A study for: (Public transport demand and requirement in 2020 for Kajang-Bangi-Putrajaya-Bandar Seri Putra-Nilai3)
Urban Transportation planning
A study for:
(Public transport demand and requirement in 2020 for Kajang-BangiPutrajaya-Bandar Seri Putra-Nilai3)
PROF. IR. DR. RIZA ATIQ ABDULLAH OK RAHMAT
Haydar abd alrazaq jasim
Duaa Yiheya Abdulameer P71078
Abdulla Ahmed Wadee P67185
2. Bangi3. Putrajaya
4. Bandar Seri Putra
are cities which have been defined to develop and upgrade their public transportation to become
sustainable environment so we will go through is to study the urban transportation facilities like :
2. Urban transportation study
3. Urban Public transportation
4. Solutions of urban transportation problems
6. Financial analysis
The strategy for the City is focused on the creation of a transport network that enables these
objectives to be realized; this means that the network must be efficient, reliable, affordable,
accessible and safe. Above all, it must provide a quality of experience that enhances everyday
life and adds a significant dimension to the City’s local and national profile
For design of above items , a lot of performences should be applied ,
Here in below you can see in brief , the procedure which is going to be used in this project :
1. extrct all useful information from the given map
2. Indicate the derived information and tabulate them
3. With attention to the urban notes allocate appropriate coefficints for each especific area
The area of the specific region which is going to be constructed has been defined and physical
development is to proceed at a rate in line with the aspirations of Vision 2020.
Land use projections at future time horizons will be the basis of future public transport pattern in term of
origin and destination of movement. The corridor currently forms a zone of mixed density and different
form of land usage. These corridors have developed zone of residential, commercial, industrial,
institutional and others. However for this study only residential and commercial will be consider for
calculate the demand.
We will introduce each zone briefly…..
Nilai 3 wholesale centre, Malaysia
Nilai 3 wholesale centre is undoubtedly a
one-stop destination of wholesale, tourist and
shopping paradise that offers a wide variety of
goods and items at very attractive and
Especially its located in Negeri Sembilan,
Malaysia where very rare having this kind of
In judging from its sheer size — 165ha — It is currently still holds the record as the country’s largest
wholesale centre even though there are some areas try to establish same concept. It is not easy to
emerge as such and success like Nilai-3, Malaysia. Apparently, hard work from the management and
state government linkage is crucial. They have done a great job on this.
When we visited this place last
year, 2007 it still have some free
lands to be developed in future.
Recently, the developer just
completed some rows of shop
named Istanabul near the first
entrance junction. Roughly about
1 nilai 3 roads
40 newly built shops there.
This is an additional good news for tourist.
After completed these shops, size of the unoccupied land is reduced by some portion. We do believe in
the near future there will be some more shops to be build by developer. This is to cope with the people
coming to this place especially weekends and public holidays.
street view “ free barking “
Normal restaurant most of popular shops.
3 nilai 3 location
Bangi is a small town situated on the south of the district of Hulu Langat, in Selangor, Malaysia. It is
roughly situated between the towns of Kajang (9 kilometres away) and Putrajaya (formerly Prang Besar)
(also 9 kilometres away), and is linked to KTM Komuter commuter train services via the Bangi Komuter
station. The town is surrounded by palm oil estates; a Malaysian Palm Oil Board/UKM research station is
also based close to the town.
Bangi is not to be confused with Bandar Baru Bangi, a newer and larger township several kilometres
north, similar to the town only by name and located closer to Kajang.
Currently, public transportation in Bandar Baru Bangi still not satisfied. It is because there is no bus or
taxi terminal in that town which on the other words, there is no centralized for public transportation. For
the time being, bus terminal in Bandar Baru Bangi sharing with Kajang town which the location is at
There are a lot of bus stop have been provided in Bandar Baru Bangi for public facilities. The
distance between each bus stop is around 300 meter. Bus cater in Bandar Baru Bangi are Rapid KL,
Mini bus and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) bus.
Because there is no centralized for buses and taxis, many of the taxi drivers concentrated to get
their passengers at shopping complex likes Warta and around the bus stop near Seksyen 1. It happened
because of the places attraction where near the residential area and pasar malam.
UKM Commuter Station
UKM commuter train halt situated close to and named after the National University of Malaysia.
The station strictly serves as a small two platform train halt for Rawang-to-Seremban KTM Komuter train
services, with an operational ticket counter and two ticket vending machines. The station has seen the
addition of a new extension.
The station halt is located on the northeast tip of the university's grounds, 1.5 km from the university's
academics compound. The university's club house and driving range are located immediately close to
the station. Bus services are provided to carry passengers between the station and the university.
4 KTM Commuter Route Map
Because of its location close to the National University, the station typically receives a large number of
MAIN PROBLEMS in bangi
No Bus and Taxi Terminal
Residents in Bandar Baru Bangi were difficult to go to another destination
No centralize in public transportation
Mini bus and Taxi Terminal at Section 1
Bus stop Condition
The facilities were damages for example the seats, lamps and bus stop roof. Some of the source
are because of the vandalisme.
No lighting at night. This condition encourages crime to be happened.
~ 10 ~
Bus Stop Condition at Section 1, Bandar Baru Bangi
~ 11 ~
Signboard of UKM commuter
Parking spaces is too limited for public. It is because some of the parking area has been used by
taxi drivers to wait for their passengers.
~ 12 ~
Taxis used car parking spaces
Very near to the residential area. This situation makes noise pollution to environment.
The facilities at the UKM station were hopeless. There were no directions on where are the buses
or any alternative transportation.
Kajang, is a city in the eastern part of Selangor, Malaysia. Kajang is the district capital of Hulu Langat. It
is located 21 kilometers (13 mi) from of Malaysia's capital, Kuala Lumpur.
The current locational gravity of growth in
Kajang would be Sungai Chua. The total
population of Kajang has grown rapidly
in the past few years, with estimated
population growth of 9% per annum.
As of 2004, a few townships have been
developed in Kajang, such as
Taman Prima Saujana
(straight from Jalan Cheras),
~ 13 ~
Taman Kajang Perdana
(Kajang Highlands) and Taman Sepakat Indah I & II (Sungai Chua). Lately, many high-end
developments has mushroomed in Kajang such as Twin Palms, Sri Banyan, Country Heights, Jade Hills
and Prima Paramount.Areas surrounding these new townships are easily accessible via the SILK
Existing Situation in Kajang
All local government’s planning aimed to get the sustainable urban transport of the city. Transport
is exists to support the achievement of other, wider, policy objectives, such as economic development,
urban regeneration, and social inclusion and reduced levels of crime and disorder. It can also contribute
towards improvements to health and fitness, and to raising educational standards. These factors all,
ultimately, lead to improved quality of life for the people of Kajang and they are reflected in the objectives
of this Local Transport Planning.
The strategy for the City is focused on the creation of a transport network
that enables these objectives to be realized; this means that thenetwork must be efficient,
affordable, accessible and safe.
Above all, it must provide a quality of experience that enhances everyday life and adds a
significant dimension to the City’s local and national profile.
In Kajang, there are two stations.
Kajang train station or KTM Kajang which is located in jalan Bukit and bus station in Pusat Hentian
Kajang. Both of them have
a special function as its name.
