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  • 1. 9EV9 Understanding Suttons Local Distinctiveness A4 colour covers front.qxd 10/11/2008 13:44 Page 1 London Borough of Sutton Local Development Framework EV Understanding Sutton’s Local Distinctiveness: Characterisation Report of Studies Evidence Base
  • 2. London Borough of Sutton Local Development FrameworkUnderstanding Sutton’s Local Distinctiveness Characterisation Report of Studies Planning and Transportation Service Environment and Leisure 2008
  • 3. CONTENTS PAGE NUMBER ONE Introduction 1 Introduction 1 Document Background 1 Policy context 2 Purpose of this report 3 TWO Geological and Hydrological Context 4THREE Topography and Views 6 Topography 6 Views 6FOUR Archaeological Context 8 FIVE Historic development Context 12 General trend of development 12 Beddington 16 Carshalton 17 Cheam 18 Hackbridge 19 Sutton 20 Wallington 21 Worcester Park 22
  • 4. SIX Local Material Colour Palette 24SEVEN Movement 26EIGHT Townscape and Landscape Character and Quality 28 Introduction 28 Housing Typologies 34 Town Centres 43 NINE Assessment of Density and Setting 50 Introduction 50 Methodology 50 Qualitative assessment 51 Quantitative assessment of density 58 Understanding Character and Setting in Sutton 63 Conclusions and application of Local Settings 64 TEN Further Evidence Required 66 Contact Details and Further Information 67 Appendix 1 69 Appendix 2 71 Appendix 3 73
  • 5. development. In particular, these are important when seeking to ensure that future development respects and improves the existing local character and helps create places with an identity that builds on Sutton’s local distinctiveness. Good design should be integrated into the existing urban form and the natural and built ONE environments. 1.3 A recognised technique for identifying and recording existing character is by conducting a borough wide ‘characterisation study’. Characterisation is a tool for defining and understanding the characteristics of a placeIntroduction and the Historical Environment Local Management “It is proper to seek to promote or reinforce local (HELM) states that ‘characterisation is a widely used tooldistinctiveness …” for helping to form an overview of an area as a (PPS1, ODPM 2004) framework for sustainable decisions on managing change’.Introduction1.1 Sutton has long been regarded as a prosperous and 1.4 This document sets out the findings of a Characterisation attractive area in which to live. It conveys the image of a Study of Sutton’s existing suburban and urban character, leafy well laid out established ‘arcadia’. However the conducted during 2007, and will inform the development character of the Borough is more complex than this of Policies in the Local Development Framework and simple stereotype. associated documents.1.2 Every place, like every person, has a distinct character, 1.5 In addition to informing the preparation of the Council’s which is often determined by the place’s features, such Development Plan Documents, this report should be as the geology, archaeology, heritage quality and the used by anyone seeking planning permission as the streetscape, including streets, front boundaries and the starting point in the preparation of a design and access type, age and scale of buildings. Knowledge of these statement. Design and access statements should be features is important when designing and making started at the earliest stage in the design of schemes decisions about the type and location of future and set out, stage by stage, how the preferred design PAGE 1UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 6. solution takes the opportunities for improving the suburban areas of the Borough. Accordingly, this is character of the surrounding area. summarised below.Document Background 1.10 Planning Policy Statement 1 (Delivering Sustainable1.6 Since 1968 and the designation of Carshalton Village Development) requires Planning Authorities to prepare and Wrythe Green Conservation Areas the Council has robust policies on design and access based on an focused on the preservation of the special character and understanding and evaluation of the defining appearance of the Borough. In the last 40 years the characteristics of the area. The government is committed Council has designated a further 14 Conservation Areas to protecting and enhancing the quality of the natural and and has identified a number of Areas of Special Local historic environment and requires a high level of Character. However both nationally and regionally there protection for the most valued townscapes. PPS1 is also has been an increased focus on an ‘urban renaissance’ clear that design should take opportunities for improving in order to achieve higher density development and the character and quality of an area and the way it regeneration of town centres. functions.1.7 This study is particularly important given the pressure to 1.11 Planning Policy Statement 3 (Housing) makes clear that meet and exceed housing targets whilst continuing to Local Planning Authorities should develop design protect the character of the Borough. policies aimed at creating places, streets and spaces which meet the needs of people, are visually attractive,1.8 In order to inform the Urban Design Guide safe, accessible, functional, inclusive, have their own Supplementary Planning Document an Interim Report of distinctive identity and maintain and improve local Studies was prepared based on the character. Furthermore, PPS3 states that the extent to Townscape/Landscape Appraisal (1998). However the which development creates, or enhances, a distinctive Interim Report of Studies indicated that more detailed character that relates well to the surroundings and work would be carried out in 2007. This Report of supports a sense of local pride and civic identity, should Studies sets out the latest research and updates and be considered when assessing proposed development. replaces the Interim Report of Studies. PPS3 also states that Local Authorities should facilitate good design by identifying the distinctive features thatPolicy context define the character of a particular local area.1.9 The Council must take account of national and regional planning policy in developing a new policy approach for 1.12 PPS3 also allows local authorities to set a range of PAGE 2UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 7. densities across a plan area opposed to one broad density range, although 30dph net should be used as a 1.16 In particular, the purpose of this report is: national indicative minimum until a local density range is • To set out a thorough understanding of the various adopted. However, PPS3 also allows local planning elements that make up the borough’s character and authorities to plan for densities below this minimum, as which contribute to local distinctiveness in order to long as these are justified bearing in mind local help manage the process of change; circumstances. • To identify/realise opportunities to improve the character of the Borough;1.13 The Mayor of London, in the London Plan: Consolidated • To fully understand the relationship between local with Alterations since 2004 (the London Plan), states density and character found in the borough; that boroughs should ensure that development proposals • To put forward evidence in support of the Council’s achieve the maximum intensity of use compatible with policy approach for a local density matrix based on local context, the design principles in Policy 4B.1, and an assessment of local character; public transport capacity. The Mayor of London also puts • To provide the strategic context for Conservation forward a density matrix, which sets a strategic Area Character Appraisals and the preparation of framework for appropriate densities at different locations, Planning Briefs; which aims to reflect and enhance existing local • To update elements of the 1998 character by relating the accessibility of an area to Townscape/Landscape Appraisal; and appropriate development. Appropriate density ranges • To identify any areas or topics where further local are related to setting in terms of location, existing evidence is required. building form and massing, and the index of public transport accessibility.1.14 Policy 4B.1 of the London Plan states that boroughs should seek to ensure that developments respect local context, history, built heritage, character and communities.Purpose of this report1.15 This Report of Studies has been prepared as supporting evidence for the Local Development Framework. PAGE 3UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 8. ponds, useful for farming, crops and industry. 2.4 In the early 20th century the sands were described as the best barley land in Surrey. This fairly narrow zone of fertile soil must have been under more or less continuous cultivation for thousands of years and its is TWO here that the five historic village centres were located – Beddington, Wallington, Carshalton, Sutton and Cheam. 2.5 The land to north of these divides into two broad areas, east and west. The land in the northeast is largely underlain by gravel which was washed out of theGeological and hydrological Croydon Valley in the last ice age. The River Wandle flows around the southern and western edge of this itscontext main sources being springs in Croydon and Carshalton.2.1 The geology of Sutton is made up of three predominant The north west part of the Borough largely rests on soil types: Upper Chalk in the higher lying southern parts London clay which produced intractable and infertile soil. of the borough; London Clay in the north west; and river terrace sands and gravels in the lower lying north east 2.6 The lime for many 17th Century developments, including near the Wandle River. The geology of the Borough is St. Paul’s Cathedral, is supposed to have come from two shown in Figure 2.1. large chalk pits found either side of Carshalton Road, where B&Q and the Water Gardens estate is now.2.2 The southern edge of the Borough is underlain by chalk which, in the past, supported a mixture of arable land and open grass downland.2.3 A result of the changes in height and interface of chalk and gravel & clay is the Thanet Sand found along the north/south divide. Here, water descends through the deep chalk until it meets impermeable clay, rising through the sand to produce abundant springs and PAGE 4UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 9. Figure 2.1: Geology of the Borough PAGE 5UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 10. south and given its topography these are largely towards the north. These views extend towards the West London Ridge, towards Crystal Palace and into Central London including of the Telecom Tower and Canary Wharf THREE Tower. Figure 3.1: Topography of the BoroughTopography and ViewsTopography3.1 The northern part of the London Borough of Sutton is generally flat, lying at between 30/40m above sea level with the exception of Rose Hill which rises up to a height of 50m. However Sutton is located at the foot of the North Downs and therefore the southern part of the Borough rises up towards the south to a height of 140m. The topography of the Borough is shown in Figure 3.1.Views3.2 The topography of the Borough affords a number of long-range views into, across and out of the Borough. The Townscape/Landscape Appraisal of the Borough identified the Borough views out from the area, which were deemed to be of strategic significance, and these are shown on Maps in Figures 3.2 and 3.3.3.3 Not surprisingly there are more significant views from the PAGE 6UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 11. Figure 3.3: Views from the NorthFigure 3.2: Views from the South 3.5 Whilst the Landscape Appraisal also considered local views on a site by site basis, these were not comprehensively recorded on a map or critically3.4 The views from the north are more limited and largely of analysed in a way that could help develop a policy on a more local nature – towards the Ikea chimneys, the views. Furthermore skyline issues were not addressed. Croydon skyline and southwards towards the residential suburbs and tree lined roads. 