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SHRIMP CULTIVATION - GUIDELINE FOR EXPORT GRADE SHRIMP SELECTION OF SITE FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF POND SELECTION OF POND MANAGEMENT OF POND MANAGEMENT OF WATER SELECTION OF STOCKING FEEDING OF SHRIMP DISEASE MANAGEMENT HARVESTING OF SHRIMP PROCESSING
DOMESTIC PRODUCTION: FACTS AND FIGURES *(Source: MPEDA, 2007) Sr. State Estimated brackish water area (ha.) Area under cultivation (ha.) 1 West Bengal 405,000 34,660 2 Orissa 31,600 11,000 3 Andhra Pradesh 150,000 50,000 4 Tamil Nadu 56,000 2,879 5 Pondicherry 800 37 6 Kerala 65,000 14,657 7 Karnataka 8,000 3,500 8 Goa 18,500 650 9 Maharashtra 80,000 716 10 Gujarat 376,000 884 Total 1,190,000 118,983
*Research conducted by trade knowledge network: www.tradeknowledgenetwork.net
DOMESTIC COST OF PRODUCTION Two sources of obtaining shrimp Captured (Marine breeds) Cultured (Fresh water breeds) purchasing boats, trawlers, nets etc. sophisticated equipments along with feed and medicine
INTERNATIONAL PRICES OF SHRIMP *Source: www. http//:infofish/global trade.pdf
PRODUCT STANDARDS *Source: EEC directives and procedures for import of fish and fishery products 2008
Directive 91 Annexure 493 laid down the rules for product and production standards.
The focus is on production related safety aspects of shrimp products from developing nations to European Union.
*Source: EEC directives and procedures for import of fish and fishery products 2008
The major issues regarding safety norms of fishery products like frozen and non-frozen shrimps is the presence of harmful microbes and presence of chemicals in quantity which may render the product harmful for human consumption.
Conditions concerning parasites: During production and before they are released for human consumption, fish and fish (shrimp) products must be subject to a visual inspection for the purpose of detecting and removing any parasites that are visible.
*Source: EEC directives and procedures for import of fish and fishery products 2008 2. Conditions concerning freezing temperature: The frozen shrimps are to be maintained at a temperature of not more than -20 0 C . in all parts of the product for not less than 24 hours. Products subjected to this freezing process must be either raw or finished. 3. In accordance of Council Regulation (EEC) no 103/76 (last amended in 2006) the fishery products must undergo certain critical checks . Organoleptic contents inspection in the shrimp is thus a critical standard
*Source: EEC directives and procedures for import of fish and fishery products 2008 4. Article 15 under this directive also laid down the norm for parasitic content checks in the fishery (shrimp) product. 5. Chemical content analysis is also a necessary parameter laid down by this directive. Wherein samples are to be tested for controlling the level of certain chemical components like: TVB-N (Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen) and TMA-N (Trimethylamine-Nitrogen) Histamine : the mean value must not exceed 100 ppm
*Source: EEC directives and procedures for import of fish and fishery products 2008 6. Article 15 is also concerned with the concentration of contaminants in the water in which the shrimps are cultured. Imported shrimps must not contain in their edible parts contaminants present in the aquatic environment such as heavy metals and organo-chlorinated substances at such a level that the calculated dietary intake exceeds the acceptable daily or weekly intake for humans.
Packaging of fishery products have drawn WTO ’s attention way early in 1990.
Thus the “Export Packaging Note No. 36” was developed and is adopted and under implementation in EU.
The various heads under which the packaging must be adapted to be environmentally safe.
Source reduction Use of less/fewer raw materials, especially non-renewable materials by making packages smaller and light and by material substitutions. Energy requirements Use of packaging materials and methods, which minimize energy consumption. Potential for reuse Packaging designed and constructed for multiple usage.
Potential for recycling Packaging from which the materials can be recovered for reuse as packaging or secondary applications. Ease of disposal Packaging, which can be readily disposed of after use with minimal environmental impacts. Air, water and ground pollution Use of packaging materials and methods, which minimize pollution during all stages of production and use, as well as at final disposal.
In accordance with the Regulation (EC) 104/2000 (OJ L-17 21/01/2000) and Regulation (EC) 2065/2001 (OJ L-278 23/10/2000), the following information must be provided on the labeling or packaging of the fishery product, or by means of a commercial document accompanying the goods:
1. Commercial and scientific designation of the species: For this purpose, Member States publish a list of the commercial designations accepted in its territory.
Lots must contain products of the same size and uniform freshness . The freshness category, size category and presentation must be clearly and indelible marked, in characters of at least 5 cm high, on labels affixed to the lot.
The information provided by labels must be easy to understand, easily visible, clearly legible and indelible and must appear in the
official language(s) of the Member State where the product is marketed.
The Codex Alimentarius Commission was created in 1963 by FAO and WHO.
The main purposes of this Programme are protecting health of the consumers and ensuring fair trade practices in the food trade.
Codex code for Shrimp products are as follows:
* Source:codexalimentarius.net Reference Number Year of adoption Title Revision Year Amendment Year CODEXSTAN 37 1991 Standard for Canned Shrimps or Prawns 1 1995 NIL CODEXSTAN 92 1981 Standard for Quick Frozen Shrimps or Prawns 1 1995 NIL
SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN SHRIMP EXPORT TO EUROPEAN UNION
EU is an emerging market for Indian fishery products.
The exchange rate of € is gaining strength vis-à-vis US$.
Distance of EU countries form India.
The competitors are also targeting this market.
Quality control norms are very stringent.
Quality control in production not upto the mark
Cold chain in logistics is not well developed
Inadequate sea and airport infrastructure to handle export of frozen shrimps
India is major exporter
Training and development initiatives. (CMFRI, CIFA, CIFT, CICRI, CIBA)
QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR EXPORTS : DISEASE MANAGEMENT
PRESENCE OF PATHOGEN IN DISEASED SHRIMP RENDERS IT NON EXPORTABLE DUE TO STRINGENT SANITARY MEASURES IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET.
SOME OF THE DISEASES WHICH AFFECT SHRIMP ARE:
Monodon Baculovirus Disease (MBV)
Hepatopancreatic Parvo-like Virus (HPV) Disease
Yellow-head Disease (YHD)
Black Gill Disease
QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR EXPORTS : HARVESTING Has to be harvested in good condition within a short period of time. Harvesting technique should not damage or excessively contaminate the shrimp with waste. Rapid harvesting will reduces risk of bacterial contamination and the shrimp will still be fresh when reaching the processor. Complete harvesting can be carried out by draining the pond water through a bag net and hand picking. The average culture period required is around 120-150 days during which time the prawns will grow to 20-30 gm size (depending on the species).