Bus station in Pusat Hentian
Kajang is provided only for one
modal transport. There are many
kinds of buses will transit here,
~ 14 ~
5 mosque in kajang
such as RAPID KL bus mini
(traveling inside the city),
buses for the workers,
buses for the long time journey
(traveling intra the city) and so on.
Separation of the station of modals transport will cause some problems in transportation. It will
increase the level of air pollution and makes the people prefer to private vehicles than public transport.
6 Kajang Rail Station
~ 15 ~
No more space for parking area in Kajang rail station.
Location of Kajang rail station is far from the highway and taxi station. So, it will cause the people
prefer to private vehicles than public transport.
Surrounding area of Kajang Rail Station is nearby the residential area. The noise pollution can
disturb the residents who are living there.
Bus Station in Pusat Hentian Kajang
Actually no significant problems about the location of bus station
It is not easy for the passenger if they want to continue their travel by using the train. It will take
more time to change from one modal transport to the others one. And of course, it will increase
the travel cost. So, there is no choice for the passenger to choose more than one modals
Taxi Terminal in Kajang Town
The location of taxi terminal is not strategic because it is located in the middle of town and makes
Signboard of Taxi Terminal in Kajang town
~ 16 ~
The location of taxi terminal is not strategic
Bus Stop Condition
There is one bus stop point located in the centre of Kajang Town. This bus stop situated in front
of the shops and very near to the main road. This situation makes the road become crowded with
the buses and also the taxis. At the same time, this bus stop point is the major source of traffic
congested in Kajang town.
The condition is very poor because there are no seats for passengers used to wait for buses. The
facilities are not provided well.
No seats for waiting the buses
Bus stop is too close with shops
Narrow road and variable width from the main intersection
~ 17 ~
Bandar Seri Putra, Malaysia
Bandar Seri Putra (formerly Bandar Putra Mahkota) is a new township in Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. This
township is developed by UM Land Berhad. Located about --km from Kuala Lumpur and --km from Kuala
Lumpur International Airport (KLIA). It is accessible via a Putra Mahkota Interchange EXIT 213 of the
North-South Expressway Southern Route .
MASJID AL -AZHAR
~ 18 ~
Near the townships is Bukit Mahkota and Nilai Industrial Park at Negeri Sembilan side
1-Limit in transport facilities
2- Wide range of area without any service
3- Limitation in public transportation
~ 19 ~
7 main location
is a planned city, located south of Kuala Lumpur, that serves as the federal administrative
centre of Malaysia. The seat of government was shifted in 1999 from Kuala Lumpur due to the
overcrowding and congestion there.
1. What is the size of Putrajaya?
A. The size of Putrajaya is 4,931 hectares (one third the size of Kuala Lumpur)
2. How many precincts are there in Putrajaya?
A. The entire of Putrajaya is divided into 20 precincts.
3. Who is the developer of Putrajaya?
A. Putrajaya Holdings Sdn Bhd is the company entrusted to develop the Putrajaya project. The company
was incorporated on October 19, 1995.
4. Who are Putrajaya Holdings' shareholders?
A.Petroliam Nasional Berhad (PETRONAS) is the majority shareholder with 64.4%, Khazanah Nasional
Berhad has a 15.6% and Kumpulan Wang Amanah Negara, the national trust fund (registered as
Sharikat Nominee Bumiputera Sdn Bhd) with 20%.
~ 20 ~
5. Who manages the city of Putrajaya?
A.Perbadanan Putrajaya is the local authority which administers and manages Putrajaya. As local
planning authority, Perbadanan Putrajaya is responsible for formulating and implementing planning and
development control policies and urban design guidelines to fulfill the vision and objectives of Putrajaya.
6. What is the population of Putrajaya?
A. The current population (working and living) is about 75,000.
Nevertheless, Kuala Lumpur remains as Malaysia's national capital and also as the commercial and
financial centre. Putrajaya was the brainchild of a former Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohammad
who was in power then. In 2001, Putrajaya was made a Federal Territory, increasing the number of
federal territories to three. Kuala Lumpur and Labuan are the other two.
Named after the first Malaysian Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra the city is situated within the
Multimedia Super Corridor, beside the also newly developed Cyberjaya. The development started in
1995 and today major landmarks are completed and the population is expected to grow in the relatively
~ 21 ~
Putrajaya mosque at dusk
Planned as the garden and intelligent city, 38% of the area is reserved for green areas by emphasizing
the enhancement of natural landscape. A network of open spaces and wide boulevards were
incorporated to the plan. Construction began in August 1995 and it was Malaysia's biggest project and
one of Southeast Asia's largest with estimated final cost of US$ 8.1 billion. The entire project was
designed and constructed by Malaysian companies with only 10% of the materials imported
A total of 7 park and ride facilities in the peripheral precincts has been identified at the planning stage.
These facilities will act as integrated transportation nodes for different mode of transportation and will be
linked with a network of pedestrian and cycle ways. In general these provisions will have a long term
impact on the sustainability of the city
At the present time, Putrajaya Corporation has taken an active role in implementing the policy by
supporting it with the provision of an efficient public bus service throughout the city. As part of the
~ 22 ~
conscious effort in ensuring environmental sustainability in transportation planning, the entire fleet of
buses are run on natural gas.
Various modes of public transport are available
in Putrajaya such as bus, taxi and ERL.
Depot Bus or Terminal Bas and Teksi is
located in Precinct 1, Putrajaya.
It is design to serve as a transportation
hub for busses and taxi. Feeding to the hub, there are taxi services and Putrajaya Bus services
called Nadi Putra.
Putrajaya project now an eyesore(Monorail Suspension Bridge)
Monorail Suspension Bridge is one of the many bridges in Putrajaya, Malaysia. It was built to link several
important landmarks in the Putrajaya area like the Putrajaya Convention Centre, Putra Mosque and the
Government Administrative Complex in Parcel E. The bridge's main span has a length of approximately
240m and width of 10m. It is owned by Putrajaya Holding Sdn. Bhd. and was designed by PJS
International Sdn. Bhd.
~ 23 ~
By GEETHA KRISHNAN
Going nowhere: The structure referred to cynically as the
“suspended suspension bridge.”
IT'S BEEN four years since the Putrajaya Monorail project ground to a halt and there may be
some light at the end of the tunnel yet.
The Federal Territories Ministry has instructed the Putrajaya Corpo-ration to appoint an
independent consultant to conduct a study on the project’s viability.
Sources say if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, then it should be all systems go.
Otherwise, the RM400mil project would be scrapped.
“Whatever the outcome, authorities should acknowledge that the basic framework is now an
eyesore. Something needs to be done about the rusting steel fittings and ugly concrete pillars
with wire protrusions,” one observer said.
Tourists, too, often ask if Putra-jaya has another bridge under construction in reference to the
elevated track built across the Putrajaya Lake. One dignitary cynically re-ferred to the structure
as the “suspended suspension bridge” and as a new tourist attraction.
The elevated track was 90% complete when the project stalled in 2004 because the
Government had not approved further funding.
~ 24 ~
In the balance: The bridge spanning the Putrajaya Lake is
MTrans Monorail Sdn Bhd (MTrans) was appointed to finish the project within 30 months. The
plan was to have two monorail lines with a total length of 20km, divided into 13.2km for Line 1
and 6.8km for Line 2.