3.6 Consultants should be commissioned to undertake a comprehensive study of views and skylines of the area in order to be better able to determine which need to be protected. PAGE 7UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 12. identified below: Upper Paleolithic / Mesolithic Communities • North Downs Fringe and Springline • Wandle Alluvium FOUR Late Prehistoric Communities • Queen Mary’s Hospital • Wandle Gravels Late Iron Age, Roman and Early Angelo-Saxon Communities • Beddington Roman VillaArchaeological context • Bandon Hill Roman CemeteryIntroduction • Beddington Anglo-Saxon Cemetery4.1 Protection of historic buildings, parks, gardens and areas • Stane Street of Archaeological Importance is of great importance for • Mere Bank conserving the Borough’s heritage and townscape Medieval and Later Historic Communities quality. Government guidance in PPGs 15 and 16 • Wallington emphasise the need to pay special attention to the • Beddington Carshalton characterisation, preservation and management of these • Sutton assets. Accordingly, this Characterisation Report has • Cheam highlighted the archaeological and historical context of • Woodcote the Borough. Post-Medieval Water Powered Industry4.2 English Heritage advocates the consideration of existing • Wandle Mills archaeology when undertaking characterisation analysis. Historic Estates, Parks and Gardens – the Suburban Figure 4.1 shows the location of Archaeological Priority Legacy Areas and Scheduled Ancient Monuments in the • Carew Manor and Beddington Park Borough. • Carshalton House (St. Philomena) and GardensUDP Context • Mascal (Carshalton Park House) and Carshalton4.3 Sutton Council’s current UDP, saved Policy BE40, Park requires Archaeological Field Evaluations for • Stone Court and the Grove development in the Archaeological Priority Areas • The Grange, Wallington PAGE 8UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 13. PrehistoryFigure 4.1: Archaeological Priority Areas and Scheduled 4.4 Very little is known about the earlier pre-history of the Ancient Monuments area. A number of stray items have been found on the Wandle gravels and the slope of the North Downs but, apart from the fact that they are largely absent from the clay lands, they do not form any clear or obvious pattern. It is therefore difficult to say much about early human activity in the area. The Late Bronze Age and Iron Age 4.5 Archaeological finds become a lot more common from the Late Bronze Age (starting about 800 BC). There have been many Late Bronze Age finds in and around the upper Wandle valley. The most important site is a circular enclosure – probably a fortified settlement – where Queen Mary’s hospital stood. Other sites are known at Carshalton House, Scawen Close Carshalton, Beddington Roman Villa and elsewhere. The impression created is of a quite densely settled farmed landscape. Late Bronze Age finds are absent from the west side of the Borough probably because the clay soils there were much harder to cultivate. 4.6 The Late Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age. Scheduled Ancient Monuments 1. Roman Villa, east of Beddington Park Settlement of this date is again most common on the 2. Dovecote, Beddington Park east side of the borough. The Carshalton ‘hill fort’ seems 3. Milestone, Sutton High Street 4. Milestone, 135 Cheam Road, Cheam to have gone out of use and Iron Age finds are less 5. Milestone, Brighton Road, Sutton common than those of the Late Bronze Age. The 6. Late Bronze Age enclosure, former Queen Mary’s Hospital grounds, Carshalton Beeches population may have declined but this is uncertain. Archaeological Priority Areas shown as shaded areas PAGE 9UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 14. The Roman period period (about 400 AD).4.7 Pre-Roman Surrey was probably something of a backwater. London did not exist and the Thames may 4.11 In 2002 Sutton Archaeological Services found a flint have been a boundary area between tribal territories. foundation in West Street to the north of the Race Horse The Roman conquest of Britain started in AD 43 and by car park. Only one room was exposed but foundations the winter of AD 47-8 London had been founded. The seen in the sides of the trench suggested that the town went on to become a major settlement and which structure extended in the direction of West Street. The made Surrey’s position much more central. site was probably a villa. The finds suggested that it had been occupied in the first and second century. There4.8 Stane Street - the London Chichester Road crossed the was also prehistoric material suggesting that the villa Wandle at Merton Abbey (near the Savacentre) and then may have been developed from an Iron Age farm. ran across the north of the Borough on or near the line of Stonecot Hill and London Road (the A24) to Ewell where 4.12 Two Roman coffins have been found near St Mary’s there was a Roman settlement. Church, Beddington and some cremations were found at Bandon Hill. A scatter of Roman finds have come the4.9 The London to Brighton Roman Road passed just east of down slope and the spring line. the Borough and there may have been a roadside settlement at Croydon. Saxon 4.13 This area seems to have been settled by the Saxons at a4.10 Two villas are known within the Borough. The relatively early date as there are early cemeteries at Beddington Villa stood on the sewage farm a short Beddington, Croydon and Mitcham. We know very little distance northeast of Carew Manor. This was first about the settlement and landscape of the local area in discovered in the 1870s during the construction of the the early and mid-Saxon periods. The old village names sewage farm. Settlement on the site started in the late are recorded in the Domesday book but the pattern of Bronze Age (about 800 BC) and continued on to the settlement may have been more scattered than it was Roman period. There were early Roman finds on the site later. However, the village centres had emerged by the but no trace of the associated buildings. About 180 AD a end of the middle ages. large villa was erected. There was a separate bath house a short distance to the west and a large aisled 4.14 The local area had four medieval parishes Beddington, barn to the north which had been rebuilt several times. Carshalton, Sutton and Cheam. Wallington was part of The villa was abandoned around the end of the Roman Beddington parish although it seems to have had its own PAGE 10UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 15. chapel which fell into disuse and was demolished about 1800. Much medieval fabric survives in Beddington and Carshalton churches and the chancel of Cheam Church has survived as the Lumley chapel.4.15 A number of medieval and early modern secular buildings have survived the most important of which is Carew Manor with a grade I listed hammer beam roof of about 1500 over the great hall.4.16 Even in the 16th century it was possible to travel easily from Sutton to London. The area was therefore a favoured location for out of town houses belonging to courtiers and wealthy London merchants. There are significant archaeological remains of these buildings and their gardens within The Borough including Carew Manor, Carshalton House and Carshalton Park. PAGE 11UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 16. to several late 18th and early 19th century workers cottages such as Wrights Row, Wallington Green. 5.2 The Borough had an exceptional number of large country houses, which mostly belonged to wealthy Londoners. During the 18th century the roads were FIVE improved, allowing those who owned light fast carriages and good horses the opportunity to easily commute to the City. The Downs, to the south of Sutton and Epsom, became famous for horse racing and several large houses were built to take advantage of this, including the Oaks where the Earl of Derby and his friends devised the famous races.Historic development context 5.3 This mix of agriculture, industry and pleasure survived into the early 19th century, however the area began toGeneral trend of development change following the introduction of the railway. The5.1 In the late 18th century the Borough was a rural area with West Croydon to Epsom line was the first, opening in five villages, surrounded by farmland. The River Wandle 1847, with the Epsom Downs line following in 1865 and flowed through the villages of Beddington, Carshalton the Carshalton / Hackbridge line being built in 1868. and Wallington. There was only one mill in Beddington, These good train connections made the area attractive as the river flowed through Beddington Park, but the to middle class commuters and suburban development Carshalton and Wallington areas were heavily soon followed. industrialised by 18th century standards. The Wandle River was lined with mills producing flour, leather, snuff, paper, dyestuffs and other materials. On the river bank there was a series of textile printing works and bleaching grounds where cloth was whitened by laying it out in the sun. A few of the mill buildings have survived, in addition PAGE 12UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 17. Figure 5.2: Development of Borough - Late 1800s/Early 1900Figure 5.1: Development of Borough 1865 PAGE 13UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 18. additional areas of public housing have been built in5.4 During the suburban development period of the Borough, recent years, including ‘greenfield’ and ‘brownfield’ there were two kinds of estates, namely (a) large upper development. ‘Brownfield’ development includes the middle class houses often belonging to City workers; and closure of factories and demolition of some areas of poor (b) small houses belonging to locally employed people. quality housing. Sutton expanded the most rapidly because it had the best railway connections, and by 1900 it was considered Figure 5.3: Development of Borough – Mid 1900s a small town.5.5 When the First World War broke out in 1914 much of the area was still rural with a great deal of farmland. However, this changed in the inter war period and by 1939 most of the area was developed as private estates or council housing, and most of the old country houses were demolished. Some of the grounds of these country houses became public parks, although others were lost to development.5.6 Minimal bomb damage during the Second World War did little to change the character of the Borough. The most significant development was in 1945, when many old houses where demolished to make way for flats and town houses. The impact of this development was fairly severe on the Victorian and Edwardian upper middle class housing estates, with the loss of many fine examples of original buildings. The minimal benefits from the redevelopment of smaller estates has meant that many smaller lower middle class and working class estates have not changed much. However, several PAGE 14UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 19. Details of Specific Areas 5.7 There is also a great deal of variation within this general trend, which has given each village its particularFigure 5.4: Extent of Built Development in the Borough character and identify. The following section sets out some of the key considerations for each village area.Figures 5.1-5.4 show the changes in the extent of builtdevelopment in the Borough from 1865. PAGE 15UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 20. Beddington the northern part of this park for use as a sewage farm. th5.8 In the second half of the 14 Century, a courtier called A wealthy Victorian rector from St Mary’s Church, Canon Nicholas Carew built a large estate centred on Bridges, protected the southern part from development Beddington and his descendents dominated the parish by preserving it as a park. for centuries. His Victorian heir, Charles Hallowell Carew, was more interested in horse racing than housing development and therefore little or no development occurred in the parish before 1859, when he went bankrupt and sold the greater part of the land. This land sale could have resulted in large-scale development, however control of the parish was passed to a small group of wealthy landowners who wished to retain the rural setting of their country retreats. The Arts and Crafts gatehouse on Bridges Lane 5.10 This southern portion of the park contains the historic core of Beddington, including Carew Manor, St Mary’s church, the park and the old village centre. Apart from a small mid-Victorian estate built on Bandon Hill, in 1913 Beddington was largely rural despite large scale development to the east and west, in Croydon and Wallington respectively. However, during the 1920s a large part of the area was developed in a decade and The elaborate Carew Manor, Beddington Park during the 1930’s significant infill development occurred.5.9 A large area of open space in the north of Beddington 5.11 During the First Word War two military airfields were has survived. This was previously the Carew’s deer park created in south Beddington, which became Croydon covering a large area between Croydon Road and Airport, London’s key airport of the inter war period. The Mitcham Common. In the 1860s Croydon Council bought closure of the airport in 1959 resulted in large amounts PAGE 16UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 21. of open space, which a portion was used for the attractive mixture of old buildings from the medieval to Roundshaw housing estate in the 1960s. The modern periods. Roundshaw estate had a distinct character with its own identity, before much of it was redeveloped in recent years.Carshalton5.12 In the early 19th century Carshalton was the largest and most varied of the villages. It had a reputation as an attractive place, with springs and