at Little Woodcote and Cuddington/South Cheam. 7.4 Industrial and commercial development is concentrated in three strategic industrial locations at Beddington,Movement Kimpton and Imperial Way/Purley Way South. Each of these areas is located close to key radial routes inIntroduction London and on to the M25.7.1 Three principal radial routes from London, the A24, the A217 and the A237, cross through the Borough and provide access to the M25.The A232 and A2022 provide east-west routes across the Borough and provide direct access to the A23 and from there down to Gatwick Airport and the south coast.7.2 The London Borough of Sutton is served by a number of suburban rail services with London termini at Victoria, London Bridge and Waterloo as well as Thameslink which provides cross London service to Kings Cross and Luton. Tramlink connects Croydon and Wimbledon with two stops in the north east corner of the Borough.7.3 Figure 7.1 highlights the road and rail network and the Public Transport Accessibility Levels (PTALs) in the Borough. Not surprisingly the highest PTAL levels are found in and around Sutton Town Centre followed by PAGE 26UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  31. 31. Figure 7.1: Sutton’s Road and Rail Network and Public Transport Accessibility Levels PAGE 27UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  32. 32. Area in South Wallington, and the Downs Road area and Chiltern Road area in South Sutton; and • The appraisal of 27 characteristic areas of inter-war suburban housing during 2007, including the Ruskin EIGHT Road/Grandison Road area in Worcester Park; the Kingsmead Avenue, Oaks Avenue, Tudor Avenue Area; a number of roads in South Cheam; and the Pine Walk area in Carshalton Beeches. The areas reviewed are identified on the Map in Figure 8.1 below.Townscape and Landscape Figure 8.1: Interwar Housing Areas ReviewedCharacter and QualityIntroduction8.1 The Townscape/Landscape Appraisal (1998) set out results of an assessment of the open and built environments in Sutton and identified certain character areas within the Borough. However this original work has been refined on the basis of the following detailed appraisals: • Conservation Area character appraisals undertaken of Sutton Garden Suburb, Wallington Green and Carshalton Village during 2005-07; • The appraisal of a number of potential Areas of Special Local Character (ASLCs) undertaken between 2003 and 2008. The potential areas included Anne Boleyn’s Walk area, Cheam; the Burton Estate in South Cheam, the Belmont Area; the Highfields area in South Sutton; the Clyde Road PAGE 28UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  33. 33. 8.2 Additional townscape character appraisal work has extraction and waste disposal site; and the specifically been undertaken on Sutton Town Centre: development of Prologis Park to the east of Beddington the North Sutton (Angel’s End) Study by Atkins and CB Lane). Hillier Parker in 2003 and the Sutton Town Centre Urban Design Analysis by Urban Practitioners (2007). 8.5 The key features from each townscape character area This information has also been used to update the are outlined in this section and are shown on Figure 1998 characterisation appraisal of the Borough. 8.2. Figure 8.2 illustrates that the character of the Borough is predominantly defined by inter-war8.3 The Commission for Architecture and the Built suburban housing interspersed with large public open Environment (CABE) advises that the approach spaces that give the Borough its suburban and “green” recommended by English Heritage towards the qualities. assessment of character of historic areas can be applied to the analysis of any area1. Accordingly, the 8.6 The key features of landscape character are illustrated character appraisal of both potential ASLCs and the on Figure 8.4. inter-war suburban areas used the same criteria established in the Unitary Development Plan (2003). 8.7 Furthermore, the Townscape/Landscape Appraisal The criteria are: quality of the overall character of an identified the quality of the townscape and landscape area; the townscape value of individual and groups of and this is illustrated on Figure 8.3 and 8.5 buildings; the architectural quality of buildings; the respectively. These figures have been updated to historic importance of the area; landscape reflect the appraisal work undertaken on potential characteristics; quality of open spaces; and the ASLCs and the inter-war suburban housing areas and contribution of incidental features such as walls, fences to take into account major enhancement schemes and hedges. implemented since the original survey work (i.e. at Kimpton Industrial Estate and the redevelopment of the8.4 The original 1998 appraisal work has also been Roundshaw Housing Estate). updated to reflect significant changes of land use (i.e. the redevelopment of the former Worcester Park 8.8 The areas of very good or exceptional townscape Sewage Treatment Works; the change of the quality and areas of high landscape quality are predominant use of Beddington Farmlands from a generally found to the south of the Borough. sewage treatment works to an active minerals1 Protecting Design Quality in Planning, 2003 PAGE 29UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  34. 34. Figure 8.2: Townscape Character PAGE 30UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  35. 35. Figure 8.3: Townscape Quality PAGE 31UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  36. 36. Figure 8.4: Landscape Character PAGE 32UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  37. 37. Figure 8.5: Landscape Quality PAGE 33UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  38. 38. Housing Typologies8.9 The character of the Borough is defined by a number of housing typologies which are described below.. In order to help manage the process of change both the features that are key to each typology and the positive/negative range of issues currently affecting the typologies have been set out. These appraisals should © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. provide the starting point for applicants in London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. understanding local context. Typical example of pre-1915 artisan housing, from Highland Cottages, WallingtonPre-1915 housing8.10 This housing character is located predominantly in and around the commercial centres of the Borough, and many of these areas are already designated as Conservation Areas or Areas of Special Local Character.8.11 There is a range of property sizes and styles originating from this period that were mostly dependent on the market for which the housing was intended.8.12 There are examples of small two-story artisan terraces Pre-1913 artisan housing at Highland Cottages with with minimal front gardens normally enclosed by a low minimal front gardens and strong architectural wall. These areas are usually intensively developed cohesion with no off street parking and have an urban feel. The areas usually have a strong architectural cohesion. An 8.13 Elsewhere, such as Clyde Road Wallington there are example of pre-1913 artisan housing is Highland larger late Victorian or Edwardian properties, which are Cottages, as shown below. typically developed to a lower density and have a less regimented building layout. Sometimes there is a mixture of detached/semi-detached properties and a mix of architectural styles. However, all these PAGE 34UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  39. 