A total of 26 stations were planned, including stops at the Putra Mosque, Education Ministry,
Putrajaya Hospital, the Putrajaya International Convention Centre, Alamanda, Precinct 9 and
Phase 1 of the project with 9km of track line is ready with a 4km underground tunnel originally
designed to have seven stations. The Putra Bridge is a three-tiered bridge with a monorail and
service tunnel on the lower deck and a pedestrian walkway on the upper deck.
The stalled project has often been described as the missing link of the public transport system
designed for the federal administrative capital.
Seven park-and-ride facilities were designed to complement the monorail service to allow public
servants and visitors to travel freely within Putrajaya.
~ 25 ~
Still in place: Wire protrusions and scaffolding can still be
seen adorning the ugly concrete pillars.
The monorail was also designed to integrate with the ERL service.
The Core Island, where the main government offices are located, can only offer parking for 30%
of the vehicles travelling to the ministries and lack of space is now a common problem. An
efficient internal bus service should be able to address this.
When the monorail idea was mooted, critics said Putrajaya did not require the system as much
as Subang, Puchong and other densely populated or fast-growing areas. The population of
Putrajaya, at 55,000, did not warrant the service, they argued.
Even if the authorities are adopting a wait-and-see attitude, the public want justification to be
made for the spending of public funds
The project halted in 2004 because the government had not approved further funding. The stalled
project has often been described as the missing link of the public transport system designed for the
federal administrative capital. The Ministry of the Federal Territories instructed the Putrajaya Corporation
to appoint an independent consultant to conduct a study on the project’s viability
Western Transport Terminal or Putrajaya Central in Presint 7
Western Transport Terminal (WTT) is located on the west part of Putrajaya in Precinct 7. From
WTT public can easily reach the Putrajaya Hospital, Putrajaya Police Headquarters and the Precinct 9
Affordable Homes (Pangsapuri Putra Harmoni).
Western Transport Terminal
~ 26 ~
WTT is design to serve as a transportation Hub for Putrajaya and is currently serving Express
Rail Link (ERL) to KL International Airport (KLIA) in the south and Kuala Lumpur in the North. Feeding to
the Hub, there are taxi services and Putrajaya Bus services called Nadi Putra. Nadi Putra reaches WTT
every 15 minutes during the peak hours and every 30 minutes during off peak hours starting from 6.52
am and the last bus is at 10.50 pm.
Bus Services Condition
The intracity bus company operates only 14 buses to transport passengers from residential areas
in the periphery to offices and commercial centers in the core area. Generally, these buses have
poor service frequency with an average of 2 per hour, even during the morning and afternoon
peak periods. The buses are of standard high-floor design with no provision for the disabled and
elderly. With limited rolling stock, bus service has also been unreliable.
Intercity rail services are provided by the Express Rail System (ERL) and the Keretapi Tanah
Melayu Berhad (KTMB) rail commuter system. However, both systems can at best be described
as inadequate. For example, the KLIA Transit service provided by the ERL stops at a station
quite far from the city center, forcing passengers to take transfer bus rides.
There are not many facilities provided yet such as restaurants and shops.
~ 27 ~
Present transportation facilities
Existing Situatian in Bandar Baru Bangi
One of the most important part of urban transportation division is Public transportation .
Public transportation divide into 2 main parts :
There are a lot of bus stop have been provided in Bandar Baru Bangi for public facilities. The
distance between each bus stop is around 300 meter. Bus cater in Bandar Baru Bangi are Rapid KL,
Mini bus and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) bus.
~ 28 ~
The Kuala Lumpur Mini-Bus Service or Bas Mini was one of the oldest and popular Malaysian
public bus service, having served in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley region. The buses were
primarily painted pink with a white stripe on the sides, and had a capacity of 20-30 passengers,
due to its smaller size. The bus operated on a commission basis, with service operators being
paid according to the fare they collected.
The mini-bus service was discontinued from 1 July 1998 onwards, to be replaced by the Intrakota
bus service and, later, Rapid KL buses in 2005.
The mini bus started operating on 23 September 1975 under the Ministry of Transportation. At
that time, the mini bus operated on various routes according to their individual colours (bluewhite, yellow-white, red-white, purple-white and dark green-white). The mini bus was responsible
for servicing nearly sixty different routes. Three major companies (Syarikat Kerjasama Pengaman
(M) Bhd, Bas Mini Wilayah and Konsortium Pengusaha Bas Mini Sdn Bhd) monopolized the
various bus routes while smaller operators were allowed to service certain areas only.
In 1975, when the mini bus was introduced as a service, the bus-fare was just 40 sen. Later in
1991, the fare was increased to 50 sen while two years after, the fare was again adjusted to 60
sen. The mini bus did not have any fixed time-table. Instead, the service operated on a
commission basis whereby the operators were paid according to the number of trips and fare
collection they could raise in one day. Sometimes, in order to outdo a competitor, a driver would
detour from the designated route much to the annoyance of the passengers.
In 1990, the then Deputy Minister of Transport, Datuk Paduka Rahmah Osman, standardized the
colour of the mini bus to “Pink” and white. On the 1st July 1998, the services of the mini bus was
terminated in the city of Kuala Lumpur . Once a notorious mode of transport for the many
commuters in Kuala Lumpur, the “Pink Lady” will always be remembered for its death-defying
activities on public roads.
2. Rapid KL
Rangkaian Pengangkutan Integrasi Deras Sdn Bhd (RapidKL) is the company tasked with
providing an integrated public transport system in the Klang Valley incorporating rail and bus services.
Today, RapidKL operates 165 bus routes within the Klang Valley which consist of 10 City Bus routes, 87
Local Bus routes, 65 Trunk Bus routes and 3 Express Bus routes. We currently have 11 bus depots
~ 29 ~
spreading across the Klang Valley and over one thousand buses in operation. Everyday RapidKL
transport over 192,000 passengers. To continuously encourage the use of public transport and to
provide services to the general public, RapidKL is also continuously studying new bus routes with the
arrival of more new buses.
Because there is no centralized for buses and taxis, many of the taxi drivers concentrated to get their
passengers at shopping complex likes Warta and around the bus stop near Seksyen 1. It happened
because of the places attraction where near the residential area and pasar malam.
the RAPIDKL bus network which is divided into 6 main areas, namely :
• Area 1 : Kuala Lumpur City Centre
~ 30 ~
• Area 2 : Kepong, Selayang, Batu Caves , Gombak, Sentul
• Area 3 : Wangsa Maju, Hulu Klang, Keramat, Ampang, Pandan
• Area 4 : Cheras, Hulu Langat, Kajang, Putrajaya, Serdang
• Area 5 : Klang, Shah Alam Selatan, Subang Jaya, Jln Klang Lama, Puchong
• Area 6 : Shah Alam Utara, Subang, Damansara, PJ Utara, Bangsar
Service major activity centers such as office buildings, school and hospital.
Population density > 30. Serve at least 90% of the residents.
Space routes at about 0.75 km in urban area
and 1.5 in sub-urban area.