watercourses. Around the edge of the village where several large houses, with Carshalton House, Stone Court and Strawberry Lodge still surviving, and Carshalton Park House and others Carshalton station finished in 1902 on the line to London which have been demolished. The back yards of the via Hackbridge, facilitating suburban growth in the High Street and West Street comprised of a number of Borough squalid housing developments. Furthermore, several mills along the Wandle River contributed to an industrial 5.14 In the 1920s and 1930s Carshalton Urban District character of the area. Council bought up the properties around the ponds to protect the area against development. Carshalton High5.13 In 1847 the owner of Carshalton Park prevented a Street was badly damaged by a bomb in the Second railway station nearer than Wallington and this left World War, however the attractive nature of the area Carshalton Village at an economic disadvantage. Small survived and the Ponds and High Street became working class housing estates were built at Mill Lane and Sutton’s first conservation area, Carshalton Village north of the Wrythe. However, there was little middle Conservation Area. class suburban development until Carshalton Park was subdivided and sold in the 1890s. A delay in developing 5.15 The St Helier Estate, partly in Sutton and partly in to the north and south of the village until the 1920s and Merton, was built by the London County Council from 1930s meant that the village centre was not totally around 1928 to 1936. It was designed as a ‘garden redeveloped. This resulted in the village retaining its suburb’ with significant green space, varying house PAGE 17UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 22. designs and narrow streets because few council tenants owned cars.Cheam5.16 In the early 17th century Cheam was a large spacious village with many attractive medieval buildings. This included several large houses set in substantial grounds and a private school. Little change occurred in the village for the next century and Cheam was still relatively rural when the First World War broke out in 1914. Weather boarded Whitehall in Cheam built in the 1500s5.17 There was, however, significant suburban development 5.19 Development in the 1920s generally comprised of large at Worcester Park, located on the northern boundary of estates, with groups of detached or semi-detached the parish and separated from the old village. There was houses of a few basic designs. However, as an also a small amount of Edwardian development on the exception to this, Andrew Burdon instigated individually Downs to the south of Burdon Lane and large Victorian designed, up market houses set in well landscaped Houses in Peaches Close. areas to the south of the Sutton-Epsom railway. This provided owners with the opportunity to apply Andrew5.18 Following the war, there was large-scale redevelopment Burton’s design or employ their own architect. This area in a short period of time. The main roads through the has a mixed character with several fine examples of village were widened and most of the old houses along 1920s mock Tudor. them were demolished and replaced. In less than a decade the village acquired a modern character. However, many attractive ancient buildings survived, including Whitehall, the Old Rectory and St. Dunstan’s Church. PAGE 18UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 23. Mill ownership. In the early industrial revolution, the River Wandle had the greatest concentration of industrial water mills in the country. The economic significance of the area meant that a branch of the Surrey iron railway - the first public railway in the world - was laid through to the area. With the rapid growth of London and demand for decentralised housing many of the distinctive “County” homes were sold, starting in the later Victorian period and accelerating later. The estates were divided The mock-Tudor shops in Cheam Village and the land developed for housing estates whilst theHackbridge Mills remained forming the nucleus for later5.20 The area around Hackbridge was previously low lying manufacturing enterprises alongside areas prone to open fields with the confluence of the fast flowing flooding often utilised for Watercress Beds. The eastern and western branches of the River Wandle predecessor of the Battersea Dogs home was set up originating as chalk streams and merging at Wilderness here in Hackbridge and became one of the largest dog Island, before heading north into the Thames. quarantine sites in the country. The settlements of Wilderness Island was the location of several early Mills Hackbridge, Mill Green and Beddington Corner on the River harnessed as an energy source over continued with their distinct mixed use industrial / several hundred years for a variety of early industrial residential character but became more densely suburban processes including flour grinding, calico beating and and commuting encouraged by the fast rail service to gunpowder grinding, from before the Industrial Westminster (Victoria) and the City (London Bridge). Revolution. 5.22 In the early decades of the 20th Century the area’s5.21 The success of the Mills as well as the pleasant pastoral proximity to thriving Croydon helped it continue to be a environment less than 12 miles from the City of London significant manufacturing location by becoming (The River Wandle was a famed trout fishing river) increasingly linked to the global economy and by attracted wealthy mercantilists who build several large specialising in the new technologies of electronics Country houses close to the River funded both by City (Marconi and Mullards valves), communications (deep enterprise and the more dependable rentals arising from sea telegraph and telephone cables) and early aviation. PAGE 19UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 24. The need for housing for workers was met by market gardening and the tertiary processes of sewage construction nearby. In the interwar periods many of the waste treatment originally developed by Croydon remaining open spaces and common land were built on Corporation and linked to the Beddington Park and for speculative housing and areas employment function Mitcham Common. Hackbridge therefore has retained continued to grow so that Mullards became part of the its mixed use employment and residential character multinational Phillips industries and the largest employer alongside the River Wandle and its proximity to open in the borough in the 1960’s based on distinctive multi- land areas although the form and function of the built storey factories reflecting the continental Bauhaus environment has changed substantially. Most recently design philosophy. Mullards continued through to the the appetite of the area for innovation has returned with 1990’s before demolition and redevelopment for housing, the award winning zero carbon development of BedZED a school and open space/flood wash land. Other based on low energy, low waste, use of local sourced manufacturing locations remained in the area but ceased materials and renewables together with its iconic to be leading edge technologies as the original firms architecture which has attracted international acclaim. relocated out of London and were replaced in turn by distribution warehouses and the service industry Sutton (Hackbridge was the location for the first “Comet” 5.24 In the 18th century Sutton was a small village with discount retail warehouse in the early 1970’s). houses scattered along the High Street from the Green Employment continues to be significant to the area as to the Cock Cross Roads. In 1745 the High Street was space for serviced offices/workspaces has been created improved and by 1800 the area become a significant from former offices (Sutton Business Centre in the stopping point on the route from London to the seaside former Zetter Pools headquarters) and the Wandle resort of Brighton. The area was also used as a calling Valley Ward has the second highest employment point on the way to the races at Epsom on the Banstead numbers of any ward in the Borough (after Beddington Downs. During this period, the area was served by North). several inns, including the Angel; the Greyhound (which stood in the High Street); and the Cock at the5.23 New housing has been built for a variety of tenures in the Crossroads. area including the low lying land to the east of the London Road adjacent to the substantial Beddington 5.25 The introduction of the railway may have reduced the Farmlands a significant open area associated with passing trading opportunities on the Brighton route. PAGE 20UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 25. However, in 1847 Sutton acquired a station and a second line to London was constructed in 1868. Thomas Alcock, who owned the manor and much land in the parish, laid out two housing estates, including Newtown to the east of the High Street and Benhilton to north- east. Further development followed and by 1900 Sutton was a small town with a high street lined with Victorian shops and several exceptional older buildings. Development continued through the Edwardian period, with the development of an attractive estate along the south of Cheam Road. However, even though there was Example of Victorian terrace in Sutton Town Centre with considerable development in the area, a large amount of shops below and flats above. The shopfronts do not land was left for development in the 1920s and 1930s. respect the quality of the building frontage5.26 Benhilton and many areas south of the railway station The nature of growth and development, including the Victorian consisted of large middle class villas. These have proved influences, made Sutton the main centre in the area and the attractive for redevelopment, with many original houses Borough’s key centre when the Councils merged in 1965. By being replaced by flats and town houses. The estates remaining an important centre, Sutton has experienced large with smaller houses, such as Newtown and other late amounts of development in the last 60 years. Victorian and Edwardian roads to the west of the High Street, have survived more or less intact. Wallington 5.27 In the early 19th century Wallington was a small hamlet within Beddington Parish. There were several large older houses to the north of the Green, including the Manor House and the Old Manor House. To the south of the Green was an area of late 18th century developments that may have housed people working in the mills and textile works along the Wandle. Wallington acquired a railway station in 1847 and Nathaniel Bridges, owner of PAGE 21UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 26. the manor and much land, started developing the area Wallington Council for which the town hall was built in for housing. He laid out a number of roads to the north of the late 1930s. the station, which were soon lined with large Victorian brick gothic villas. Development to the south of the 5.29 There has been significant redevelopment of the railway occurred around Stafford Road. Bridges used Victorian and Edwardian middle class houses, since the leases to strictly control the appearance of the houses, 1930s, which has led to a mixed character of much of of which the design had to be approved by his architect. the area. However, several examples of Victorian and As a result of the railway and increased housing Edwardian buildings and groups of buildings have development, a new parish was created and Holy Trinity survived. Church erected. In the early 20th century development spread southwards from Stafford Road and Stanley Park Worcester Park Road, with many good examples of Edwardian houses. 5.30 Worcester Park is located on the north-east corner of Development of the Wallington area slowed after the Nonsuch Great Park. It takes its name from the 4th Earl 1930s. of Worcester, one-time Keeper of the Great Park. The principle house in the park was known as Worcester House, which was built on the highest point in the Park, where The Avenue, Royal Avenue and Delta Road meet. Wallington has several examples of large brick gothic villas from around the 1860’s5.28 The development of Wallington resulted in it becoming a Typical example of Inter War Suburban Worcester Park local retail centre, with the offices of the Beddington and PAGE 22UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 27. 5.31 Suburban Worcester Park was developed around the station in the late 19th Century and was largely completed in the inter war years (1919 – 1939). Suburban Worcester Park is characterised by rows of terraced houses, with bay windows and clad in varying materials. The streets are fairly narrow with considerable amounts of car parking and front gardens are being paved and used for additional parking which is significantly altering the character of the area.5.32 More recent development, called the Hamptons, creates a new character in an area with no previous character. This predominantly consists of a ‘New England’ style of architecture comprising various colour weather boarded dwellings in well landscaped surroundings. PAGE 23UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 28. 