39. properties usually have the rich architectural detailing of the era.8.14 Furthermore, these areas have larger building plots and consequently larger front gardens with significant landscape features. More recently, many of these front gardens have been converted to provide off-street parking. Larger properties of the typical Victorian / Edwardian housing on Clyde Road, Wallington 8.15 Current issues: • Some infill development is discordant as it is not sympathetic to the context. Such development has led to varying building lines and the use of different materials; • The conversion of older large houses to nursing © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. homes or flats has increased densities and led to unsympathetic alterations such as obtrusive fire Typical example of pre-1915 Victorian / Edwardian escapes; loss of front gardens to parking; and housing, from Clyde Road, Wallington intrusive refuse storage areas; • Extensive on-street and forecourt parking impacts on the street character leading to loss of hedges and landscaping that is part of the original vernacular; and • Backland development has occurred on the large garden blocks, characteristic of this era. PAGE 35UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  40. 40. Inter-War housing 1918-19398.16 This housing type is the most prevalent throughout the borough, often in long straight streets. During this period individual builders were able to buy tracts of land and lay areas out as discrete estates. The layout and character of some of these estates is still apparent from the street patterns and the style of houses.8.17 Examples from this period include the Brocks Estate (between Gander Green Lane and St Dunstans Hill); the Poets Estate in Carshalton; the Paynes Estate Example of 1930s housing from the Poets Estate, (north of the Wallington/Sutton railway line and east of Sutton Plough Lane); and the Queenswood Estate in Wallington (south of Croydon Road). 8.18 This housing character generally comprises of short terraces or semi-detached two storey houses. The streets are typically wide and have grass verges and street trees. Front gardens are small and have low boundary walls generally of brick or ‘cinder’ rubble set between timber posts. 8.19 Although the architectural style appears to be uniform there are sometimes differences. The properties are usually clay tiled with brick or rendered finish. There are tile hung or half-timbered gable ends and front elevations at first floor level. Some front doors are © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. enhanced by porches or brick arched openings with decorative keystones. Typical example of Inter-War Housing, 1918 - 1939, from the Poets Estate PAGE 36UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  41. 41. detached and terraced properties. The earliest example is Sutton Garden Suburb, planned and work begun before the First World War. The houses that were built reflect the arts and crafts style detailing of the time with steeply pitched, tiled roofs, decorated chimneys and casement windows. Example of clay tiled front, first floor elevation8.20 Current issues: • Whilst the architectural style is often uniform, it sometimes lacks distinctive character; • Some interwar estates are large, impersonal and lack identity, which has an impact on legibility; © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. • Front gardens are being used to accommodate off- London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. street parking, which destroys the pattern of the street frontage and leaves house fronts open to the Sutton Garden Suburb, typical street and layout from streets when cars are removed; the cottage garden style estate. • Too many side extensions can be insensitive and create a terracing effect between properties; and • In some areas the loss of characteristic boundary treatments has had a detrimental impact on the street scene.Cottage garden style estates8.21 The cottage garden style estates were originally planned to include open spaces as an integral part of the layout and would comprise of two storey semi- PAGE 37UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  42. 42. Post War housing up to 1970 8.24 Private houses built during this period are few and scattered throughout the Borough often on small infill sites. These properties are generally two storey semi detached or terraced houses with small private gardens. Architecturally the houses are usually unadorned brick built rectangles. Example of typical cottage style housing found in Sutton Garden Suburb, showing extensive open space, tiled roofs and decorated chimneys8.22 On a larger scale the St Helier Estate was designed by London County Council architects to meet London’s mass housing needs. One of its main features is the integral network of open spaces. Another feature is the soft enclosure of the privet hedges and trees on each corner, originally a part of the estates ‘corner greens’. The post war rectangular terraced houses with small private gardens and larger communal open space, from8.23 Current issues: Langcroft Close, Carshalton • Permitted Development Rights have resulted in unsympathetic alterations to houses, such as 8.25 Furthermore, during this period there were significant pebbledashing, construction of front porches and developments in social housing notably the changes to fenestration using different design and Roundshaw Estate on the western edge of the former materials, including uPVC; and Croydon airport site. The Roundshaw area has since • Loss of the original landscape design of estates due been significantly redeveloped as part of a to cost of maintenance (such as rose beds on regeneration programme and the estate now has the corner plots being transferred into private nationally recognised Phoenix Centre development. ownership) and increase in car ownership (such as parking on verges). PAGE 38UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES

×