Service period : 6 am-12 pm
Headway: Peak: 5 minutes
CBD: 5 -7 stops / km, sub-urban: 1 - 3 stops /km
Route and destination sign
Bus Operation Design
n = Demand for service (passengers / hr)
N = Maximum number of passengers per bus
~ 31 ~
Usually the minimum headway is set in multiples of 7.5 or 10 minutes for the shake of
~ 32 ~
It is obvious by which reason this part of transportation id the most important one ,
It can inferred that because of below results :
High percentage of users
Low effect on environment contamination
Better traffic condition
This part of transportation commonly has been paid more attention in compare to others
Introduce of two train types used in urban transportation
~ 33 ~
up to 100 km/hr
4 – 12 couches per trainCouches 22m x 3.1 m
up to 80,000 passengers /hr / direction
deceleration _ 1.2 m/s 2
1435mm gauge Headway _ 120 s
Suitable for radial movement For high density and high
3 – 5 km spacing
up to 40 km/hr
2 – 6 couches per train
up to 40,000 passengers /
hr / direction
Acceleration / deceleration _ 1.2 m/s 2
1000 or 1435mm gauge
Suitable for radial movement For high density and high plot ratio area
~ 34 ~
Sub-station: 3 – 5 km spacing
3- ktm komuter
KTM Komuter is an electrified commuter train service operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad. It was
first introduced in 1995 to cater especially to commuters in Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding suburban
areas and is a popular mode of transport for commuters working in Kuala Lumpur, as they can travel to
the city without being caught in traffic congestion. Coaches are modern and air-conditioned. For those
who drive to the stations/halts, 'Park & Ride' facilities are provided at a nominal charge.
KTM Komuter is currently the most profitable passenger service offered by KTMB, contributing RM84.63
million to group revenue in 2006, higher than KTM Intercity's profit of 70.94 million in the same year.
According to the Ministry of Transport Malaysia 2008 Statistics, the annual ridership for KTM Komuter
was 36,557 millions of passenger
No. of stations
Klang-Kuala Lumpur-Sentul/Tanjung Malim-Rawang-Kuala LumpurSeremban
TnG, Store Value Ticket & Monthly Pass
~ 35 ~
Route expansion in progress
The new Tanjung Malim railway station will become the new terminus of the KTM Komuter network
Besides new stations, additional plans were made to extend the Komuter network outwards from it
The 179 km (111 mi) Rawang-Ipoh electrification and double-tracking project will ultimately allow
the KTM Komuter service to be extended to Tanjung Malim on the Selangor-Perak border, nearly
100 kilometers (62 mi) from Kuala Lumpur. The project has suffered several delays due several
reasons, but has seen limited revitalisation. The first phase of the extension, which includes
22 kilometers (14 mi) of rebuilt railway lines and three new stations became operational when a
shuttle service from the Rawang stations was launched on April 21, 2007..The service was
extended to Kuala Kubu Bharu on January 5, 2008.. Shuttle service to Tanjung Malim and Ipoh
will begin by December 2008.
A 7.2 km (4 mi), four-station extension from the Sentul station to Batu Caves has been approved.
The project - which will cost RM515 million - will include electrification, double-tracking and
refitting the existing old track, signalling, communications, as well as construction of new stations
at Sentul, Batu Cantonment, Batu Village, Taman Wahyu and Batu Caves. Site possession was
given to contractor YTL Corporation Berhad on November 17, 2006, and the project is to be
completed by April 2010. The Sentul station is part of the Sentul Raya masterplan development
KTMB also plans to extend 8.5 km (5 mi) Komuter services to Senawang and Sungai Gadut,
Negeri Sembilan. Construction is expected to complete by 2011. This will be part of the
~ 36 ~
TRAFFIC CALCULATIONS FORMULAS
The methodology employed in the execution of the model development portion of this study has closely
followed the guideline contained in the Manual for the Preparation of Urban Transport Plans in Malaysia
(HPU-1995). The computer traffic model was developed using the EMME/2 software. The model was
initially developed was for private vehicles and also to allow for movements of passengers by public
transport modes. The project is a green field site and currently has very low levels of public transport
service. Neverthe-less overall policy for the MSC plans a high usage of public transport and an efficient
network is envisaged.
In order to develop the traffic model, a number of data items were required.
These included data on the highway inventory and vehicle movement flows and patterns. The following
data was input to the EMME/2 traffic model.
Volume delay functions;
Vehicle volume counts.(for comparison of model assigned traffic) The model developed will enable testing
for the impact of changes in the highway configuration and forecast future year flows on all new and
Network and Model Details
The network structure is node and link based. The nodes were established as junctions, merging and
diverging intersections, key traffic loading points on to the highway network and points of delay. A link is
defined as the connection between two nodes to represent a road or highway, input with all its features,
including, volume delay function, capacity and free flow speed. All nodes were allocated a unique
number. Numbering was consecutive starting at 1 to 199 for zones and their centroid connectors. In total
~ 37 ~
the model comprises 193 zones, covering the entire secondary and primary zones of study as shown in
Figure 6.0 All other nodes on the link-node model were numbered 200 and above.
The consultants regard the development of the MSC and its link with Kuala Lumpur, in particular, of
major significance. The Land Use study indicates that the final population of the project zone may reach
As a means of comparison this reflects the population size of the Klang Valley in 1994.
The quantum of travel between the MSC and all zones close to the area, including Shah Alam, Serdang,
Kajang, Bangi, Nilai and Labu can be expected to be high. The presence of the airport in KLIA needs
also to be taken into consideration as a major cause of change in the overall regional travel pattern.The
approach used has taken full cognizance of the above matters by including these zones as part of the
overall model, rather than providing amodel truncated at the entry points to the MSC. The value of the
model will come into play in forecasting future year traffic pattern and providing for the
future traffic demand.
Establishing OD Traffic Model Calibration & Validation
In this study, the double constrained gravity model (Danial, et al, 1997) was
employed to distribute the generated trips using a range of the model
parameter values, with the model in the form as follows :-
~ 38 ~
The synthesised O-D trip matrices from the gravity model were then assigned to the existing road
network using equilibrium traffic assignment program (Danial, et al, 1997). The equilibrium traffic
assignment was adopted due to its superiority over the all-or-nothing assignment which was used in
Maximisation of Entropy adopted by Irving, et al, especially when there are parallel routes between an OD pair.
A simple iterative search procedure was employed with the numerical value of the gravity model
parameter () being changed comparisons between the assigned traffic link volumes with actual site
data were then undertaken. The () value corresponding to the minimum value of the objective function
considered was taken as the appropriate solution. The objective function considered in this study was
the sum of square differences between observed and assigned traffic link volumes. This function is
frequently identified as ‘the sum of squares of errors’ (SSE) and it
is written as :
~ 40 ~
THE STUDY METHODOLOGY
The overall procedure adopted is shown in Figure 15 and the initial step involves evaluation of
existing data and plans
1 TRIP GENERATION
Land use projections at future time horizons will be the basis of future public transport pattern in
term of origin and destination (O-D) of movement. The corridor currently forms a zone of mixed
density and different form of land usage. These corridors have developed zone of residential,
commercial, industrial, institutional and others. Estimation of total production and attraction from
one zone to onother zones in this study area based on land use and sosio-economic.
~ 41 ~
Bandar seri putra
The trip distribution is an estimation of trip distribution from the origin to others destination.
This model will create a matrix origin-destination trips which is included in this study area.
The production and attraction between each zone are calculated by multiply the current population with
rate of expected growth. Besides, there are a few characteristic had been consider in calculating an
expected production and attraction for these zones Double constrained gravity model was used to
distribute the trips generated by each zone. The form of the gravity model used was as
~ 42 ~
~ 43 ~
Bandar Seri Putra
Bandar Seri Putra 20,265.59
~ 44 ~
Bandar Seri Putra
~ 45 ~
The total travel demand from one zone to another modal split for trips to an office building in the city
centre will be very different to that in a sub urban area. Likewise the modal split of building in the vicinity
of public transport network will not to be similar to a building far from the network. Provision of parking
space can also alter the modal split.