6.3 These have mostly survived in the village centres of Carshalton and Cheam, although there are several examples elsewhere. They have often been modified by weather board or tiles rendering. • Materials: timber frame, wattle and daub, peg tile roofs and occasionally brick • Colour patterns: Timber often painted black and SIX white (although there is no historical justification for this); red tile roofs, soft orange red bricks; and weather boarding often added • Examples in Sutton: the Old Cottage (the Broadway, Cheam) and Whitehall (Cheam).Local material colour paletteIntroduction 18th century buildings6.1 The underlying principle of good urban design is how 6.4 Predominantly brick buildings. new development will respond to and reflect an area’s • Materials: Soft red sandy brick, coarse red or local distinctiveness, and where none exists, creates a yellowish bricks (which are easily confused with distinct character of its own. This may be achieved by London stock bricks), peg / pan tiles, the soft red considering how modern design and materials respond bricks are sometimes cut and rubbed to decorate to the local vernacular, while incorporating the windows or doors, wooden sash windows or lead principles of sustainable construction and materials. casement windows in less prominent locations. • Colour patterns: Red or yellowish bricks, red roof6.2 In order to help inform assessments of context this tiles. section sets out a local palette of materials and colour • Examples in Sutton: The Old Rectory (Festival schemes from the various building periods. This should Walk, Carshalton), Cottages (Wrights Row, be taken into account in any local context appraisal. Wallington) and Sutton Lodge (Brighton Road, Respecting local character does not necessarily mean Sutton) replicating it. Where contemporary designs are proposed with modern materials it may still be Weatherboarding necessary to reflect key historical and architectural 6.5 Many timber framed weather board houses were built features. However, in some instances it may be more in the area between the 18th and early 19th century, appropriate to replicate the local material palette. with several built before this time. Examples ofPre-18th century buildings weatherboard houses can be found in the old village PAGE 24UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 29. centres of Cheam and Carshalton, and dispersed • Materials: yellow and red stock brick, red tiled and elsewhere in the borough. slate roofs, decorative chimneys and casement • Materials: Horizontal lapped boarding over timber windows; frame, pan / peg tile roofs, sash or casement • Colour patterns: yellow, red and red / black roofs windows, with slate roofs as probable later • Examples in Sutton: St Helier estate, Sutton replacements. Garden Suburb, Culvers Way, Bute Road, Alberta • Colour patterns: generally painted white with red Avenue and Federick Road roof tiles • Examples in Sutton: Aulton Lodge (West Street, Recent Housing (1970 to present) Carshalton) and Park Lane (Cheam). • Materials: new London Stock, yellow and red brick, glass, timber, aluminium, good quality cladding,Mid Victorian sustainable building materials, modern materials6.6 Predominantly brick gothic-style buildings from the high and colour render (New England style) Victorian period. • Colour patterns: opportunities for varied colour • Materials: Yellow stock brick often with red schemes decorative details, stone windows, stale roofs and • Examples in Sutton: the Hamptons, Apeldoorn prominent gables with decorated barge boards. Estate, Mill Lane, Henderson Hospital Site, Mullard • Colour patterns: Yellow brick walls with red detail, Factory Site, Cotswold Way and Oakdene Mews pale brown stone and grey or purple slate roofs • Examples in Sutton: North side of Westcroft Road (Carshalton)Late Victorian and Edwardian (1890 – 1914) • Materials: Soft red, occasionally yellow brick, peg tiles on the roof and sometimes hung on the wall. Wooden mock Tudor doors and windows often with leading and some stained glass. Iron finials and decoration. • Colour patterns: Red walls and roofs • Examples in Sutton: Russettings (Worcester Road, Sutton)Cottage Garden Style (Arts and Crafts style) PAGE 25UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 30. Wallington District Centre. Some parts of the Borough are particularly poorly served by public transport including large areas south of the Sutton-Wallington railway line. Much of the low density housing areas of SEVEN South Cheam, Carshalton Beeches, South Wallington and Beddington South have PTAL levels of 1a/1b and some areas have no access to public transport at all, including in the Green Belt at Little Woodcote and Cuddington/South Cheam. 7.4 Industrial and commercial development is concentrated in three strategic industrial locations at Beddington,Movement Kimpton and Imperial Way/Purley Way South. Each of these areas is located close to key radial routes inIntroduction London and on to the M25.7.1 Three principal radial routes from London, the A24, the A217 and the A237, cross through the Borough and provide access to the M25.The A232 and A2022 provide east-west routes across the Borough and provide direct access to the A23 and from there down to Gatwick Airport and the south coast.7.2 The London Borough of Sutton is served by a number of suburban rail services with London termini at Victoria, London Bridge and Waterloo as well as Thameslink which provides cross London service to Kings Cross and Luton. Tramlink connects Croydon and Wimbledon with two stops in the north east corner of the Borough.7.3 Figure 7.1 highlights the road and rail network and the Public Transport Accessibility Levels (PTALs) in the Borough. Not surprisingly the highest PTAL levels are found in and around Sutton Town Centre followed by PAGE 26UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 31. Figure 7.1: Sutton’s Road and Rail Network and Public Transport Accessibility Levels PAGE 27UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 32. Area in South Wallington, and the Downs Road area and Chiltern Road area in South Sutton; and • The appraisal of 27 characteristic areas of inter-war suburban housing during 2007, including the Ruskin EIGHT Road/Grandison Road area in Worcester Park; the Kingsmead Avenue, Oaks Avenue, Tudor Avenue Area; a number of roads in South Cheam; and the Pine Walk area in Carshalton Beeches. The areas reviewed are identified on the Map in Figure 8.1 below.Townscape and Landscape Figure 8.1: Interwar Housing Areas ReviewedCharacter and QualityIntroduction8.1 The Townscape/Landscape Appraisal (1998) set out results of an assessment of the open and built environments in Sutton and identified certain character areas within the Borough. However this original work has been refined on the basis of the following detailed appraisals: • Conservation Area character appraisals undertaken of Sutton Garden Suburb, Wallington Green and Carshalton Village during 2005-07; • The appraisal of a number of potential Areas of Special Local Character (ASLCs) undertaken between 2003 and 2008. The potential areas included Anne Boleyn’s Walk area, Cheam; the Burton Estate in South Cheam, the Belmont Area; the Highfields area in South Sutton; the Clyde Road PAGE 28UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 33. 8.2 Additional townscape character appraisal work has extraction and waste disposal site; and the specifically been undertaken on Sutton Town Centre: development of Prologis Park to the east of Beddington the North Sutton (Angel’s End) Study by Atkins and CB Lane). Hillier Parker in 2003 and the Sutton Town Centre Urban Design Analysis by Urban Practitioners (2007). 8.5 The key features from each townscape character area This information has also been used to update the are outlined in this section and are shown on Figure 1998 characterisation appraisal of the Borough. 8.2. Figure 8.2 illustrates that the character of the Borough is predominantly defined by inter-war8.3 The Commission for Architecture and the Built suburban housing interspersed with large public open Environment (CABE) advises that the approach spaces that give the Borough its suburban and “green” recommended by English Heritage towards the qualities. assessment of character of historic areas can be applied to the analysis of any area1. Accordingly, the 8.6 The key features of landscape character are illustrated character appraisal of both potential ASLCs and the on Figure 8.4. inter-war suburban areas used the same criteria established in the Unitary Development Plan (2003). 8.7 Furthermore, the Townscape/Landscape Appraisal The criteria are: quality of the overall character of an identified the quality of the townscape and landscape area; the townscape value of individual and groups of and this is illustrated on Figure 8.3 and 8.5 buildings; the architectural quality of buildings; the respectively. These figures have been updated to historic importance of the area; landscape reflect the appraisal work undertaken on potential characteristics; quality of open spaces; and the ASLCs and the inter-war suburban housing areas and contribution of incidental features such as walls, fences to take into account major enhancement schemes and hedges. implemented since the original survey work (i.e. at Kimpton Industrial Estate and the redevelopment of the8.4 The original 1998 appraisal work has also been Roundshaw Housing Estate). updated to reflect significant changes of land use (i.e. the redevelopment of the former Worcester Park 8.8 The areas of very good or exceptional townscape Sewage Treatment Works; the change of the quality and areas of high landscape quality are predominant use of Beddington Farmlands from a generally found to the south of the Borough. sewage treatment works to an active minerals1 Protecting Design Quality in Planning, 2003 PAGE 29UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 34. Figure 8.2: Townscape Character PAGE 30UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 35. Figure 8.3: Townscape Quality PAGE 31UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 36. Figure 8.4: Landscape Character PAGE 32UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 37. Figure 8.5: Landscape Quality PAGE 33UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 38. Housing Typologies8.9 The character of the Borough is defined by a number of housing typologies which are described below.. In order to help manage the process of change both the features that are key to each typology and the positive/negative range of issues currently affecting the typologies have been set out. These appraisals should © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. provide the starting point for applicants in London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. understanding local context. Typical example of pre-1915 artisan housing, from Highland Cottages, WallingtonPre-1915 housing8.10 This housing character is located predominantly in and around the commercial centres of the Borough, and many of these areas are already designated as Conservation Areas or Areas of Special Local Character.8.11 There is a range of property sizes and styles originating from this period that were mostly dependent on the market for which the housing was intended.8.12 There are examples of small two-story artisan terraces Pre-1913 artisan housing at Highland Cottages with with minimal front gardens normally enclosed by a low minimal front gardens and strong architectural wall. These areas are usually intensively developed cohesion with no off street parking and have an urban feel. The areas usually have a strong architectural cohesion. An 8.13 Elsewhere, such as Clyde Road Wallington there are example of pre-1913 artisan housing is Highland larger late Victorian or Edwardian properties, which are Cottages, as shown below. typically developed to a lower density and have a less regimented building layout. Sometimes there is a mixture of detached/semi-detached properties and a mix of architectural styles. However, all these PAGE 34UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 39. properties usually have the rich architectural detailing of the era.8.14 Furthermore, these areas have larger building plots and consequently larger front gardens with significant landscape features. More recently, many of these front gardens have been converted to provide off-street parking. Larger properties of the typical Victorian / Edwardian housing on Clyde Road, Wallington 8.15 Current issues: • Some infill development is discordant as it is not sympathetic to the context. Such development has led to varying building lines and the use of different materials; • The conversion of older large houses to nursing © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. homes or flats has increased densities and led to unsympathetic alterations such as obtrusive fire Typical example of pre-1915 Victorian / Edwardian escapes; loss of front gardens to parking; and housing, from Clyde Road, Wallington intrusive refuse storage areas; • Extensive on-street and forecourt parking impacts on the street character leading to loss of hedges and landscaping that is part of the original vernacular; and • Backland development has occurred on the large garden blocks, characteristic of this era. PAGE 35UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 40. Inter-War housing 1918-19398.16 This housing type is the most prevalent throughout the borough, often in long straight streets. During this period individual builders were able to buy tracts of land and lay areas out as discrete estates. The layout and character of some of these estates is still apparent from the street patterns and the style of houses.8.17 Examples from this period include the Brocks Estate (between Gander Green Lane and St Dunstans Hill); the Poets Estate in Carshalton; the Paynes Estate Example of 1930s housing from the Poets Estate, (north of the Wallington/Sutton railway line and east of Sutton Plough Lane); and the Queenswood Estate in Wallington (south of Croydon Road). 