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Boron and Boron in Turkey

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BORON AND BORON IN TURKEY: …

BORON AND BORON IN TURKEY:
BORON A ND BORON IN TURKEY ERTUGRUL GURBUZ University of Wroclaw 2011 - WROCLAW / POLAND

Boron is the chemical element with atomic number 5 and the chemical symbol B. :
Boron is the chemical element with atomic number 5 and the chemical symbol B .

PowerPoint Presentation:
Electron shell diagram for Boron , the 5th element in the periodic table of elements.

Boron is a metalloid element which occurs abundantly in the evaporite ores borax and ulexite. :
Boron is a metalloid element which occurs abundantly in the evaporite ores borax and ulexite.

A low-abundance element in both the solar system and the Earth's crust, boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally-occurring compounds, the borate minerals. :
A low-abundance element in both the solar system and the Earth's crust , boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally-occurring compounds, the borate minerals .

These are mined industrially as evaporate ores, such as borax and kernite.:
These are mined industrially as evaporate ores , such as borax and kernite .

Elemental boron is not found naturally. :
Elemental boron is not found naturally.

Industrially, very pure isolated boron is produced with difficulty, as boron tends to form refractory materials containing small amounts of carbon or other elements.:
Industrially , very pure isolated boron is produced with difficulty, as boron tends to form refractory materials containing small amounts of carbon or other elements .

Boron is used mainly not as the element boron, but as compounds of boric oxide (B2O3) and boric acid (H3BO3). Most people have never seen elemental boron. :
Boron is used mainly not as the element boron , but as compounds of boric oxide (B 2 O 3 ) and boric acid (H 3 BO 3 ). Most people have never seen elemental boron .

Boron minerals can be used in some sectors in the industry as crude minerals. :
Boron minerals can be used in some sectors in the industry as crude minerals.

In general, their applications after refining and end-products are wider than crude ones.:
In general, their applications after refining and end-products are wider than crude ones .

Boron minerals, borates and compounds have a very wide range of applications.:
Boron minerals , borates and compounds have a very wide range of applications.

Boron in use:
Boron in use

Agriculture :
Agriculture Essential micronutrient for all plant

Detergents and Soaps :
Detergents and Soaps Act as pH buffer Soften the Washing water Enhance the solubility of other ingredients Act as a gentle but powerful bleaching agent Anti-bacterial properties eliminate micro organisms.

Ceramic Glazes and Enamel Frits :
Ceramic Glazes and Enamel Frits Provide good fluxing properties Provide a good base for dissolving colouring agents.