The current modal split can be determined by observing equivalent land use in the area based on
observation and data collection by City Hall of Kuala Lumpur average modal split in Klang Valley
p user %
~ 47 ~
The future year trip matrices were developed using population and employment growth factors for each
zone derived from data on land use changes. Such data was taken from Structure Plan and Local Plan
information supplied by the local planning authorities. The data related to changes in population,
employment and commercial activity, together with the likely change in car ownership levels.
~ 48 ~
MODAL COICE MODEL
Transport networks are Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, putrajaya, Nilai3, , of the utmost importance in
facilities is the movement of people within the city, provided that this means the capacity and efficiency
of high-quality acceptable.
To lead this city’s position as an international commercial and financial centre in Malaysia after Kuala
Lumpur must be able to provide an efficient and equitable city structure, that is as far as possible, allows
all members of the community equal accessibility to all areas and facilities so that everyone may enjoy
the maximum benefits of city living.
Although these cities have many means of public transport like buses, trains and taxis but there are
some problems and deficiencies in the quality of services we offer, which will report in detail.
Recently, increased reliance on private transport by 17% from the use of public transport. The shortfall is
due to the use of public transport instead of private transport to the following reasons :1-Increasing personal wealth and material improvement in the situation of citizen.
2-Inefficient public transport.
3-Comfort and luxury, which find use in private cars is better than public transport.
4-Lack of discipline time of arrival and departure of public transport.
5-Lack of public transportation in some regions, such as nilai3.
EXISTING SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS
A) Transport Modal Share
I. Existing Situation
The institutional structure responsible for urban transportation within Malaysia and more specifically,
KAJANG, BANGI, BANDAR SERI PUTRA, PUTRAJAYA, NILAI3 and
are divided between federal
departments and City Hall Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, PUTRAJAYA, Nilai3,.
The Transport Department is entrusted with wide ranging coordination and administrative functions for
the planning of urban transport in an effective manner. The Federal Government deals more with
transportation plans, policy guidelines
~ 49 ~
and matters concerning overall transport
administration and planning. Private sector involvement in the provision of transport infrastructure has
expanded from the original role of bus and taxi transport operations to toll road construction and the
and maintenance of the commuter, light rapid transit (LRT) and people mover rapid transit (PRT)
Lack of high-efficiency of transport in the year that found citizens of transport in private, leading to an
increase in traffic congestion .
B) Travel Demand
I. Existing Situation
Because of luxury and the high personal income there was increasing in number of private transport
vehicles of cars and motorcycles, which led to a traffic jam, especially in intersections at peak hours at
after noon time. In addition to increasing in number of visitors to the centers of, Kajang, Bangi, Bandar
Seri Putra, to eliminate their daily needs of purchase, working and the educational purposes of teaching
and studying in schools and universities. So these streets could not accommodate this traffic density and
increasing in the number of daily trips.
Increasing in numbers of daily trips from and to these cities led to a traffic jam especially in the center,
and driving in speed resulted traffic accidents in streets and intersections especially at the traffic peak in
crowds and the maximum capacity.
Crowding in city streets during the peak hours .
C) Traffic Management
I. Existing Situation
This smart traffic controlling system is able to effectively reduce traffic congestion. This system has been
employed at main intersections around Bandar Baru Bangi and Kajang Town for the past few years.
~ 50 ~
The smart traffic light uses a camera as a sensor that really ”sees” the real traffic situation. Video images
are captured by the cameras placed on high positions and the images are processed in order to gauge
the the number of incoming vehicles, the length of the queue as well as to detect accidents.
This means that the smart traffic system responds almost immediately every time there occurs a slight
change in the traffic patterns. It is done by using the total-disperse system and all the traffic lights at
every intersection are all smart traffic lights. Thus, a fast response is achieved according to the traffic
situation at a particular intersection.
During peak periods, it distributes the green time according to the ratio length of the respective queue. It
also priorities traffic flows accordingly. Test on site shows that the system is able to respond correctly
within 120 seconds.Physically, the system consists of four basic components, namely the Smart Camera
sensor for collecting traffic data, the Intelligent Controller for controlling traffic flows at an individual
intersection, the Intelligent Coordinator for coordinating the timing of an individual controller with it's
neighbors and the Smart Traffic Advisor. Communication is based on wireless Local Area Network that
links all local controllers.
In spite of the traffic management measures to ease the traffic flows especially in city centre, that can
not continue to do if the traffic demands still growing, because traffic management measures alone can
not effectively increase existing road capacity levels.
D) Transportation Institutional Framework
I. Existing Situation
Public institutions and the role of the private sector
group of organizations and departments of transportation in Malaysia, specifically in Kajang, Bangi,
Bandar Seri Putra, Bukit Mahkota, Nilai3 and Nilai, these departments directly interesting for the urban
transport planning in these cities to improve and develop more efficient and effective for the present and
future and improve the existing deal and the Federal Government policies and issues concerning the
management of public transport, planning and introduction of private sector to build roads that
implementation of fees, operation and maintenance and increasing the use of bus transport and taxis.
~ 51 ~
In some instances there were overlaps and duplication in functions of the responsible agencies of the
transportation networks in KAJANG, BANGI, BANDAR SERI PUTRA, PUTRAJAYA NILAI3 , which has
led to conflicting policies and programmers. And that has made it more difficult to determine policies for
public and private transportation which are consistent.
A) Rail - Based Public Transport
I. Existing Situation
Last years train transportation become a significant way of public transport between Kajang, Bangi,
Bandar Seri Putra, Bukit Mahkota, Nilai3 and Nilai,in addition to KL Sentral station in the capital Kuala
Lumpur and the international airport (KLIA), to save money and time and to short the long distance in a
short time comparing with other transportation ways .
~ 52 ~
Rail station has been encouraged form the government, but the optimal usage had not be achieved due
1-Inefficient facilities at stations including car and motor cycle parking.
2- Poor support services and service coverage.
B) Bus Services
I. Existing Situation
Many of companies operating in the area like ((Rapid KL ,Bus Mini ,Road Liner)) to support the public
transport by buses between each of (OUR AREAS) and connect them with capital Kuala Lumpur. These
companies do operating daily flights contribute to these trips to provide transport for the citizens of the
areas mention most of these trips launched from the town of Kajang.
That there are improvements in the existing bus system and infrastructure is still lacking a lot :
1- The existence of these types of buses to lack the basic means of comfort and safety, such as the Mini
2- Lack of key stations model .... For example, the absence of a bus station in Kajang and model Bangi
such as the plant Kajang.
3- The stations of stops somewhat acceptable, but must be doing maintenance because of the impact of
negative climate and the need to provide protection for people from the rain stations.
I. Existing Situation
Taxi is an important way of transportation because not all of people have private cars, so they need
taxis to carry them from place to other in a private way without crowding in buses , and to save time if
you see the time is more important than money.
There is no shortage of taxis, but the problem is at peak periods and during bad weather, and because
~ 53 ~
of the variety of drivers nationalities and origins taxis became unreliable.