8.18 This housing character generally comprises of short terraces or semi-detached two storey houses. The streets are typically wide and have grass verges and street trees. Front gardens are small and have low boundary walls generally of brick or ‘cinder’ rubble set between timber posts. 8.19 Although the architectural style appears to be uniform there are sometimes differences. The properties are usually clay tiled with brick or rendered finish. There are tile hung or half-timbered gable ends and front elevations at first floor level. Some front doors are © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. enhanced by porches or brick arched openings with decorative keystones. Typical example of Inter-War Housing, 1918 - 1939, from the Poets Estate PAGE 36UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 41. detached and terraced properties. The earliest example is Sutton Garden Suburb, planned and work begun before the First World War. The houses that were built reflect the arts and crafts style detailing of the time with steeply pitched, tiled roofs, decorated chimneys and casement windows. Example of clay tiled front, first floor elevation8.20 Current issues: • Whilst the architectural style is often uniform, it sometimes lacks distinctive character; • Some interwar estates are large, impersonal and lack identity, which has an impact on legibility; © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. • Front gardens are being used to accommodate off- London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. street parking, which destroys the pattern of the street frontage and leaves house fronts open to the Sutton Garden Suburb, typical street and layout from streets when cars are removed; the cottage garden style estate. • Too many side extensions can be insensitive and create a terracing effect between properties; and • In some areas the loss of characteristic boundary treatments has had a detrimental impact on the street scene.Cottage garden style estates8.21 The cottage garden style estates were originally planned to include open spaces as an integral part of the layout and would comprise of two storey semi- PAGE 37UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 42. Post War housing up to 1970 8.24 Private houses built during this period are few and scattered throughout the Borough often on small infill sites. These properties are generally two storey semi detached or terraced houses with small private gardens. Architecturally the houses are usually unadorned brick built rectangles. Example of typical cottage style housing found in Sutton Garden Suburb, showing extensive open space, tiled roofs and decorated chimneys8.22 On a larger scale the St Helier Estate was designed by London County Council architects to meet London’s mass housing needs. One of its main features is the integral network of open spaces. Another feature is the soft enclosure of the privet hedges and trees on each corner, originally a part of the estates ‘corner greens’. The post war rectangular terraced houses with small private gardens and larger communal open space, from8.23 Current issues: Langcroft Close, Carshalton • Permitted Development Rights have resulted in unsympathetic alterations to houses, such as 8.25 Furthermore, during this period there were significant pebbledashing, construction of front porches and developments in social housing notably the changes to fenestration using different design and Roundshaw Estate on the western edge of the former materials, including uPVC; and Croydon airport site. The Roundshaw area has since • Loss of the original landscape design of estates due been significantly redeveloped as part of a to cost of maintenance (such as rose beds on regeneration programme and the estate now has the corner plots being transferred into private nationally recognised Phoenix Centre development. ownership) and increase in car ownership (such as parking on verges). PAGE 38UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 43. Durand Close; • Poor quality and maintenance of the public space and often a lack of distinction between public and private realm; • Infill development is often unsympathetic to the local character; and • Architectural design is often of limited quality. Recent housing 1970 to present 8.27 Development during this period falls into three different © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. categories: Example of large regeneration scheme involving many 1. New flats that replace large detached houses and new post War terrace houses on the Roundshaw villas in the Victorian / Edwardian residential areas Estate of Sutton and Wallington; 2. Small infill development; and 3. Part of a large redevelopment usually of a brown field site. 8.28 Many of the flats built during the 1970s and 1980s are characterised by three and four storey blocks set in grounds that are usually well landscaped or set in grassland. The earlier developments from this period are often not responsive to their context and therefore Roundshaw, where the site area is large enough to result in a contrast that is discordant with the area. create its own character More recently, modern flatted development is generally being built to a higher standard with a greater8.26 Current issues: understanding of the existing design context and often • The earlier estates suffer from homogenous with an innovative design concept. development and lack of a positive identity; • Large estates that do not contribute to creating mixed communities and mix of uses, for example PAGE 39UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 44. © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. Typical example of small infill development, from Lavender Court, a typical example of recent flat Oakdene Mews off Ash Road development on Cavendish Road, near Sutton town centre New infill development at Oakdene Mews, of short Lavender Court, recent flat development near Sutton branched streets and houses grouped around shared town centre spaces8.29 Small infill schemes are often designed on constrained 8.30 On certain larger sites, which are divorced from the sites that dictate their layout. This includes typically surrounding character by the existing layout or areas short or branching streets and often houses that are with little character, have benefited from the opportunity grouped together around shared parking areas. An to create new places with its own distinctive character. example of this is Oakdene Mews, off Ash Road. An example of this is the Hamptons at the former PAGE 40UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 45. Worcester Park Sewage Treatment Works site. • The layouts are dominated by over engineered Furthermore, these large-scale redevelopment sites roads with little character; have allowed the opportunity for innovative and • Cul-de-sacs are characteristic of this era of environmentally sustainable development schemes, development resulting in limited permeability and such as BEDZED in Hackbridge. greater dependency on the car; • Comprise of blocks of flats not responsive in scale or architecture to the local vernacular; • Garage blocks separate development reducing natural surveillance and disrupt continuous street frontages, with little integration into the overall urban grain; and • Infill development is often unsympathetic to the local character (plots of 70’s town houses next to Victorian detached house). Low-density housing © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. 8.32 Development of this character type is concentrated in London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. the southern half of the borough and was mainly built Large scale new development at BEDZED during the interwar period. The houses are usually detached with large plot sizes. Several of the areas are adjacent to the Green Belt, for example the Drive in South Cheam and Pine Walk in Carshalton Beeches. Others enclose large open spaces such as Carshalton Park or Great Woodcote Park. Style, layout and materials of BEDZED create interesting and distinctive character8.31 Current issues: PAGE 41UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 46. Pine Walk comprising of large detached houses on © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. large plots located close to the Metropolitan Green Belt Typical example of low density housing, from the Drive8.33 These lower density areas are generally loosely structured with a less regimented arrangement of buildings. However, the variation in individual properties makes less of an impact, than for example other character types, as the low density results in the architectural form being less significant on the street scene and the extensive landscaping of the boundaries. It should also be noted that housing density in this area is well below the government’s prescribed density ranges set out in Planning Policy Statement 3. Furthermore, the character of these areas is predominantly defined by the significant and mature The Drive with elaborate detached houses on large landscaping within the gardens, the verge planting and plots with extensive landscaping associated open spaces. 8.34 Current issues: • Intensification of plots leading to the loss of visual gaps and dominant landscaping between buildings; • Whilst architectural style is often not cohesive the palette of materials is. Often new development PAGE 42UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 47. imposes a style such as Neo-Georgian Architectural Sutton metropolitan centre porches which introduces a different palette of 8.36 Sutton High Street, which is two thirds pedestrianised, materials and is therefore discordant with the forms the backbone to Sutton Town Centre, the existing character of the area; and borough’s only metropolitan retail centre. This • Dominance of building to plot ratio in new pedestrianised area, interspersed with various squares, development changes the character of the area. contributes to civic spaces, which is in parts, attractive and active.Town Centres8.35 The borough’s retail centres all have differing characters reflecting the periods of their predominant growth, including older village centres (Carshalton/Cheam), Victorian centres (Wallington/Belmont), 1930’s retail centres (North Cheam/Stonecot/Rosehill) and centres which have experienced considerable modern development (Sutton). The following section considers, in greater detail, the key elements that define the character of several retail centres. Further townscape character Sutton High Street with vibrant pedestrian areas and information is available in: entrances to the Time Square and St Nicholas • The Development Framework for Sutton Station shopping centres off the High Street and Adjacent Land, produced by London Borough of Sutton (2005); 8.37 The Sutton Town Centre Urban Design Analysis • The North Sutton (Angels End) Study by Atkins identifies three broad character areas: North; Central; and CB Hillier Parker 2004; and South – each of which has distinct contextual • The Sutton Town Centre Urban Design Analysis issues and constraints. by Urban Practitioners (2007); and • The Carshalton Village Conservation Area 8.38 The linear layout of the centre makes accessibility Character Appraisal (2007) undertaken by the difficult, especially with the main train station located Council towards the southern end of the centre. This opportunity to public transport has also resulted in the majority of redevelopment occurring near the southern portion. East-west connections between the town PAGE 43UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 48. centre and its residential