Insulation Fibreglass :
Insulation Fibreglass Reduce the temperature at which f

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  • 1. BORON A ND BORON IN TURKEY ERTU Ğ RUL G Ü RB Ü Z University of Wroclaw 2011 - WROCLAW / POLAND
  • 2. Boron  is the chemical element with atomic number  5 and the chemical symbol  B .
  • 3. Electron shell diagram for Boron , the 5th element in the periodic table of elements.
  • 4. Boron is a metalloid element which occurs abundantly in the evaporite ores borax and ulexite.
  • 5. A low-abundance element in both the solar system and the Earth's crust , boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally-occurring compounds, the  borate minerals .
  • 6. These are mined industrially as  evaporate ores , such as  borax  and  kernite .
  • 7. Elemental boron is not found naturally.
  • 8. Industrially , very pure isolated boron is produced with difficulty, as boron tends to form refractory materials containing small amounts of carbon or other elements .
  • 9. Boron is used mainly not as the element boron , but as compounds of  boric oxide (B 2 O 3 ) and  boric acid (H 3 BO 3 ). Most people have never seen elemental boron .
  • 10. Boron minerals can be used in some sectors in the industry as crude minerals.
  • 11. In general, their applications after refining and end-products are wider than crude ones .
  • 12. Boron minerals , borates and compounds   have a very wide range of applications.
  • 13. Boron in use
  • 14. Agriculture Essential micronutrient for all plant
  • 15. Detergents and Soaps Act as pH buffer Soften the Washing water Enhance the solubility of other ingredients Act as a gentle but powerful bleaching agent Anti-bacterial properties eliminate micro organisms.
  • 16. Ceramic Glazes and Enamel Frits Provide good fluxing properties Provide a good base for dissolving colouring agents.
  • 17. Insulation Fibreglass Reduce the temperature at which fibres are formed. Improve the durability of the glass fibres Reduce the viscositry of the molten glass. Increase the biosolubility of the glass fibres.
  • 18. Timber Preservation Prevent and control the spread of bacteria. Inhibit corrosion. Act as flame retardant
  • 19. Flame Retardants Enhance the performance of alumina trihydrate Effective as flame retardants
  • 20. Nuclear Power Stations Absorb thermal neutrons Used to control nuclear reaction Used in nuclear shielding.
  • 21. Cosmetics and Medicine Neutralize fatty acid. Act as emulsifiers in certain creams Give mild antiseptic properties.
  • 22. Metallurgy Used as cover fluxes Dissolve and remove un wanted metal oxides as slag.
  • 23. Other Glass Magnets Automobile airbags Photography Fuels Optical fibres Adhesives
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  • 34. Boron is a relatively rare element in the Earth's crust , representing only 0.001%.
  • 35. The worldwide commercial borate deposits are estimated at 10 million tonnes .
  • 36.   Turkey  and the   United States are the world's largest producers of boron.
  • 37. Turkey has almost 72% of the world’s boron reserves .
  • 38. Boron does not appear on Earth in elemental form but is found combined in  borax, boric acid, colemanite, kernite, ulexite   and   borates.
  • 39. Borax
  • 40. Boric acid
  • 41. Ulexite
  • 42. Colemanite
  • 43. Borates
  • 44. Economically important sources of boron are rasorite (kernite) and tincal (borax ore).
  • 45. They are both found in the  Mojave Desert of California , but the largest borax deposits are in Central and Western Turkey   including the provinces of  Eskişehir, Kütahya  and  Balıkesir.
  • 46.  
  • 47. The Turkish borate deposits in Western Anatolia are located in five main districts : Bigadiç, Kestelek, Sultançayır, Emet and Kirka .
  • 48. Location of major borate deposits in Western Turkey
  • 49. They formed in a lacustrine environment during periods of calc-alkaline volcanic activity in the Neogene.
  • 50. There are differences between the different districts, but the borates are all generally enclosed within limestones and clays and are interbedded with layers of volcanic ash, limestone, marl and clays .
  • 51. At Kirka this volcanosedimentary sequence lies unconformably on Paleozoic metamorphics , Mesozoic ophioliltes and Eocene limestones .
  • 52. 1. volcanic rocks ( basalts, andesites and ryholites ) 2. cherty limestone 3. marl and claystone 4. lignite bands 5. borate zone 6. limestone 7. sandstone and conglomerate 8. basement complex: ophiolite, marble, schist 9. tuff 10. unconformity Schematic stratigraphic section of Kirka borate deposit .
  • 53. The main boron minerals are borax, colemanite , and ulexite , with the proportions of these minerals varying between the deposits. A large number of other borate minerals are found in the deposits, including pandermite, inyoite, meyerhofferite, tincalconite, kernite, hydroboracite, inderite, inderborite, kurnakovite, terrugite, veatchite-A , and tunnelite .
  • 54. The boron in the deposites is assumed to be derived from leaching of the surrounding rocks by geothermal activity associated with local volcanism .
  • 55. The borates then formed when the spring waters evaporated after flowing into shallow playa lakes .
  • 56. Turkey has about 72% of the world boron reserves , and it is one of the biggest producer in the world .
  • 57. Therefore the operation of boron has primary importance among the other mining operations in Turkey.
  • 58. In order to utilize mining resources more effectively, the boron operation of Turkey has been transferred to Eti Mine by law and it consists the main activities of Eti Mine
  • 59. Bandırma Boron and Acid Plants Works: Production Centers
  • 60. It has been operating since 1967 in Bandırma county of Balıkesir. In order to transform boron minerals into high value added boron products , Borax Decahydrate, Borax Pentahydrate, Boric Acid, Sodium Perborate, (tetra+mono) and Boron Oxide are produced in the plant’s facilities and most of the production is exported. Besides, Sulphuric Acid is produced in 240.000 tons/year capacity Sulphuric Acid Plant. The products of the other Boron Works are exported using the loading facilities present in Bandırma Boron and Acid Plants Works.
  • 61. Kırka Boron Works
  • 62. It is located in Kırka area of Seyitgazi county of Eskişehir . Concentrated tincal production in the plant where construction operations began in 1970 , started in 1975 which is followed by the production of high value added boron products in the Boron Derivatives Plant in 1984. Raw tincal ore , excavated in the plant’s open pitmine, has been transformed into refined products (Etibor-48) in the plant’s facilities with 480.000 ton annual production capacity.
  • 63. Kestelek Boron Works
  • 64. It is situated in Kestelek village of Kemalpaşa county of Bursa province. Raw colemanite ore production in the plant’s open pit mine is 200.000 tons/year with 29% B 2 0 3 grade. The produced ore is enriched in the 100.000 tons/year concentrator facility into concentrated colemanite.
  • 65. Eti Mine and Its Position in Boron Market Reserve Eti Maden has 67% of the world boron reserve with its 883 million tons B 2 0 3 boron reserve (This ratio is about 72% if approximate 102 million tons B 2 0 3 reserve of Satimola boron deposits located in Kazakhstan is not taken into account).
  • 66. Thank you for listening to my presentation … ERTU Ğ RUL G Ü RB Ü Z University of Wroclaw 2011 - WROCLAW / POLAND

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