4.2.3. PRIVATE TRANSPORTATION
A) Cars and Car Parking
II. Existing Situation
The growth of both urban for (OUR AREAS), and the number of population who own and use motor
vehicles in their daily activities has increased the demand for vehicle parking spaces for all categories of
land uses. This growth together with the increase in density and intensity of developments such, as
residential, industrial and commercial land uses, make the existing parking guidelines and parking
standards for all Malaysian cities obsolete. As parking demand and parking requirements change very
fast, this study looks into the approaches and methods which have been used in other cities in their
works in revising their parking guidelines and standards to suit the current situation within their context.
~ 54 ~
Parking charges in the city centre favor regular long-term parking with many car park operators offering
cheap seasonal parking tickets. This, together with the flexibility afforded by private transport,
encourages commuters to continue to use private transport into the city centre.
The low cost of long-term parking in the city centre together with the abundance of parking spaces and
the flexibility of movement associated with car transport, has made car transport the preferred means of
travel in the city.
I. Existing Situation
Motorcycle is the cheapest way of transportation, that is why it is used by the young and lower income
groups, and it is has economical usage of fuel around the city, but it is not safe for those who don't have
driving license, and that caused making road accidents.
~ 55 ~
.There is 52% of accidents involve motorcycles, which is higher than all other ways of transport
The motorcycles contribute significantly to noise and air pollution, and that is harmful for air and climate
and the human health.
I. Existing Situation
In today's world of globalization, the provision of infrastructures, of which road network plays an
important and integral role, is essential to enhance the nation's competitiveness and maintain an edge
over its competitions. In Malaysia, the road network forms the bloodline of the country’s economic
.activities carrying about 96% of transported goods and passengers
Based on the Ministry of Transport’s statistics, the share of road transport of passengers comprises
64.8% by private car and 30.0% by bus, as compared to 4.7% by rail transport and 0.5% by air transport.
.The road transport also moved 303 million tons of goods or an overwhelming 96.4% of total trips
~ 56 ~
Development of the transportation infrastructure during the Seventh Plan period focused on capacity
expansion to ensure the availability of facilities to meet demand. For the Eighth Plan period, emphasis
was given to increasing the capacity and accessibility in less developed areas while in urban areas, the
focus was to enhance efficiency and improve public transport services. In the Ninth Malaysia Plan, PWD
has so far been allocated RM9.6 billion for the construction of new roads as well as upgrading of existing
The development of major roads in (OUR AREAS), has not always fully observed road classification
requirements. In addition, some roads have assumed functions for which they were not originally
designed such as residential roads that have become trunk roads due to ill-considered road connections.
These anomalies have presented difficulties in the design and management of the overall road network.
Plot ratios for commercial spaces within the City Centre have progressively increased over the years and
created increased pressure on the road network.
4.2.5. NON-MOTORISED TRANSPORT
~ 57 ~
I. Existing Situation
A pedestrian network is progressively being implemented in the City Centre. This will facilitate pedestrian
and non-motorised vehicle movement at the activity of centers, connect transit stations and terminals for
convenient inter-modal transfer, provide pedestrian malls and act as traffic restraint measures. The
network will also help increase the utilisation of public transportation and reduce short vehicle trips.
Areas in this study lacks alleyways and walk ways and the lack of awnings for infantry, such as
protection from rain. Because of the tropical climate.
The bicycle, cycle, or bike is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a
frame, one behind the other.
Cycle ways have, for some time, been incorporated into new housing estates and Recreational areas.
Despite the relatively flat terrain (OUR AREAS), cycling as a convenient means of transport is under
utilised partly due to local climatic conditions. There are also, however, some shortcomings in the
existing cycle way network which contribute to the under utilisation of bicycles.
Opportunities exist for bicycle transport in providing connections to public transport services and short
distance local travel. Other cities have utilised their roads, rail and open space corridors to create a
comprehensive local area cycle way network.
Bicycles ways in housing estates suffer from under usage, misuse (illegal parking) and poor
~ 58 ~
FORECASTING FUTURE DEMAND OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT
INTEGRATED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM
The complete vehicles network of the years ( 2008-2014 ) including integrated
park-and-ride stations and multimodal interchanges are indicated in Figure (5.1).
~ 59 ~
. ROAD NETWORK
This section contains reference points and information regarding the development, maintenance and
operation of both the local and national road network.
The road network is often defined as a mix of Strategic roads - the main national network of motorways
and major roads much of which is managed by the Highways Authority; and Local roads - those
managed by local or regional highway authorities. This section is categorized accordingly, with each
section containing appropriate sub-divisions such as maintenance and street works. Best Value
Indicators are available in the Service levels sub-directory of Local Roads for example. The Road Policy
sub-division contains general documents of relevance to all road management, including ’Managing our
Roads’, The Department for Transport’s key discussion document road network .
. ROAD POLICY
Overarching policy and strategy documents related to the management of the road network . Includes
’Managing our Roads’, the Department’s main road strategy publication, and guidance on the
procedures for inquiries held into road proposals.
~ 60 ~
PROPOSAL FOR PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT AND
To create an efficient and equitable city structure for Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra,
PUTRAJAYA , Nilai 3 and, The government should aim to:
Study the light rail subway system in japan
~ 61 ~
The Tokyo subway is an integral part of the world's most extensive rapid transit system in a single
metropolitan area, Greater Tokyo. While the subway system itself is largely within the city center, the
lines extend far out via extensive through services onto suburban railway lines.
Tokyo's subway network is operated by two companies, the Toei Subways with four lines, and Tokyo
Metro (formerly known as Eidan Subways) with nine lines. Together, they densely cover central Tokyo,
especially the area inside the Yamanote circle and the areas around Ginza and Shitamachi.
Note, that at their terminal stations, the trains of some subway lines continue to operate on the tracks of
different companies on suburban train lines. For example, the Chiyoda Subway Line is directly
connected with the suburban Odakyu Line at Yoyogi-Uehara Station, and some trains on the Hibiya
Subway Line continue to run on the tracks of the Tokyu Toyoko Line at Nakameguro Station. The
subways are the only way to travel. It's a fantastic way to see people and cross the city rapidly at a
relatively low cost. Of course as you're riding the subway here, it's important to keep in mind the New
~ 62 ~
Number of lines
Number of stations
Tokyo Metro Co., Ltd., Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation
(Toei), Tokyo Waterfront Area Rapid Transit
For single ride. It costs 70 yen (2.7 RM)
1 R.M = 26 JPY
Both Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway systems are closely integrated with a unified system of line
colors, line codes and station numbers. However, the separate administration of metro systems has
calculated based on the possible shortest route of the ride between the origin and destination
stations. However, the Passnet system got around the issue of ticketing, by allowing one
stored-fare card to be used on most of the rail operators
~ 63 ~
Main PURPOSES TO FORECAST THIS PROJECT
1- , (OUR AREAS) have experienced rapid and intensive urbanization. As a
result of in-migration from rural areas and provincial centers, the population of (OUR AREAS), has
doubled. Today,, which is facing serious urban development challenges, including insufficient transport
infrastructure and poor quality of public transport services. Investments in urban transport, traffic
management, and road safety have significantly lagged behind the pace of urbanization.
Coordination among relevant agencies is lacking, and the institutions responsible for regulating
public transport service provision are weak.