hinterland are not always welcoming and clear. Unattractive pedestrian environment caused by treatment of the changes in level and amount of hard landscaping 8.40 Much of the recent re-development in the town centre has seen the introduction of shopping malls located off the high Street, with entrance pavilions onto the High Street. An example of this is Times Square with its imposing red brick and stone finish. © Crown Copyright. All rights reserved. London Borough of Sutton 100008655X. 2006. Linear layout of Sutton Town Centre8.39 Sutton Town Centre does not have a clear urban character, however there are several good examples of Victorian and Edwardian retail frontages. Some recent architecture is of poor quality and has not taken The entrance to Times Square shopping centre opportunities for integration within the wider townscape 8.41 The South Sutton Character Area is in an elevated or to make improvements to character. position and is characterised both north and south of the station by a number of existing tall office buildings of relatively poor quality. In contrast to this there is a PAGE 44UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 49. small-scale parade of shops opposite the station entrance.Carshalton village centre8.42 Carshalton Town Centre is a village retail centre wholly within the Carshalton Conservation Area that is characterised by extensive open space. However, the A232 dominates the High Street and heavy traffic detracts from its character. Decorative shopfront in Carshalton High Street 8.44 The historical village ‘feel’ of Carshalton, discussed in previous sections, is successfully protected from new development. However, certain aspects of 1960’s development, such as the introduction of concrete walkways, have negatively impacted the character of Carshalton High Street with very dominant vehicle the area, such as Beacon Grove. usage detracting from the character of the conservation area8.43 There are several decorative Victorian shopfronts remaining along the High Street. However, the majority of the remaining retail units, from around the 1930’s, comprise of shopfronts with various finishes or signage that alter heights and depths detracting from the original façade. Beacon Grove with hard paving and blank frontages PAGE 45UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 50. does little to reflect the conservation area designation of CarshaltonCheam village centre8.45 Cheam village originates at the intersection of Maldon Road and Ewell Road, in the Cheam Village Conservation Area. The main shopping areas comprise of a historic village character and the majority of the shops are decorated with Tudor and mock Tudor timber detailing and leaded-light windows. However, the parade at the Broadway from Whitehall onwards White weatherboard property in Cheam Village, in comprises of earlier white weatherboard. close proximity to Whitehall 8.46 Further techniques and materials of the Cheam village retail area include white rendering, black timber detailing with black leaded light windows, where the shopfronts are set back from the road on raised pavements with grass verges and mature trees. 8.47 Several three-storey neo-Georgian retail units still exist, however a more recent development along Ewell Road east, protrudes from the existing building line and is finished in red-brick that is not in keeping with character of the area. Hackbridge retail centre 8.48 The Hackbridge retail centre comprises of a mixture of uses, including some retail, industrial and offices. The area suffers from a lack of clear identify, mostly Mock Tudor retail units in Cheam Village attributed to the quality and quantity of metal sheds, industrial uses, vacant sites and a plethora of advertising boards. PAGE 46UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 51. reducing vibrancy, natural surveillance and opportunities to expand the retail offer; • Use of poorly designed security grills; • Insufficient creative use and poor maintenance of public realm; • Unattractive pedestrian environment; and • Lack of respect to natural landscaping features, such as the Wandle and other open space that may become a visual focus or improved pedestrian movement. Hackbridge suffers from a lack of clear identity with Rosehill vacant sites and vast amounts of advertising boards 8.51 Rosehill is situated on a major gyratory between the B278, B2230, A217 and A297 although the primary8.49 The quality of buildings and frontages in the area shopping area is situated along the southern parade of makes various contributions to the character, such as Wrythe Lane. This centre serves the St Helier Estate Hexagon House with a positive impact on the character built for the London County Council between 1928 and and the Bath Store. However, the now demolished 1936. Kimpton House did little to create an identity for Hackbridge. The area has large amounts of concrete 8.52 The quality of the buildings and frontages in the area is paving, few trees and lacks maintenance. variable. However the attractive 1930’s ‘ocean liner’ building fronting onto Rosehill and the modern building8.50 Generally, the current issues with all the Town Centres opposite which mirrors it, act as landmarks in this area. include: Meanwhile, the Co-Op food store, which anchors the • Large unsympathetic post Second World War centre, does not act as a positive gateway feature to development conflicting with scale, form and grain the centre. of Victorian terraces; • Character eroded by poorly designed shop fronts North Cheam district centre and fascia boards; 8.53 The focus of North Cheam retail centre is Queen • Dominance of traffic and car parking, such as is Victoria junction with solid red brick two and three visible in Wallington town centre; storey apartments above shop frontages on three • Development with inappropriate blank façades corners. The other corner, a landmark feature, consists PAGE 47UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 52. of a newer 1960’s concrete building that detracts from shops. These consist of tiled pitched roofs and half this character. timbered effect fronts with bay windows, together with gabled fronts, setting a pattern along the line of frontages jutting out form the main roof line. Wallington district centre 8.55 Wallington district centre predominantly comprises of Victorian terraces with nondescript retail on the ground floors. Woodcote Road is a busy road that runs through the distinct centre and therefore acts as a barrier between both sides of the street. The character of Queen Victoria junction, in North Cheam, is solid red brick two and three storey apartments above shops, on three corners Wallington town centre - Victorian buildings with shops below, and the busy Woodcote Road dominating the centre and segregating pedestrian movement 8.56 The Sainsbury’s development, including the pedestrian square (Wallington Square), does very little to improve the character of the area, with various negative This landmark development on the remaining corner of aspects, such as lack of active frontages, buildings not Queen Victoria junction, North Cheam, does little to in keeping with the Victorian character, dark covered respect the character of the area areas, car parking located to the front of the site, changes in levels, planting / street furniture and poor8.54 Several properties along London Road are of an pedestrian and cycle environment, especially at night. intimate scale of mostly single storey frontages above PAGE 48UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 53. Wallington Square with buildings above cause dark and The development in the foreground does very little to unwelcoming urban environments respect the Victorian properties in the background, along Woodcote Road, Wallington The blank frontages of the Sainsbury’s building and parking located to the front of the site does not make the most of the opportunities available for improving that strategic site in the town centre PAGE 49UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 54. 9.3 In its conclusions and recommendations URS indicates NINE that “defining the setting of an area will always be…a subjective process, which needs extensive knowledge of the locality”. URS recommends that local authorities should define the setting and resulting density as part of their LDF process with the context and guidance given by the GLA (URS, Paragraph 7.2.5).Assessment of density and 9.4 However, having undertaken the thorough assessment of character of the Borough, as set out in the precedingsetting pages, the Council is concerned that the Mayor’s Matrix does not sufficiently reflect local circumstances and consequently its rigid application is likely to lead to a significant change in local character, in certain parts ofIntroduction the Borough. Accordingly, research has been9.1 Policy 3A.3 of the London Plan: Consolidated with undertaken to assess the applicability of the settings2 Alterations since 2004 (the London Plan) seeks to and density ranges of the Mayor’s Matrix to Sutton. ensure that all development proposals ensure the maximum intensity of use. In order to achieve this, the 9.5 It is clear from the character appraisal work set out in the Policy indicates that boroughs should adopt the preceding chapters that the townscape character of the residential density ranges set out in the Mayor’s Density Borough is complex and does not fall easily into the Matrix. Mayor’s definitions for settings. Consequently a more detailed assessment of density has been undertaken9.2 The London Plan Density Matrix Review, prepared by which, along with the review of character, has helped URS Corporation Ltd for the GLA1, explains that the inform a local definition of setting. existing characteristics of the area are indicative to some degree of the density prevalent in the area. Hence, the Methodology importance of this element within the Density Matrix is 9.4 In accordance with the URS recommendations a study that it ensures the proposed development is in line with was conducted during 2007 to determine the prevalent the surrounding environment, not just in terms of density densities across the Borough and to investigate the but also massing and heights. characteristics of areas with different densities. 2 The Mayor defines settings by looking at location, buildings form and1 The London Plan Density Matrix Review, URS, 2006 massing PAGE 50UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 55. • Period of development; and9.5 The study used two primary research methods: • Housing density. • Firstly, a qualitative appraisal was undertaken of the 27 inter-war character areas reported in Chapter 8. 9.8 Of the 27 areas assessed, the qualitative appraisal of the Site visits were undertaken and areas were assessed following sites (also identified on Figure 9.1) have been using historic area analysis techniques. The Council set out in the section below: recorded the findings of the field surveys on the 1. Brinkley Road, Worcester Park standard field sheets used for assessing Areas of 2. Morningside Road / Beverly Road, Worcester Park Special Local Character, a copy of which is attached 3. Marlow Drive / Egham Crescent, North Cheam as Appendix 1. 4. Tudor Avenue / Oaks Avenue, Worcester Park • Secondly, a desktop study was carried out to identify 5. Wickham Avenue / Palmer Avenue, Nonsuch over 100 examples of density and character 6. Gassiot Way / Colburn Way / Pagent Avenue, commonly found in the residential heartlands of the Benhilton Borough and identified approximately 100 examples 7. Thornton Road, St. Helier of density and character of residential areas in, or 8. Royston Avenue, Wallington close to, town centres. This quantitative exercise was 9. Hawthorne Road, Wallington translated into density frequency graphs. 10. Windborough Road, Carshalton Beeches 11. The Warren, Carshalton Beeches9.6 The following sections set out the detailed findings of the 12. The Drive, South Cheam density/settings Study.Qualitative Assessment9.7 The qualitative appraisal assessed the character of inter- war suburbs, based on the criteria used by the GLA to define setting, which includes the consideration of: • Accessibility to Metropolitan, District or Local Centre in terms of easy walking distance; • Type of development, such as flats, terrace, semi, detached and bungalows; • Heights of buildings; • Dwelling setback and front boundary treatment; • Nature of the street and pavement, including parking arrangements; PAGE 51UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 56. 