2- Transport infrastructure and services in (OUR AREAS), are suffering from increasing road
congestion, insufficient traffic management, poor safety conditions, and a weak public transport
3 These factors contribute to economic inefficiency due to increased trip times,
excessive fuel use, and poor air quality, which all serve to reduce residents’ quality of life and
~ 65 ~
act as a bottleneck to growth. According to estimates of the city’s traffic police, about 50,000
vehicles, most of which are secondhand and of poor quality, are added to the city’s roads
annually, representing an increase of about 25% per year—one of the highest urban private
vehicle growth rates in the world. While technical and environmental standards for vehicle safety
and emissions have been put in place, they are not sufficiently enforced.
3. The public transport system is struggling with technical, financial, and institutional
challenges. Bus tariffs have not been increased since 1999, while fuel costs have increased
more than 5 times in the same period. The municipal budget subsidizes about 42% of the bus
companies’ annual costs, but the mechanism for allocating subsidies lacks transparency and is
perceived as inequitable. Bus operators lack financial resources to renew and expand their bus
fleet and provide adequate transportation services. Interaction among the different modes of
public transport is far from optimal. Instead of feeding higher-capacity bus routes, minibuses
tend to compete with the higher-capacity buses, thereby adding to road congestion. Bus and
minibus routes are not designed as part of a feeder-and-main-line system, and the system for
allocating routes needs updating
4. The road network is well developed in the central area of Ulaanbaatar, but in outlying
residential areas, where many low income families live, ill-maintained primary feeder roads and
un-surfaced connector roads are the norm. Budgetary allocations for new roads have increased
significantly with help from the Mongolian Development Fund, and investment levels in roads far
5 . Traffic congestion is aggravated by insufficient enforcement of parking control,
designated parking spaces, pedestrians, lack of driver discipline, inadequate signaling, and
insufficient traffic control. Traffic accidents are common due to poor traffic management and the
uncontrolled interaction of pedestrians and vehicles.5 Encroachment on roads and sidewalks by
parked vehicles worsens the traffic situation. Planning and budgeting for pedestrian and parking
infrastructure are lacking.
6. Given the rapid growth in private vehicles, road improvements will only make limited and
temporary improvements. Strong institutions with clear mandates are required to implement
investments, attract financing, coordinate among stakeholders, and regulate service providers.
Multiple institutions at the central and local levels are involved in urban transport services and
clarifying their roles and enhancing coordination among them should be prioritized. Without a
viable system of public transport, Ulaanbaatar will soon experience serious traffic congestion
with negative impacts on economic vitality and quality of life. Improvements in traffic and parking
~ 66 ~
control, driving behavior, and enforcement are also critical for addressing the city’s transport
7 - The urban poor suffer disproportionately from an inadequate transport system.
Under investment in public transportation raises the cost of commuting and restricts access to
jobs and services. The poor tend to be more exposed to risks associated with externalities in
transport. For example, they lack adequate means to avoid exposure to polluted air, face higher
commuting distances and costs, and are particularly affected when there is a lack of provisions
for pedestrians. The poor stand to benefit significantly from improved transportation services.
We Can Open Main Stations At These Areas Or Make Links With Komuter Stations Company.
So Under Ground Subway And Upper ground Can Make A great Solutions For Traffic Jam And Consider
As A spark Of Development For Those Areas
Riding the Subway is Great because you can:
~ 67 ~
1- Transportation by rail has decreased with the invention of cars and airplanes, thus a
change to long-distance intercity transportation and commuter lines. Commuter lines are
rails that take people to and from work in the suburbs. Since the cost of living is
tremendous in the city, people are moving to the suburbs in order to find acceptable
housing that is a reasonable cost. The price they pay is more time spent waiting while
commuting to work and back.
2- In Japan, there are nine cities that have subway systems with the first one starting in
1927. Many subways also link with commuter lines to reach out to the suburbs as well.
Japan is also looking into linking the publi and private transportation systems. Further
rail developments include a light rail transit (LRT) which was initiated in Kumamoto in
1997, this is the first one operated in Japan.
Stand very close to very many people
See the latest technology
Since you're so close to someone anyhow, it's not totally unexpected for you to lean in
close to watch them play Galaga on their iMode phone.
Enjoy the handles
The Tokyo subways had quite an ample number of handles for
crowded cars - I enjoyed looking at them and hanging on them
Study crowd dynamics
People all around the world rush out of subways, but I suspect
there's something uniquely singleminded about the headlong rush
that most Tokyo folks make out of the trains and through the
stations. I was working on a theory of self-determined traffic
systems - since Japanese cars drive on the left side of the road
(like Britian; the opposite of America and mainland Europe), I
~ 68 ~
wondered if they would stay on the left side in most self-determining crowd situations. It
seemed to go about fifty-fifty, surprising if they are mostly trained by their roads to lean
leftward. My American mind was inspired to think that our right-travelling system is more
natural and human and these folks are taking it up on their own. Poppycock
Witness advanced Subway development
Being from the Bay Area near San Francisco, I can only lust after
a useful subway system. Tokyo is laced with subway stops, and
the trains run very often - every few minutes. One train line
running through Ginza had an electronic readout that showed you
which stop you were at, and where you were headed. The subway
cars are saturated with handles for stability in crowd situations.
Store your luggage
If you're a busy vagabond on the go, you've got to have somewhere to store your stuff the subway stations in Tokyo all have lockers that will store small roll-on baggage.
Subways and light rail transit
Tokyo subway map (in Japanese)
INFORMATIONS ABOUT SUBWAY IN TOKYO
In addition to its extensive railroads, Japan has an impressive number of subway systems. The largest is
the Tokyo subway, where the network in 1989 consists of 211 kilometers of track serving 205 stations.
Two subway systems serve the capital: one run by the Tokyo Metro (named Teito Rapid Transit
Authority until 2004), with nine lines (the oldest, Ginza line was built in 1927), and the other operated by
~ 69 ~
the Tokyo metropolitan government's Transportation Bureau (Toei), with four lines. Outlying and
suburban areas are served by seven private railroad companies, whose lines intersect at major stations
with the subway system. More than sixty additional kilometers of subway were under construction in
1990 by the two companies.
There are a number of other metro systems in other Japanese cities, including the Fukuoka City
Subway, Kobe Municipal Subway, Kyoto Municipal Subway, Osaka Municipal Subway, Nagoya Subway,
Sapporo Subway, Sendai Subway and Yokohama Subway.
While metro systems in Japanese cities are usually operated by the city government and therefore tend
to limit their networks within the city border, there are many cases of through services of subway trains
onto suburban railway lines and vice-versa. One of the reasons of this trend is the sharp increase of
ridership on the railways in the rapid growth of postwar economy that could not be handled by small
original railway terminals in the city center.
Automated guideway transit (rubber-tired motor cars running on concrete guideways) has also
developed in Japan. Cities with such intermediate capacity transit systems include Hiroshima, Kobe,
Osaka, Saitama and Tokyo.
Some cities operate streetcar systems, including Hiroshima, Matsuyama, Nagasaki, Tokyo (one line
only) and Toyohashi. All of these cities are also well served by public and private railroads; also, there
are private tramways not included above.
~ 70 ~
1- Provide a comprehensive and integrated transportation system that caters for the needs
of inter and intra city travel.
2- Optimise the road and rail transportation infrastructure so that it operates at its full
capacity and maximum efficiency;
3- Try to do that the overall configuration of land use is integrated with road and public
transportation networks to optimise the development of land.