1. Brinkley Road, Worcester Park 9.9 Brinkley Road is located in Worcester Park directly north of Central Road and within 2 to 5 minutes walk of Worcester Park District Centre. The housing in Brinkley Road is from the Inter War period, being built between 1918 and 1938. A mix of bungalows and semi-detached dwellings of very little distinctive architectural qualityFigure 9.1: Location of Sites define the character. The dwellings are predominantly two storeys with sloped roofs and a mix of single or 2 storey bay windows, with matching tiling on the single storey bay. The dwellings are well set back from the road, which has encouraged the paving over of front gardens for use as additional vehicle parking. Brinkley Road is narrow, with considerable parking on the street, half the pavement, few street trees and no grass verges. 9.10 The current housing density of this area is approximately 27 dwellings per hectare or 108 habitable rooms per hectare. PAGE 52UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 57. 2. Morningside Road / Beverly Road, Worcester Park 3. Marlow Drive / Egham Crescent, North Cheam 9.13 Marlow Drive / Egham Crescent is located to the east of London Road, approximately 5 to 10 minutes walk from9.11 This area is located north of Cheam Common Road and North Cheam District Centre. Again, this area is from the west of London Road, approximately 2 to 5 minutes walk Inter War period of housing development (1918 – 1939). to Worcester Park District Centre and 5 to 10 minutes This area predominantly comprises of 2 storey terraces walk to North Cheam District Centre. The area is from of 4 dwellings, varying roof design, rounded bay the Inter War housing period of development (1918 – windows and peddledashed, tile hung or rendered front 1939) and is well presented and maintained, comprising exteriors. There is an access road in the middle of the of 2 storey semi-detached dwellings, with rounded bay street block, which provides access to the garages to the windows, deep front gardens and garages located to the rear of the properties. The roads are relatively wide with side of the dwellings. There is a mix of well-landscaped on-street parking and wide pavements with several front gardens and some paving for vehicle parking. The street trees and grass verges. However, the significant streets are wider than other parts of Worcester Park, dwelling set backs are encouraging the paving over of with wide pavements, grass verges and many street front gardens for parking, resulting in a loss of the front trees. boundary treatments and grass verges.9.12 The current housing density of this area is approximately 9.14 The current housing density of this area is approximately 21 dwellings per hectare or 105 habitable rooms per 37 dwellings per hectare or 180 habitable rooms per hectare. hectare. PAGE 53UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 58. 4. Tudor Avenue / Oaks Avenue, Worcester Park 5. Wickham Avenue / Palmer Avenue, Nonsuch9.15 Tudor Avenue and Oaks Avenue are located to the south of Cheam Common Road and to west of London Road, 9.17 Wickham Avenue / Palmer Avenue is located to the east approximately 5 to 10 minutes walk from Cheam North directly off London Road, approximately 5 to 10 minutes District Centre. The area is from the Inter War period of walk from North Cheam District Centre. This Inter War housing development (1918 – 1939) and comprises of housing area is characterised by two storey semi- very high quality, 2 storey semi-detached Mock-Tudor detached dwellings, with garages to the rear of the dwellings. Most of the properties have a combination of properties accessed via an access road in between the off-street parking and well landscaped front gardens. semis. This provision of garages has resulted in virtually There is minimal on-street parking and a large amount of no on street parking. The area is fairly spaciously laid out street trees and grass verges that further contribute to with large back gardens. the character of the area. 9.18 The current housing density of this area is approximately9.16 The current housing density of this area is approximately 17 dwellings per hectare or 85 habitable rooms per 24 dwellings per hectare or 144 habitable rooms per hectare. hectare. PAGE 54UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 59. 6. Gassiot Way / Colburn Way / Pagent Avenue, Benhilton 7. Thornton Road, St. Helier 9.21 Thornton Road is located to the north east of Wrythe9.19 This area is located to the east of Benhill Road, over 10 Lane, about 10 minutes walk from Rose Hill District minutes walk to Sutton Metropolitan Centre. This Inter Centre. The area forms part of the St. Helier housing War housing area is characterised by two storey semi- estate designed and built by the London County Council detached dwellings, with fairly small front gardens. There in the style of the Cottage Garden Style Estate. The built is a significant loss of front gardens to off-street parking form comprises of 2 storey terraces of approximately 8 and there is a significant amount of on street parking. dwellings, with fairly small front gardens. These front gardens have increasingly been replaced with paving for9.20 The current housing density of this area is approximately the provision of parking, which has contributed to 35 dwellings per hectare or 175 habitable rooms per creating a ‘hard’ feel in the area. However, the concept hectare. of the Cottage Garden Style Estate includes the provision of soft landscaping, by using corner sites and other pieces of land as green open space. 9.22 The current housing density of this area is approximately 59 dwellings per hectare or 295 habitable rooms per hectare. PAGE 55UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 60. 8. Royston Avenue, Wallington 9. Hawthorne Road, Wallington9.23 Royston Avenue is located to the south of the Croydon 9.25 Hawthorne Road is located to the south of Stanley Park Road, approximately 5 minutes walk to Plough Lane Road and to the west of Woodcote Road, approximately Local Centre. It is characterised by two storey semi- 5 to 10 minutes walk from Wallington District Centre. detached dwellings, from the Inter War (1918 – 1939) This area was predominantly developed during the Inter period of development. The buildings are decorated with War housing period (1918 to 1939) and comprises of several single storey bay windows, including some with fairly low density two storey, detached houses, of varying white render or tile hung frontages. The front gardens architectural style, character and materials. Many of are small and well maintained, with garages to the rear these houses are well setback from the street with well with a shared access road in between the semis. The landscaped gardens and driveways. The streets are street is relatively wide with moderate amounts of on- fairly wide with few parked cars and a significant number street parking, some street trees and significant grass of street trees, but no grass verges. verges, which contribute to a green feel in the area. 9.26 The current housing density of this area is approximately9.24 The current housing density of this area is approximately 15 dwellings per hectare or 75 habitable rooms per 36 dwellings per hectare or 180 habitable rooms per hectare. hectare. PAGE 56UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 61. 10. Windborough Road, Carshalton Beeches 11. The Warren, Carshalton Beeches9.27 Boundary Road and Windborough Road are located to 9.29 The Warren is located over ten minutes to Carshalton the south of Stanley Park Road, in Carshalton Beeches, Beeches Station or 20 minutes to Sutton Metropolitan over 10 minutes walk to Wallington District Centre. The Centre or Belmont Larger Local Centre. The area is area consists of fairly standard two storey, 4 dwelling characterised by large two storey, very high quality terraces and several semi-detached houses from the detached houses set in well-landscaped large gardens. Inter War housing period (1918 – 1939). The This area was predominantly developed in the Inter War architectural features of the street are fairly consistent period (1918 – 1939) with varying architectural features, and with steep tiled roofs, although there is mix of colour materials and finishes. The streets are characterised by render. The dwellings are well set back from the street, several large trees and wide pavements, with significant however the gardens are not well maintained and in grass verges. Parking on the street is minimal given the some cases have been paved for parking. There is provision of driveways and garages. considerable parking on the street and the pavement has several street trees and grass verges. 9.30 The current housing density of this area is approximately 9 dwellings per hectare or 63 habitable rooms per9.28 The current housing density of this area is approximately hectare. 24 dwellings per hectare or 120 habitable rooms per hectare. PAGE 57UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 62. 12. The Drive, South Cheam Quantitative assessment of density 9.33 Density has a key bearing on the character of an area and therefore as part of this characterization assessment the Council has carried out a study of densities across the Borough.3 9.34 In terms of the Sample Survey, the Council considered the current housing density of over 100 areas of differing density and building form in the residential heartlands in the borough and approximately 100 examples of the density of areas close to or in the town centres. 9.35 The map in Appendix 2 identifies the sample areas in the residential heartlands and the maps in Appendix 39.31 The Drive is located in the South Cheam Special Policy identify the locations and density calculations for those Area, over 2km from the Cheam District Centre. The areas in and close to town centres. area was subdivided by Edward Northey in the late 1880s, although several of the properties were 9.36 One of the key findings from the sample survey for developed during the Edwardian period and the major residential heartlands, as shown on Figure 9.2, is that part of South Cheam was developed in the Inter War housing densities are higher to the north of the borough period. The landscaping of the grass verges, large and lower towards the south of the borough. This is mature trees and high hedges make a dominant mainly attributable to Sutton’s location as an outer contribution to the character of this area, even more so London suburb where densities increase towards the city than the character of the buildings. In this regard, the centre and decrease towards the greenbelt. dwellings are a mixture of one and two storey, very large Furthermore, the Figure illustrates that in the majority of detached houses, set on large gardens and significantly instances the net densities of residential blocks in the set back from the street behind high hedges. There is no south of the Borough fall within the range of 1-29 units parking on the street as most dwellings have private per hectare and of these a higher proportion are below driveways and garages, with some properties containing 19 units per hectare. Whilst to the north of the Borough, 2 crossovers for entry and exit. density is across a wider range, from 10-70 units per hectare. The higher densities reflect location and the9.32 The current housing density of this area is approximately wider range is a function of varying styles of 5 dwellings per hectare or 35 habitable rooms per hectare. 3 The net densities of characteristic street blocks were calculated. PAGE 58UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 63. development across the north of the Borough.9.37 Figure 9.3 below shows an overlay of the density/quality information and again it is notable that within the Borough the highest quality areas are in the lowest density locations.9.38 Figure 9.4 is a frequency table for densities of residential areas in/and close to town centres. In District Centres, much of the existing development is between 20-50 units per hectare, whereas in Sutton Town Centre, the range is much wider and this exemplifies the varied nature of Sutton Town Centre and its hinterland.I PAGE 59UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 64. 25 20 Number of occurrences 15 North of the Sutton / Walllington Railway Line South of the Sutton / 10 Walllington Railway Line 5 0 1 to 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 9 to to to to to to to to to to 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 109 Units per HectareFigure 9.2:Frequency of densities in the residential heartlands PAGE 60UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 65. Figure 9.3: Quality/Density Overlay PAGE 61UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 66. 25 20 Number of occurrences 15 Sutton Town Centre Other District Centres 10 5 0 1to 9 10 to 20 to 30 to 40 to 50 to 60 to 70 to 80 to 90 to 100 110+ 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 to 109 Units per HectareFigure 9.4: Frequency of densities in and close to the town centres PAGE 62UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 67. Understanding Character and Setting in SuttonApplication of the Mayor’s Settings:9.39 The London Plan defines areas by one of the following three definitions of setting: • Central: areas with very dense development, a mix of different uses, large building footprints and typically buildings of four to six storeys and above, located within 800m walking distance of an international, metropolitan or major town centre; • Urban: areas with predominantly dense development such as for example terraced houses, with a mix of different uses, medium building footprints and typically buildings of two to four storeys, located within 800m walking distance of a district centre or, along main arterial routes; and • Suburban: areas with predominantly lower density Figure 9.5: Implications of Mayor’s Settings development such as for example detached and semi detached houses, predominantly residential, small Conclusions from the assessment of local character building footprints and typically buildings of two to 9.41 The London Borough of Sutton is characterised as being three storeys. a typical outer London suburban borough. Apart from several important Conservation Areas around the historic9.40 Figure 9.5 shows how the spatial implications of the centres in the borough, much of the development Mayor’s definitions of setting would apply to Sutton, for occurred in the Inter War period between 1918 and which the Mayor’s Density Matrix would be used to 1939. calculate the appropriate density. 9.42 Through the quality/density analysis, the Council has identified that the higher density northern part of the borough predominantly exhibits the characteristics of the suburban setting as defined by the Mayor. It comprises of 2 storey terraced housing, as found in the St Helier estate and part of North Cheam and Worcester Park, PAGE 63UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 68. and 2 storey semi-detached housing, as found in Worcester Park and Beddington.9.43 However the quality/density analysis identified that the character of the lower density area to the south of the Sutton/Wallington Railway does not conform to the character of the Mayor’s suburban setting but exhibited the following features: very low density development of large detached houses in large well landscaped plots with ample street parking. Wide grassed verges and many street trees. The Council has assessed these areas as having an outer suburban character. The Warren, Carshalton Beeches and The Drive, South Cheam are good examples of this character and density.9.44 Only development within the Sutton Town Centre boundary is characterised by the qualities defined by the Mayor as being Central and whilst much of the development within 800 metres walking distance of this boundary has the quality of an urban area, there are Figure 9.6: The Character of the Borough areas of detached and semi-detached houses, which are distinctly suburban in character. Conclusions and Application of Local Settings 9.47 In accordance with the advice given by the Mayor’s9.45 Finally, whilst the development within the District Centre consultants URS in the Density Matrix Review the boundaries is urban in character these are set within a Council has assessed local character in order to refine suburban context with detached and semi-detached low- the strategic definitions of setting adopted by the Mayor. density development immediately abutting the retail areas. 9.48 Whilst much of the Borough conforms to the Mayor’s classifications of setting there are some significant9.46 The results of the quality/density analysis are portrayed differences, which can be seen when comparing the in Figure 9.6 below, which identifies the actual character Maps in Figures 9.5 and 9.6. Consequently the rigid of the Borough. application of the Mayor’s Matrix would result in significant changes to local character, particularly within PAGE 64UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 69. the suburban areas. town centre (mainly lower density 2 storey semi- detached and detached housing).9.49 Having undertaken the detailed assessments of the character of the Borough a range of definitions of setting that specifically reflect Sutton’s distinct character as an outer London Borough have been established and are set out below.9.50 The local definitions of setting are shown spatially on the Plan in Figure 9.7 and are set out as: • Central: (Sutton Town Centre) very dense development, mix of different uses, large building footprints with buildings of 4 storeys and above; • Urban Corridors: areas of urban character along some of the main roads linking town centres; • Urban within / close to town centres: district centres and areas within easy walking distance of town centres having an urban character (denser development with buildings of 2 storeys and above in the form of terraced houses and flats, mixed uses and medium sized footprints); • Suburban close to town centres: area within an easy walking distance of a town centre (800m for Figure 9.7: Local Definitions of Settings Sutton and 400m for all other town centres) having a suburban character (mainly 2 storey short terraced, semi detached and some detached houses); • Outer Suburban north: residential areas to the north of the Borough beyond easy walking distance of a town centre (mainly short terraced, semi detached and some detached houses); • Outer Suburban south: residential areas to the south of the borough beyond easy walking distance of a PAGE 65UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 70. Heritage/CABE guidance using a sieve analysis) and then detailed area studies. The sieve analysis will look at clusters of development pressure/levels of public transport accessibility etc.; • The preparation of an Urban Design Framework for TEN Sutton Town Centre setting out comprehensive design guidelines for the future development in the town centre and drawing up key development briefs for key town centre sites to be addressed through the Area Action Plan; and • The preparation of an Urban Design Framework forFurther evidence required Hackbridge Sustainable Suburb to feed into the development of a Master Plan for the area.Introduction 11.2 Finally reviews of the Open Space Study should be co-11.1 This Report of Studies has identified several issues or ordinated with any review of the Landscape Character areas that require further consideration, study or and Quality Appraisal. research. These are listed below: • Character Appraisals of the Conservation Areas not yet reviewed (these reviews are to be undertaken in accordance with English Heritage Guidance and a programme for their preparation will be set out in a Heritage Report of Studies to be produced in support of the published Core Planning Strategy; • Research into long and short distance views into, out of and within the Borough and research into the skyline; • Research into the impact of tall buildings on local character, especially within the context of Sutton and Wallington town centres but also looking at other areas of potential (this assessment is to be undertaken in accordance with English PAGE 66UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 71. Tel: 020 7070 6700 www.cabe.org.uk • Planning Aid for London Unit 2, 11-29 Fashion Street, London, E1 6PX Tel: 020 7247 4900 Fax: 020 7247 8005 info@planningaidforlondon.org.uk www.planningaidforlondon.org.uk •Contact details & further information GLA Architecture and Urbanism Unit Greater London Authority, City Hall, The Queen’s Walk,Contact details London SE1 2AA• LB Sutton - Strategic Planning Tel: 020 7983 4000 Sally Blomfield mayor@london.gov.uk 020 8770 6200 www.london.gov.uk/mayor/auu/index.jsp ldf@sutton.gov.uk • English Heritage• LB Sutton - Development Control 1 Waterhouse Square, 138-142 Holborn, London EC1N 2ST Karen Fossett Tel: 020 7973 3000 020 8770 6200 customers@english-heritage.org.uk developmentcontrol@sutton.gov.uk www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.2• LB Sutton - Environment and Leisure • English Partnerships Planning, Highways and Transport 110 Buckingham Palace Road, London, SW1W 9SA 24 Denmark Road Tel: 020 7881 1600 Carshalton Fax: 020 7730 9162 SM5 2JG www.englishpartnerships.co.uk/ www.sutton.gov.uk • Urban Design London• Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment Palestra, First Floor, 197 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 (CABE) 8AA 1 Kemble Street, London, WC2B 4AN Tel: 020 7593 8379 PAGE 67UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 72. info@urbandesignlondon.com • Urban Design Compendium, English Partnerships / Housing Corporation, prepared by Llewelyn-Davies, 2000Further information • The Use of Urban Design Codes, Building SustainableLB Sutton Information Communities, CABE• Townscape/Landscape Appraisal, January 1998 • In Suburbia, Delivering Sustainable Communities, In• North Sutton (Angels End) Study – Atkins & CB Hillier Suburbia, 2004 Parker (2003) • Guidance on Conservation Area Appraisals, English• Sutton Town Centre Urban Design Analysis – Urban Heritage and PAS, 2005 Practitioners (2007) • Suburbs and the Historic Environment, English Heritage,• Conservation Areas Appraisals 2007 • The Heritage of Historic Suburbs, English Heritage, 2007Planning policy• Planning Policy Statement 1, Delivering Sustainable Resource information Development, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, 2005 • Andrew, Martin. Francis Friths Around Sutton. 2001. Frith• Planning Policy Statement 3, Housing, Office of the Deputy Book Company Ltd. United Kingdom Prime Minister, 2006 • Barrett, Helena and Phillips, John. 1987. Suburban Style –• Planning Policy Statement 6, Planning for Town Centres, The British Home, 1840 – 1960. Guild Publishing. London. ODPM, 2005 • Cluett, Douglas. 1995. Discovering Suttons Heritage - The• The London Plan:Consolidated with Alterations Since 2004, story of five parishes. London Borough of Sutton Greater London Authority, 2008 • Gradidge, Roderick. 1991. The Surry Style. The Surrey Historic Building Trust. Kingston upon ThamesGood practice guidance • Jones, E.M. 1998. Images of England: Sutton. Tempus• By Design, Urban design in the planning system: towards Publishing Limited. Gloucestershire better practice. Department of Environment, Trade and the • London Borough of Sutton. Official Guide. The British Regions (DETR) / Commission for Architecture and the Built Publishing Company. Environment (CABE), 2000 • London Borough of Sutton District Plan: Living in Sutton - A• By Design, Better places to live: A companion guide to Community Profile PPG3, ODPM, 2004 • McKay W.B and McKay J.K. Mckay Building Construction• Design and access statements: How to write, read and use Volumes 1 to 4, 1963, Longmans, London them, CABE, 2006 • Rookledge, Gordon and Skelton, Andrew. 1999.• The Dictionary of Urbanism, Robert Cowan, Streetwise Rookledges architectural identifier of conservation areas: Press, 2005 Sutton edition. Sarema Press (Publishers) Ltd. London• Protecting Design Quality in Planning, CABE, 2002 PAGE 68UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 73. APPENDIX 1 Area of Special Local Character Assessment ChecklistAssessment Criteria Street/RoadQUALITY OF OVERALL CHARACTERPlot sizesFrontage widthsSpaces between buildingsPredominant building lineRear garden sizesSite coverageContemporary Infill developmentAmount of visible back land developmentAmount of on-street parking (Note restrictions if applicable)Extent of traffic intrusionPredominant useTOWNSCAPE VALUEARCHITECTURAL QUALITYExtent of visible extensions to original buildingsBuilding types (Show examples with photos)Predominant characteristics and building materials (Generalmaterial and building construction techniques)Roof formsScaling (height ie 1, 2, 2.5, 3 storeys)Detailing PAGE 69UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 74. Assessment Criteria Street/RoadVisible changes to property under permitted development (egpainting of brickwork, removal of boundary walls etc)HISTORICAL IMPORTANCEOrigins of developmentFormer uses in areaListed buildingsLocally listed buildingsArchaeological SignificanceTopography (Carried out in survey)Age of properties (Cross-check with historical maps)LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICSQuality of front gardens (landscaping & maintenance)Tree cover (gardens)Tree cover (streets)Tree Preservation OrderQUALITY OF OPEN SPACESCONTRIBUTION OF INCIDENTAL FEATURESNature ConservationNegative factorsNeutral Areas PAGE 70UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 75. APPENDIX 2 PAGE 71UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 76. APPENDIX 3 PAGE 72UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 77. PAGE 73UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 78. PAGE 74UNDERSTANDING SUTTON’S LOCAL DISTINCTIVENESS: CHARACTERISATION REPORT OF STUDIES
  • 79. EV9 Understanding Suttons Local Distinctiveness A4 colour covers back.qxd 10/11/2008 13:55 Page 1 DARREN RICHARDS EXECUTIVE HEAD Planning, Transport and Highways Jeff Wilson Head of Strategic Planning London Borough of Sutton Environment and Leisure 24 Denmark Road Carshalton SM5 2JG November 2008 Printed on recycled paper - this paper can be recycled