4- Try to do that all areas within the City enjoy the same high quality and standard of
provision of public transport services.
5- Create a city that is highly accessible for all its occupants and users, in particular, one that
is pedestrian and handicapped friendly, and that is to enhance the city living environment
67- Providing bus service efficient with excellent services and support with appropriate
8- Existing bus stations in the center of each (OUR AREAS)
9- Buses have to stop just in the main stations.
10- Provide more security within these stations to avoid problems, especially during peak
11- Not allow to trucks to travel in these cities, especially leading to government departments,
to avoid traffic jams.
12- Increase number of bridges for pedestrians to avoid traffic jams in the active areas.
~ 71 ~
13- Design roads outside OUR AREAS , of an external procedure to alleviate congestion and
facilitate the movement of trucks and heavy machinery and passing through ths cities.
POLICY AND PROPOSAL
a) Travel Demand Management
If current trends continue, motorised trips by car in 2014 are expected to be almost double those of
1997. Increasing road capacity by constructing new roads and widening existing roads do not, in the long
run, resolve the situation but simply postpone the problem until more roads need to be built. Most areas
in the City, especially the City Centre, are now built up and land acquisition for road development is
becoming increasingly difficult and expensive.
Government is, therefore, moving towards a Travel Demand Management strategy that aims to redirect
movement patterns from private to public transport by integrating transport modes, extending and
promoting public transport and discouraging the use of private transport. The public transport system in
the City must be competitive, convenient, userfriendly and accessible to all income groups.
1. Government shall determine Travel Demand Management measures to increase public transport
usage and liase with the relevant authorities to ensure that these measures are implemented.
~ 72 ~
2. Government shall implement a private vehicle restraint programme to improve traffic circulation in the
City Centre by discouraging car travel to and from the City Centre during peak hours and enforcing
measures to limit access to certain parts of the City.
b) Traffic Management System
In order to optimise the traffic management system now in place, the system needs to be upgraded to
one that can monitor and control all aspects of traffic movement in the City.
Government shall enhance the traffic management system.
c) Transit Oriented Development
A principal objective of the transportation sector is the integration of land use with transportation and the
development of a Transit Oriented Development Strategy. This strategy will promote intensified
development along the rail network. Any planned extension to the rail network must, therefore,
complement this policy by ensuring that rail stations serve designated urban centers.
Government shall establish a Transit Planning Zone to facilitate intensification of transit oriented
residential, commercial and mixed-use development around rail stations.
. PUBLIC TRANSPORT
a) Public Transport Administration
The increased emphasis and capital expenditure on public transport requires complementary
coordination between government departments and other related agencies. Government shall take proactive measures in ensuring the implementation of government policy in relation to the public transport
~ 73 ~
Government shall assist to coordinate the planning, development and operation of public transport and
related private transport matters.
b) Public Transport Integration
Consistent with the government’s policy, emphasis will be on providing an integrated, flexible, wide
ranging and efficient public transport system orientated towards passenger accessibility and
convenience. Central to this approach is the integration of public transport modes with each other and
with private transport so that, with streamlined inter-modal transfer facilities and integrated ticketing,
passenger trips become as convenient and seamless as possible.
In order to avoid traffic congestion occurring on local streets, major bus and rail park-and-ride
interchange facilities will be located at the points of intersection of the rail stations and major roads.
Government shall assist in the implementation of a fully integrated transportation system in line with the
c) Rail-Based Public Transport
The rail network is the most efficient means of providing high capacity rapid public transport. Medium
and long-term plans for the introduction of different types of rail systems such as tram and the expansion
of the rail network to outlying areas should be regularly examined in every 10 years for their feasibility.
The major growth areas in Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, Bukit Mahkota, Nilai 3 and Nilai, are now
well linked to the City Centre except those on the east-west axis.
Government shall assist in the preparation of feasibility studies for future extensions to the rail network
and coordinate with the relevant authorities with regard to implementation.
d) Bus Services
~ 74 ~
Buses will remain the principal form of public transport especially outside the City Centre for the
foreseeable future. In order to encourage greater usage of bus services, it is essential that measures be
undertaken to improve their reliability, coverage, comfort and convenience.
1- Government shall assist in determining measures to improve bus services with maximum penetration
into growth areas and all major employment and retail centers and coordinate with the relevant agencies
2- Government shall implement a bus terminal network for inter-regional, intraregional and local bus
e) Cars and Car Parking
By controlling the supply and distribution of car parking facilities in Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra,
Bukit Mahkota, Nilai 3 and Nilai, government can help to reinforce public transport and Travel Demand
Management objectives by making private transport a less attractive proposition than public transport,
especially within the City Centre. This can further be reinforced by controlling the cost of car parking in
different parts of the City.
Government shall regulate the supply of parking facilities.
In view of the vital role that taxis play in the business and commercial life of the City, it is important that
significant improvements are made to the levels of service and reliability. In achieving better overall
public transport services, taxis need to be expanded with innovative services into new markets.
Government shall assist in improving the reliability and availability of taxi services in coordination with
the relevant agencies.
~ 75 ~
. PRIVATE TRANSPORTATION
As Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, Bukit Mahkota, Nilai 3 and Nilai, looks to a cleaner and safer living
environment, the role of the motorcycle in transportation must be examined. A large percentage of
motorcycle users are those that would benefit from a more comprehensive public transportation system.
In a long term, measures to encourage motorcycle users to make greater use of public transport and
limit motorcycle usage in the City Centre to only essential users should be looked into. In the short and
medium term, measures to improve safety for motorcycle users shall be implemented and more rigorous
enforcement of existing regulations shall be exercised.
Government shall assist and coordinate with the relevant authorities in the improvement of road
infrastructure to enhance safety measures for motorcycle users.
. ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE
a) New Roads Development
The major road systems currently in place together with those which are under construction or
committed are considered sufficient to satisfy Kajang, Bangi, Bandar Seri Putra, Bukit Mahkota, Nilai 3
and Nilai , need to the year 2014. However, two new roads are proposed that are principally intended to
improve traffic flow in and out from the City Centre. In view of the difficulty of increasing existing road
capacities in the City Centre and the high cost associated with obtaining new corridors.
~ 76 ~
1- Government shall determine a road development programme and coordinate with the relevant
authorities regarding implementation.
2- Government shall ensure that proposed and committed major roads are considered in the broader
context of public transport services, freight movement and impact upon the community and environment.
b) Improvements to the Existing Road Network
In order to complete the existing road network, increase its capacity and eradicate bottlenecks, a road
network improvement programme must be carried out to upgrade existing roads to arterial roads, build
missing linkages and improve interchanges.
Government shall determine a road improvement programme and coordinate with the relevant
authorities regarding implementation.
WE HOPE THAT THE GOVERNMENT UNDERSTAND AND REALIZE THE CAPITAL ROLE THAT
TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM AND DISTINGUISHING SYSTEM TRANSPORTATION ARE PLAYED
ON OF HUMANITY, THE CITY’S FUTURE TRANSPORT GOALS ARE DEVELOPING A
PEOPLE AND ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY COMPACT CITY. AS MALAYSIAN
INCREASING THE CONVENIENCE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT WHILE DEVELOPING A
PLEASANT ENVIRONMENT NEAR PUBLIC TRANSPORT ROUTES WILL ALLOW MORE
PEOPLE TO LIVE IN SAFETY AND PEACE OF MIND.
~ 77 ~